Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 451
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013167

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction causes 7.3 million deaths worldwide, mostly for fibrillation that electrically originates from the damaged areas of the left ventricle. Conventional cardiac bypass graft and percutaneous coronary interventions allow reperfusion of the downstream tissue but do not counteract the bioelectrical alteration originated from the infarct area. Genetic, cellular, and tissue engineering therapies are promising avenues but require days/months for permitting proper functional tissue regeneration. Here we engineered biocompatible silicon carbide semiconductive nanowires that synthetically couple, via membrane nanobridge formations, isolated beating cardiomyocytes over distance, restoring physiological cell-cell conductance, thereby permitting the synchronization of bioelectrical activity in otherwise uncoupled cells. Local in-situ multiple injections of nanowires in the left ventricular infarcted regions allow rapid reinstatement of impulse propagation across damaged areas and recover electrogram parameters and conduction velocity. Here we propose this nanomedical intervention as a strategy for reducing ventricular arrhythmia after acute myocardial infarction.

2.
Mol Cell ; 82(1): 75-89.e9, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942120

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are widely expressed in eukaryotes and are regulated in many biological processes. Although several studies indicate their activity as microRNA (miRNA) and protein sponges, little is known about their ability to directly control mRNA homeostasis. We show that the widely expressed circZNF609 directly interacts with several mRNAs and increases their stability and/or translation by favoring the recruitment of the RNA-binding protein ELAVL1. Particularly, the interaction with CKAP5 mRNA, which interestingly overlaps the back-splicing junction, enhances CKAP5 translation, regulating microtubule function in cancer cells and sustaining cell-cycle progression. Finally, we show that circZNF609 downregulation increases the sensitivity of several cancer cell lines to different microtubule-targeting chemotherapeutic drugs and that locked nucleic acid (LNA) protectors against the pairing region on circZNF609 phenocopy such effects. These data set an example of how the small effects tuned by circZNF609/CKAP5 mRNA interaction might have a potent output in tumor growth and drug response.

3.
Life (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34947946

RESUMO

The clinical course of Crohn's disease (CD) is often complicated by intestinal strictures, which can be fibrotic, inflammatory, or mixed, therefore leading to stenosis and eventually symptomatic obstruction. We report two cases of subclinical CD diagnosed after fruit pit ingestion, causing bowel obstruction; additionally, we conducted a narrative review of the scientific literature on cases of intestinal obstruction secondary to impacted bezoars due to fruit pits. Symptoms of gastrointestinal bezoars in CD patients are not diagnostic; and the diagnosis should be based on a combined assessment of history, clinical presentation, imaging examination and endoscopy findings. This report corroborates the concept that CD patients are at a greater risk of bowel obstruction with bezoars generally and shows that accidental ingestion of fruit pits may lead to an unusual presentation of the disease. Therapeutic options in this group of patients differ from the usual approaches implemented in other patients with strictures secondary to CD.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 772873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34938187

RESUMO

Background: Eltrombopag (EPAG) is an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist, approved for refractory primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in pediatric patients. In two pediatric RCTs, EPAG led to an improvement of platelet counts and a reduction in bleeding severity. However, a significant number of pediatric patients did not achieve the primary endpoints. We performed a pharmacokinetic evaluation of EPAG in pediatric patients with refractory ITP. Methods: Outpatients aged from 1 to 17 y, affected by refractory ITP to first-line treatment, were enrolled for a pharmacokinetic assessment. The analysis of drug plasma concentration was performed by the LC-MS/MS platform. Non-compartmental and statistical subgroup analyses were carried out using the R package ncappc. Results: Among 36 patients eligible for PK analysis, the median dose of EPAG given once daily was 50 mg. The EPAG peak occurs between 2 and 4 h with a population Cmax and AUC 0-24 geo-mean of 23, 38 µg/ml, and 275, 4 µg*h/mL, respectively. The pharmacokinetic profile of EPAG did not show a dose proportionality. Female patients showed a statistically significant increase of dose-normalized exposure parameters, increasing by 110 and 123% for Cmax and AUC 0-24, respectively, when compared to male patients. Patients aged 1-5 y showed values increased by more than 100% considering both exposure parameters, compared to older children. Furthermore, patients presenting complete response (83%), showed augmented EPAG exposure parameters compared to subjects with partial or no response. Conclusion: These data highlight the need to further explore the variability of EPAG exposure and its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile in pediatric patients also in a real-life setting.

