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2.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 18: 142-154, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546149

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies; it preferentially metastasizes to the liver and is the main cause of death from this disease. In previous studies, small activating RNA against CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα-saRNA) demonstrated efficacy of PDAC in a local subcutaneous tumor model. In this study, we focused on the efficacy of C/EBPα-saRNA in advanced stage PDAC. For targeted delivery, we selected a new anti-transferrin receptor aptamer (TR14), which demonstrated a high binding affinity to target proteins. The TR14 aptamer was internalized with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, distributed in early endosome, late endosome, and lysosome subcellularly. To investigate its anti-tumor effects to advanced PDAC, we conjugated C/EBPα-saRNA to TR14. Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with the conjugates upregulated expression of C/EBPα and its downstream target p21, and inhibited cell proliferation. For in vivo assays, we established an advanced PDAC mouse model by engrafting luciferase reporter-PANC-1 cells directly into the livers of non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. After treatment of aptamer-C/EBPα conjugates, we observed significant reduction of tumor growth in this advanced PDAC mouse model. Combinational treatment of the conjugates with gemcitabine also demonstrated enhanced anti-tumor effects in advanced PDAC. This suggests that aptamer-C/EBPα conjugates could be used as an adjuvant, along with other conventional anti-cancer drugs in advanced PDAC. In conclusion, targeted delivery of C/EBPα-saRNAs by aptamers might have potential therapeutic effects in advanced PDAC.

3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2036: 17-50, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410789

RESUMO

From the initial discovery of short-interfering RNA (siRNA) and antisense oligonucleotides for specific gene knockdown at the posttranscriptional level to the current CRISPR-Cas9 system offering gene editing at the genomic level, oligonucleotides, in addition to their biological functions in storing and conveying genetic information, provide the most prominent solutions to targeted gene therapies. Nonetheless, looking into the future of curing cancer and acute diseases, researchers are only cautiously optimistic as the cellular delivery of these polyanionic biomacromolecules is still the biggest hurdle for their therapeutic realization. To overcome the delivery obstacle, oligonucleotides have been encapsulated within or conjugated with delivery vehicles for enhanced membrane penetration, improved payload, and tissue-specific delivery. Such delivery systems include but not limited to virus-based vehicles, gold-nanoparticle vehicles, formulated liposomes, and synthetic polymers. In this chapter, delivery challenges imposed by biological barriers are briefly discussed; followed by recent advances in tissue-specific oligonucleotide delivery utilizing both viral and nonviral delivery vectors, discussing their advantages, and how judicious design and formulation could improve and expand their potential as delivery vehicles.

4.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 17: 615-625, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394430

RESUMO

Currently, the most effective and durable therapeutic option for HIV-1 infection is combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Although cART is powerful and can delay viral evolution of drug resistance for decades, it is associated with limitations, including an inability to eradicate the virus and a potential for adverse effects. Therefore, it is imperative to discover new HIV therapeutic modalities. In this study, we designed, characterized, and evaluated the in vitro potency of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroarabinonucleotide (FANA) modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting highly conserved regions in the HIV-1 genome. Carrier-free cellular internalization of FANA ASOs resulted in strong suppression of HIV-1 replication in HIV-1-infected human primary cells. In vitro mechanistic studies suggested that the inhibitory effect of FANA ASOs can be attributed to RNase H1 activation and steric hindrance of dimerization. Using 5'-RACE PCR and sequencing analysis, we confirmed the presence of human RNase H1-mediated target RNA cleavage products in cells treated with FANA ASOs. We observed no overt cytotoxicity or immune responses upon FANA ASO treatment. Together, our results strongly suggest that FANA ASOs hold great promise for antiretroviral therapy. The dual ability of FANA ASOs to target RNA by recruiting RNase H1 and/or sterically blocking RNA dimerization further enhances their therapeutic potential.

5.
J Vis Exp ; (148)2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305524

RESUMO

The HIV-1 infectious cycle requires viral protein interactions with host factors to facilitate viral replication, packaging, and release. The infectious cycle further requires the formation of viral/host protein complexes with HIV-1 RNA to regulate the splicing and enable nucleocytoplasmic transport. The HIV-1 Rev protein accomplishes the nuclear export of HIV-1 mRNAs through multimerization with intronic cis-acting targets - the Rev response element (RRE). A nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) exists within the COOH-terminus of the Rev arginine-rich motif (ARM), allowing the accumulation of Rev/RRE complexes in the nucleolus. Nucleolar factors are speculated to support the HIV-1 infectious cycle through various other functions in addition to mediating mRNA-independent nuclear export and splicing. We describe an immunoprecipitation method of wild-type (WT) Rev in comparison to Rev nucleolar mutations (deletion and single-point Rev-NoLS mutations) in the presence of HIV-1 replication for mass spectrometry. Nucleolar factors implicated in the nucleocytoplasmic transport (nucleophosmin B23 and nucleolin C23), as well as cellular splicing factors, lose interaction with Rev in the presence of Rev-NoLS mutations. Various other nucleolar factors, such as snoRNA C/D box 58, are identified to lose interaction with Rev mutations, yet their function in the HIV-1 replication cycle remain unknown. The results presented here demonstrate the use of this approach for the identification of viral/host nucleolar factors that maintain the HIV-1 infectious cycle. The concepts used in this approach are applicable to other viral and disease models requiring the characterization of understudied pathways.

6.
ACS Chem Biol ; 14(6): 1310-1318, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141333

RESUMO

Herein, we describe a versatile non-covalent strategy for packaging nucleic acid cargo with targeting modalities, based on triplex hybridization of oligo-uridylate RNA with bifacial polymer nucleic acid (bPoNA). Polyacrylate bPoNA was prepared and side chain-functionalized with N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), which is known to enable delivery to hepatocytes and liver via binding to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). Polymer binding resulted in successful delivery of both native and synthetically modified siRNAs to HepG2 cells in culture, yielding in low nanomolar IC50 silencing of the endogenous ApoB target, in line with observations of expected Dicer processing of the polymer-siRNA targeting complex. Indeed, in vitro Dicer treatment of the polymer complex indicated that triplex hybridization does not impede RNA processing and release from the polymer. The complex itself elicited a quiescent immunostimulation profile relative to free RNA in a cytokine screen, setting the stage for a preliminary in vivo study in a high-calorie-diet mouse model. Gratifyingly, we observed significant ApoB silencing in a preliminary animal study, validating bPoNA as an in vivo carrier platform for systemic siRNA delivery. Thus, this new siRNA carrier platform exhibits generally useful function and is accessible through scalable synthesis. In addition to its utility as a carrier, the triplex-hybridizing synthetic platform could be useful for optimization screens of siRNA sequences using the identical polymer carriers, thus alleviating the need for covalent ligand modification of each RNA substrate.

7.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019276

RESUMO

Errors in the alignment and structure of the siRNN and in the structure of the sisiRNA in the original version of Fig. 3 have been corrected.

8.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 18(6): 421-446, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846871

RESUMO

The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway regulates mRNA stability and translation in nearly all human cells. Small double-stranded RNA molecules can efficiently trigger RNAi silencing of specific genes, but their therapeutic use has faced numerous challenges involving safety and potency. However, August 2018 marked a new era for the field, with the US Food and Drug Administration approving patisiran, the first RNAi-based drug. In this Review, we discuss key advances in the design and development of RNAi drugs leading up to this landmark achievement, the state of the current clinical pipeline and prospects for future advances, including novel RNAi pathway agents utilizing mechanisms beyond post-translational RNAi silencing.

9.
Mol Ther ; 27(5): 999-1016, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852139

RESUMO

Excessive or inappropriate inflammatory responses can cause serious and even fatal diseases. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA) gene encodes C/EBPα, a transcription factor that plays a fundamental role in controlling maturation of the myeloid lineage and is also expressed during the late phase of inflammatory responses when signs of inflammation are decreasing. MTL-CEBPA, a small activating RNA targeting for upregulation of C/EBPα, is currently being evaluated in a phase 1b trial for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. After dosing, subjects had reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and we therefore hypothesized that MTL-CEBPA has anti-inflammatory potential. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of C/EBPα saRNA - CEBPA-51 - on inflammation in vitro and in vivo after endotoxin challenge. CEBPA-51 led to increased expression of the C/EBPα gene and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines in THP-1 monocytes previously stimulated by E. coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with MTL-CEBPA in an LPS-challenged humanized mouse model upregulated C/EBPα mRNA, increased neutrophils, and attenuated production of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, and IFN-γ. In addition, a Luminex analysis of mouse serum revealed that MTL-CEBPA reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Collectively, the data support further investigation of MTL-CEBPA in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases where this mechanism has pathogenic importance.

10.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886427

RESUMO

The use of the names for patisiran has been made consistent throughout the article in line with the journal style and typographical errors have been corrected.