5.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961933

RESUMO

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease caused by platelet destruction mediated by auto-antibody production. It is characterized by a compromised immune system and alteration of the inflammatory response. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play an important role in modulating immune and inflammatory processes, exerting immune-suppressing and anti-inflammatory properties. In ITP-MSCs the activity and survival are strongly impaired. Eltrombopag (ELT) is a thrombopoietin receptor agonist approved in chronic ITP for stimulating platelet production. It has immunomodulating properties by stimulating T and B regulatory cell activity and by promoting a macrophage switch from the pro-inflammatory to the anti-inflammatory phenotype. ELT also exhibits iron-chelating properties. Iron is a crucial element involved in several physiologic processes, but its intracellular accumulation determines cell damages. Therefore, for the first time we analysed the effect of ELT on ITP-MSCs demonstrating its ability to restore survival and activity of MSCs directly and to promote their survival and proliferation indirectly, by iron metabolism modulation.

6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 701604, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733777

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of myeloid neoplasms and lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) has been epidemiologically described, particularly in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). However, the clinical features of these patients are poorly known. In this study, we evaluated a single-center cohort of 44 patients with a diagnosis of myeloid and LPD focusing on clinical features, therapy requirement, and outcome. The two diagnoses were concomitant in 32% of patients, while myeloid disease preceded LPD in 52% of cases (after a median of 37 months, 6-318), and LPD preceded myeloid neoplasm in 16% (after a median of 41 months, 5-242). The most prevalent LPD was non-Hodgkin lymphoma (50%), particularly lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (54.5%), followed by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (27%), plasma cell dyscrasias (18.2%), and rarer associations such as Hodgkin lymphoma and Erdheim-Chester disease. Overall, 80% of BCR-ABL1-negative MPN patients required a myeloid-specific treatment and LPD received therapy in 45.5% of cases. Seven subjects experienced vascular events, 13 a grade >/= 3 infectious episode (9 pneumonias, 3 urinary tract infection, and 1 sepsis), and 9 developed a solid tumor. Finally, nine patients died due to solid tumor (four), leukemic progression (two), infectious complications (two), and brain bleeding (one). Longer survival was observed in younger patients (p = 0.001), with better performance status (p = 0.02) and in the presence of driver mutations (p = 0.003). Contrarily, a worse survival was significantly associated with the occurrence of infections (p < 0.0001). These data suggest that in subjects with co-occurrence of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, high medical surveillance for infectious complications is needed, along with patient education, since they may negatively impact outcome.

7.
Hematol Oncol ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783040

RESUMO

CD49d, the α4 chain of the VLA-4 integrin, is a negative prognosticator in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with a key role in CLL cell-microenvironment interactions mainly occurring via its ligands VCAM-1 and fibronectin. In the present study, we focused on EMILIN-1 (Elastin-MIcrofibriL-INterfacer-1), an alternative VLA-4 ligand whose role has been so far reported only in non-hematological settings, by investigating: i) the distribution of EMILIN-1 in CLL-involved tissues; ii) the capability of EMILIN-1 to operate, via its globular C1q (gC1q) domain, as additional adhesion ligand in CLL; iii) the functional meaning of EMILIN-1 gC1q/VLA-4 interactions in CLL. EMILIN-1 is widely present in the CLL-involved areas of bone marrow biopsies (BMBs) without difference between CD49d negative and positive cases, displaying at least three different expression patterns: "fibrillar", "dot-like" and "mixed". The lack in CLL-BMB of neutrophil elastase, whose proteolytic activity degrades EMILIN-1 and impairs EMILIN-1 function, suggests full functional EMILIN-1 in CLL independently of its expression pattern. Functionally, EMILIN-1 gC1q domain promotes adhesion of CLL cells through specific interaction with VLA-4, and releases pro-survival signals for CLL cells, as demonstrated by enhanced ERK and AKT phosphorylation and impairment of in-vitro-induced apoptosis. EMILIN-1/VLA-4 interaction can efficiently contribute to the maintenance of the neoplastic clone in CLL.

8.
J Autoimmun ; 124: 102729, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Belimumab was recently approved for treatment of lupus glomerulonephritis (LN). AIM: To evaluate renal response and its predictors in LN patients receiving belimumab in real-life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We considered all patients fulfilling the SLEDAI-2K renal items and/or having estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)≤60 ml/min/1.73 m2, with positive anti-dsDNA and/or low C3/C4 enrolled in the multicentre Italian lupus cohort BeRLiSS (BElimumab in Real LIfe Setting Study), treated with monthly IV Belimumab 10 mg/kg over standard treatment. Primary efficacy renal response (PERR), defined as proteinuria ≤0.7 g/24 h, eGFR≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 without rescue therapy, was considered as primary outcome. Complete renal response (CRR; proteinuria <0.5 g/24 h, eGFR≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2) was considered as secondary outcome. Prevalence and predictors of PERR were evaluated at 6, 12, 24 months by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the 466 SLE patients of BeRLiSS, 91 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 79 females, median age 41.0 (33.0-47.0) years, median follow-up 22.0 (12.0-36.0) months. Sixty-four (70.3%) achieved PERR, of whom 38.4% reached CRR. Among patients achieving PERR at 6 months, 86.7% maintained response throughout the follow-up. At multivariable analysis, hypertension (OR [95%CI]: 0.28 [0.09-0.89], p = 0.032), high baseline serum creatinine (0.97 [0.95-0.99], p = 0.01) and high baseline proteinuria (0.37, [0.19-0.74], p = 0.005) negatively predicted PERR. Positive predictors of PERR at 12 and 24 months were baseline anti-Sm positivity (OR [95%CI]: 6.2 [1.21-31.7], p = 0.029; 19.8 [2.01-186.7], p = 0.009, respectively) and having achieved PERR at 6 months (14.4 [3.28-63.6]; 11.7 [2.7-48.7], p = 0.001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Add-on therapy with belimumab led to durable renal response in patients with LN in a real-life setting.

10.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651204

RESUMO

The post-operative pediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) affects about one-third of children and adolescents following surgical removal of a posterior fossa tumor (PFT). According to the Posterior Fossa Society consensus working definition, CMS is characterized by delayed-onset mutism/reduced speech and emotional lability after cerebellar or 4th ventricle tumor surgery in children, and is frequently accompanied by additional features such as hypotonia and oropharyngeal dysfunction/dysphagia. The main objective of this work was to develop a diagnostic scale to grade CMS duration and severity. Thirty consecutively referred subjects, aged 1-17 years (median 8 years, IQR 3-10), were evaluated with the proposed Post-Operative Pediatric CMS Survey after surgical resection of a PFT and, in case of CMS, for 30 days after the onset (T0) or until symptom remission. At day 30 (T1), CMS was classified into mild, moderate, or severe according to the proposed scale. CMS occurred in 13 patients (43%, 95% C.I.: 25.5-62.6%), with mild severity in 4 cases (31%), moderate in 4 (31%), and severe in 5 (38%). At T1, longer symptom persistence was associated with greater severity (p = 0.01). Greater severity at T0 predicted greater severity at T1 (p = 0.0001). Children with a midline tumor location and those aged under 5 years at diagnosis were at higher risk of CMS (p = 0.025 and p = 0.008, respectively). In conclusion, the proposed scale is a simple and applicable tool for estimating the severity of CMS at its onset, monitoring its course over time, and providing an early prognostic stratification to guide treatment decisions.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(19)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640248

RESUMO

Carbon perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) are a popular photovoltaic technology currently undergoing extensive development on the global research scene. Whilst their record efficiency now rivals that of silicon PV in small-scale devices, C-PSCs still require considerable development to progress to a commercial-scale product. This study is the first of its kind to use broad beam ion milling for C-PSCs. It investigates how the carbon ink, usually optimised for maximum sheet conductivity, impacts the infiltration of the perovskite into the active layers, which in turn impacts the performance of the cells. Through the use of secondary electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infiltration defects were revealed relating to carbon flake orientation. The cross sections imaged showed between a 2% and 100% inactive area within the C-PSCs due to this carbon blocking effect. The impact of these defects on the performance of solar cells is considerable, and by better understanding these defects devices can be improved for mass manufacture.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638416