11.
Oncogene ; 38(18): 3446-3457, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643190

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is generally accompanied by high mortality and low cure rate. CCAAT enhancer-binding proteins (CEBPs) are transcriptional regulators that play a key role in maintaining liver function. Altered expression of C/EBPα and C/EBPß occurs in many tumours including HCC. saRNAs are small double-stranded RNAs that enhance target gene expression at the transcriptional level. In this report, we activate CEPBA with saRNAs and suppress CEBPB with siRNAs in cells that represent three different degrees of HCC. We performed functional assays to investigate the effects of enhancing C/EBPα and its downstream targets, p21 and albumin across these lines. We also used Mass-spectrometry (MS) subsequent to a ChIP pull-down assay to characterise the components of the protein complex involved in regulating saRNA function. Putative saRNA interacting protein candidates that were identified by MS were knocked-down with siRNAs to investigate its impact on saRNA activity. We confirmed CEBPA-saRNA decreased proliferation and migration in the differentiated lines (HepG3/Hep3B). The undifferentiated line (PLCPRF5) showed saRNA-induced increase in CEBPA but with no loss in proliferation. This effect was reversed when CEBPB was suppressed with CEBPB-siRNA. When interrogating saRNA mode of action; three saRNA interacting proteins, CTR9, HnRNPA2/B1 and DDX5 were identified by MS. Targeted knock-down of these two proteins (by siRNA) abrogated saRNA activity. This study provides insight into how different HCC lines are affected by CEBPA-saRNAs and that endogenous abundance of CEBPB and saRNA accessory proteins may dictate efficacy of CEBPA-saRNA when used in a therapeutic context.


Assuntos
Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células Hep G2 , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo A-B/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética
12.
J Vis Exp ; (143)2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663638

RESUMO

Ethical regulations and technical challenges for research in human pathology, immunology, and therapeutic development have placed small animal models in high demand. With a close genetic and behavioral resemblance to humans, small animals such as the mouse are good candidates for human disease models, through which human-like symptoms and responses can be recapitulated. Further, the mouse genetic background can be altered to accommodate diverse demands. The NOD/SCID/IL2rγnull (NSG) mouse is one of the most widely used immunocompromised mouse strains; it allows engraftment with human hematopoietic stem cells and/or human tissues and the subsequent development of a functional human immune system. This is a critical milestone in understanding the prognosis and pathophysiology of human-specific diseases such as HIV/AIDS and aiding the search for a cure. Herein, we report a detailed protocol for generating a humanized NSG mouse model (hu-NSG) by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation into a radiation-conditioned neonatal NSG mouse. The hu-NSG mouse model shows multi-lineage development of transplanted human stem cells and susceptibility to HIV-1 viral infection. It also recapitulates key biological characteristics in response to combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART).

13.
Lancet Oncol ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Axicabtagene ciloleucel is an autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. In the previous analysis of the ZUMA-1 registrational study, with a median follow-up of 15·4 months (IQR 13·7-17·3), 89 (82%) of 108 assessable patients with refractory large B-cell lymphoma treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel achieved an objective response, and complete responses were noted in 63 (58%) patients. Here we report long-term activity and safety outcomes of the ZUMA-1 study. METHODS: ZUMA-1 is a single-arm, multicentre, registrational trial at 22 sites in the USA and Israel. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, and had histologically confirmed large B-cell lymphoma-including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, and transformed follicular lymphoma-according to the 2008 WHO Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue; refractory disease or relapsed after autologous stem-cell transplantation; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1; and had previously received an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody containing-regimen and an anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Participants received one dose of axicabtagene ciloleucel on day 0 at a target dose of 2 × 106 CAR T cells per kg of bodyweight after conditioning chemotherapy with intravenous fludarabine (30 mg/m2 body-surface area) and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2 body-surface area) on days -5, -4, and -3. The primary endpoints were safety for phase 1 and the proportion of patients achieving an objective response for phase 2, and key secondary endpoints were overall survival, progression-free survival, and duration of response. Pre-planned activity and safety analyses were done per protocol. ZUMA-1 is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02348216. Although the registrational cohorts are closed, the trial remains open, and recruitment to extension cohorts with alternative endpoints is underway. FINDINGS: Between May 19, 2015, and Sept 15, 2016, 119 patients were enrolled and 108 received axicabtagene ciloleucel across phases 1 and 2. As of the cutoff date of Aug 11, 2018, 101 patients assessable for activity in phase 2 were followed up for a median of 27·1 months (IQR 25·7-28·8), 84 (83%) had an objective response, and 59 (58%) had a complete response. The median duration of response was 11·1 months (4·2-not estimable). The median overall survival was not reached (12·8-not estimable), and the median progression-free survival was 5·9 months (95% CI 3·3-15·0). 52 (48%) of 108 patients assessable for safety in phases 1 and 2 had grade 3 or worse serious adverse events. Grade 3 or worse cytokine release syndrome occurred in 12 (11%) patients, and grade 3 or worse neurological events in 35 (32%). Since the previous analysis at 1 year, additional serious adverse events were reported in four patients (grade 3 mental status changes, grade 4 myelodysplastic syndrome, grade 3 lung infection, and two episodes of grade 3 bacteraemia), none of which were judged to be treatment related. Two treatment-related deaths (due to haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and cardiac arrest) were previously reported, but no new treatment-related deaths occurred during the additional follow-up. INTERPRETATION: These 2-year follow-up data from ZUMA-1 suggest that axicabtagene ciloleucel can induce durable responses and a median overall survival of greater than 2 years, and has a manageable long-term safety profile in patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma. FUNDING: Kite and the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society Therapy Acceleration Program.