RESUMO

Anti-cancer treatments improve survival in children with cancer. A total of 80% of children treated for childhood cancer achieve 5-year survival, becoming long-term survivors. However, they undergo several chronic late effects related to treatments. In childhood cancer survivors a chronic low-grade inflammation, known as inflamm-aging, is responsible for frailty, a condition characterized by vital organ failure and by premature aging processes. Inflamm-aging is closely related to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which induce inflammation, accumulation of senescent cells, DNA mutations, and the production of reactive oxygen species. All these conditions are responsible for the onset of secondary diseases, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and infertility. Considering that the pathobiology of frailty among childhood cancer survivors is still unknown, investigations are needed to better understand frailty's biological and molecular processes and to identify inflamm-aging key biomarkers in order to facilitate the screening of comorbidities and to clarify whether treatments, normally used to modulate inflamm-aging, may be beneficial. This review offers an overview of the possible biological mechanisms involved in the development of inflamm-aging, focusing our attention on immune system alteration, oxidative stress, cellular senescence, and therapeutic strategies.

13.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682900

RESUMO

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement has been variously studied in pediatric neuromuscular disorders (NMDs). The primary goal of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in NMDs, and secondary aims were to investigate possible associations of cognitive impairment with motor impairment, neurodevelopmental delay, and genotype. This was a cross-sectional study of 43 pediatric patients, affected by six NMDs. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and glycogen storage disease type 2 (GSD2) patients had a delay on the Bayley-III scales. On Wechsler scales, DMD and DM1 patients showed lower FSIQ scores, with an intellectual disability (ID) in 27% and 50%, respectively. FSIQ was normal in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), GSD2, and hereditary motor sensory neuropathy (HMSN) patients, while higher individual scores were found in the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) group. In the DM1 cohort, lower FSIQ correlated with worse motor performance (ρ = 0.84, p < 0.05), and delayed speech acquisition was associated with ID (p = 0.048), with worse cognitive impairment in the congenital than in the infantile form (p = 0.04). This study provides further evidence of CNS in some NMDs and reinforces the need to include cognitive assessment in protocols of care of selected pediatric NMDs.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576321

RESUMO

The role of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid (EC/EV) system in bone metabolism has recently received attention. Current literature evidences the modulation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts through the activation or inhibition of cannabinoid receptors in various pathological conditions with secondary involvement of bone tissue. However, this role is still unclear in primary bone diseases. Paget's disease of the bone (PDB) could be considered a disease model for analyzing the role of the EC/EV system on osteoclasts (OCs), speculating the potential use of specific agents targeting this system for managing metabolic bone disorders. The aim of the study is to analyze OCs expression of EC/EV system in patients with PDB and to compare OCs activity between this population and healthy people. Finally, we investigate whether specific agents targeting EC/EV systems are able to modulate OCs activity in this metabolic bone disorder. We found a significant increase in cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) protein expression in patients with PDB, compared to healthy controls. Moreover, we found a significant reduction in multi-nucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive OCs and resorption areas after treatment with JWH-133. CB2 could be a molecular target for reducing the activity of OCs in PDB, opening new therapeutic scenarios for the management of this condition.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Osteíte Deformante/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/metabolismo
15.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577623

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most severe bone malignant tumor, responsible for altered osteoid deposition and with a high rate of metastasis. It is characterized by heterogeneity, chemoresistance and its interaction with bone microenvironment. The 5-year survival rate is about 67% for patients with localized OS, while it remains at 20% in case of metastases. The standard therapy for OS patients is represented by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgical resection, and adjuvant chemotherapy. The most used chemotherapy regimen for children is the combination of high-dose methotrexate, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. Considered that the necessary administration of high-dose chemotherapy is responsible for a lot of acute and chronic side effects, the identification of novel therapeutic strategies to ameliorate OS outcome and the patients' life expectancy is necessary. In this review we provide an overview on new possible innovative therapeutic strategies in OS.

16.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572394

RESUMO

Galectin-3 is a carbohydrate-binding protein and the most studied member of the galectin family. It regulates several functions throughout the body, among which are inflammation and post-injury remodelling. Recent studies have highlighted the similarity between Galectin-3's carbohydrate recognition domain and the so-called "galectin fold" present on the N-terminal domain of the S1 sub-unit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Sialic acids binding to the N-terminal domain of the Spike protein are known to be crucial for viral entry into humans, and the role of Galectin-3 as a mediator of lung fibrosis has long been the object of study since its levels have been found to be abnormally high in alveolar macrophages following lung injury. In this context, the discovery of a double inhibitor may both prevent viral entry and reduce post-infection pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we use a database of 56 compounds, among which 37 have known experimental affinity with Galectin-3. We carry out virtual screening of this database with respect to Galectin-3 and Spike protein. Several ligands are found to exhibit promising binding affinity and interaction with the Spike protein's N-terminal domain as well as with Galectin-3. This finding strongly suggests that existing Galectin-3 inhibitors possess dual-binding capabilities to disrupt Spike-ACE2 interactions. Herein we identify the most promising inhibitors of Galectin-3 and Spike proteins, of which five emerge as potential dual effective inhibitors. Our preliminary results warrant further in vitro and in vivo testing of these putative inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 with the hope of being able to halt the spread of the virus in the future.

17.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573578

RESUMO

PIVKA-II is an aberrant form of vitamin K that has been demonstrated to be increased in human coagulation disorders and in some neoplastic diseases. In veterinary medicine, PIVKA-II levels have been demonstrated to be useful for distinguishing anticoagulant poisoning from other coagulopathies. In forensic pathology, there is the need to distinguish malicious poisoning from other causes of death and, in some cases, identifying poisoned dogs from dogs that died as a result of other coagulative disorders can be challenging. In this study, dogs that suddenly died underwent necropsy, histological examination, and toxicological analysis to establish cause of death. PIVKA-II immunohistochemical expression was evaluated on hepatic and renal tissues, and on neoplastic lesions when present. A total of 61 dogs were analyzed and anticoagulant substances were identified in 16 of the 61. Immunolabelling for PIVKA-II was observed in 27 of 61 cases in the liver and in 24 of 61 cases in the kidneys. Among the poisoned dogs, the PIVKA-II expression was present in the liver in 15 of 16 cases and in the kidneys in 16 of 16. Neoplastic lesions represented mainly by haemangiosarcomas were negative. This study highlights how the immunohistochemical expression of PIVKA-II in hepatic and renal tissues can be useful to identify patients with coagulative disorders due to clinical condition or the ingestion of anticoagulants substances.

18.
Mar Environ Res ; 171: 105474, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488069

RESUMO

Seagrass detritus can attract numerous invertebrates as it provides food and substrate within the meadow or in adjacent environments. Nonetheless, several factors could modify the invertebrate response to this habitat. In this study, we tested if epifaunal colonisation of Zostera noltei detritus was related to substrate availability rather than food and whether colonising assemblages were similar according to the meadow structural complexity. Litterbags filled with natural or artificial detritus were deployed within an eelgrass meadow in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Thau lagoon, France). Colonisation appeared to be driven by the presence of detritus, with similar assemblages in natural and artificial substrate, but with more individuals than the empty bags, used as controls. There were also no differences according to habitat complexity. These findings show that detritus, acting as a faunal magnet, plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity, as epifauna is a critical trophic link between primary producers and consumers.


Assuntos
Zosteraceae , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , França , Humanos , Invertebrados
20.
Life (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357086

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is emerging as an important player in neurodevelopment and aging as well as in brain diseases including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The complex interplay between gut microbiota and the brain, and vice versa, has recently become not only the focus of neuroscience, but also the starting point for research regarding many diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The bi-directional interaction between gut microbiota and the brain is not completely understood. The aim of this review is to sum up the evidencesconcerningthe role of the gut-brain microbiota axis in ischemic stroke and to highlight the more recent evidences about the potential role of the gut-brain microbiota axis in the interaction between inflammatory bowel disease and ischemic stroke.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...