14.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 14: 131-141, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594071

RESUMO

Human glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive malignancy of the CNS, with less than 5% survival. Despite great efforts to find effective therapeutics, current options remain very limited. To develop a targeted cancer therapeutic, we selected RNA aptamers against platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), which is a receptor tyrosine kinase. One RNA aptamer (PDR3) with high affinity (0.25 nM) showed PDGFRα specificity and was internalized in U251-MG cells. Following treatment with the PDR3 aptamer, expression of the transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) was inhibited, whereas the expression of the histone demethylase JMJD3 and the tumor suppressor p53 were upregulated. PDR3 also upregulated serine phosphorylation of p53, which subsequently mediated apoptosis through the death receptors: tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors 1/2 (TRAIL-R1/R2), Fas-associated via death domain (FADD), and Fas. PDR3 significantly decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, translocation of PDR3 into the nucleus induced hypomethylation at the promoters of cyclin D2. To assess the feasibility of targeted delivery, we conjugated PDR3 aptamer with STAT3-siRNA for a chimera. The PDR3-siSTAT3 chimera successfully inhibited the expression of target genes and showed significant inhibition of cell viability. In summary, our results show that well-tailored RNA aptamers targeting the PDGFRα-STAT3 axis have the potential to act as anti-cancer therapeutics in GBM.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104273

RESUMO

Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule, inhibits Candida albicans hyphal formation, affects its biofilm formation and dispersal, and impacts its stress response. Several aspects of farnesol's mechanism of action remain incompletely uncharacterized. Among these are a thorough accounting of the cellular receptors and transporters for farnesol. This work suggests these processes are linked through the Zn cluster transcription factors Tac1 and Znc1 and their induction of the multidrug efflux pump Cdr1. Specifically, we have demonstrated that Tac1 and Znc1 are functionally activated by farnesol through a mechanism that mimics other means of hyperactivation of Zn cluster transcription factors. This is consistent with our observation that many genes acutely induced by farnesol are dependent on TAC1, ZNC1, or both. A related molecule, 1-dodecanol, invokes a similar TAC1-ZNC1 response, while several other proposed C. albicans quorum-sensing molecules do not. Tac1 and Znc1 both bind to and upregulate the CDR1 promoter in response to farnesol. Differences in inducer and DNA binding specificity lead to Tac1 and Znc1 having overlapping, but nonidentical, regulons. Induction of genes by farnesol via Tac1 and Znc1 was inversely related to the level of CDR1 present in the cell, suggesting a model in which induction of CDR1 by Tac1 and Znc1 leads to an increase in farnesol efflux. Consistent with this premise, our results show that CDR1 expression, and its regulation by TAC1 and ZNC1, facilitates growth in the presence of high farnesol concentrations in C. albicans and in certain strains of its close relative, C. dubliniensis.

16.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 11(3)2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029472

RESUMO

Imaging is not only seeing, but also believing. For targeted imaging modalities, nucleic acid aptamers have features such as superior recognition of structural epitopes and quick uptake in target cells. This explains the emergence of an evolved new class of aptamers into a wide spectrum of imaging applications over the last decade. Genetically encoded biosensors tagged with fluorescent RNA aptamers have been developed as intracellular imaging tools to understand cellular signaling and physiology in live cells. Cancer-specific aptamers labeled with fluorescence have been used for assessment of clinical tissue specimens. Aptamers conjugated with gold nanoparticles have been employed to develop innovative mass spectrometry tissue imaging. Also, use of chemically conjugated cancer-specific aptamers as probes for non-invasive and high-resolution imaging has been transformative for in vivo imaging in multiple cancers.

17.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 134: 22-35, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981799

RESUMO

The structural flexibility and small size of aptamers enable precise recognition of cellular elements for imaging and therapeutic applications. The process by which aptamers are taken into cells depends on their targets but is typically clathrin-mediated endocytosis or macropinocytosis. After internalization, most aptamers are transported to endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and occasionally mitochondria and autophagosomes. Intracellular aptamers, or "intramers," have versatile functions ranging from intracellular RNA imaging, gene regulation, and therapeutics to allosteric modulation, which we discuss in this review. Immune responses to therapeutic aptamers and the effects of G-quadruplex structure on aptamer function are also discussed.

18.
Blood ; 132(8): 804-814, 2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895668

RESUMO

After treatment with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, interleukin-15 (IL-15) elevation and CAR T-cell expansion are associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) outcomes. However, the association of preinfusion CAR product T-cell functionality with clinical outcomes has not been reported. A single-cell analysis of the preinfusion CD19 CAR product from patients with NHL demonstrated that CAR products contain polyfunctional T-cell subsets capable of deploying multiple immune programs represented by cytokines and chemokines, including interferon-γ, IL-17A, IL-8, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α. A prespecified T-cell polyfunctionality strength index (PSI) applied to preinfusion CAR product was significantly associated with clinical response, and PSI combined with CAR T-cell expansion or pretreatment serum IL-15 levels conferred additional significance. Within the total product cell population, associations with clinical outcomes were greater with polyfunctional CD4+ T cells compared with CD8+ cells. Grade ≥3 cytokine release syndrome was associated with polyfunctional T cells, and both grade ≥3 neurologic toxicity and antitumor efficacy were associated with polyfunctional IL-17A-producing T cells. The findings in this exploratory study show that a preinfusion CAR product T-cell subset with a definable polyfunctional profile has a major association with clinical outcomes of CAR T-cell therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00924326.

19.
J Hematol Oncol ; 11(1): 87, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive and incurable lymphoma. Standard of care for younger patients with MCL is induction chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT). Rituximab maintenance after auto-HCT has been shown to improve progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MCL. Bortezomib maintenance therapy has also been shown to be tolerable and feasible in this setting. However, the combination of bortezomib and rituximab as maintenance therapy post-auto-HCT has not been studied. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, phase II trial of bortezomib given in combination with rituximab as maintenance in MCL patients after consolidative auto-HCT. Enrolled patients (n = 23) received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 subcutaneously weekly for 4 weeks every 3 months (up to 24 months) and rituximab 375 mg/m2 intravenously weekly for 4 weeks every 6 months (up to 24 months) for a total duration of 2 years. The primary study endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 35.9 months, the 2-year DFS probability was 90.2% (95% CI 66-97), and 2-year OS was 94.7% (95% CI 68-99). The most frequent grade 3/4 toxic events were neutropenia (in 74% of patients) and lymphopenia (in 35%). The incidence of peripheral neuropathy was 48% for grade 1, 9% for grade 2, and 0% for grade 3/4. We also examined the role of quantitative cyclin D1 (CCND1) mRNA in monitoring minimal residual disease. CONCLUSION: Combined bortezomib and rituximab as maintenance therapy in MCL patients following auto-HCT is an active and well-tolerated regimen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01267812 , registered Dec 29, 2010.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(25): E5756-E5765, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866826

RESUMO

Although some information is available for specific subsets of miRNAs and several factors have been shown to bind oligonucleotides (ONs), no general transport mechanism for these molecules has been identified to date. In this work, we demonstrate that the nuclear transport of ONs, siRNAs, and miRNAs responds to cellular stress. Furthermore, we have identified a stress-induced response complex (SIRC), which includes Ago-1 and Ago-2 in addition to the transcription and splicing regulators YB1, CTCF, FUS, Smad1, Smad3, and Smad4. The SIRC transports endogenous miRNAs, siRNAs, and ONs to the nucleus. We show that cellular stress can significantly increase ON- or siRNA-directed splicing switch events and endogenous miRNA targeting of nuclear RNAs.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Oligonucleotídeos/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia
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