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3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82(5): 483-490, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714427

RESUMO

There are limited data on infants with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the neonatal period. We investigated the association between the timing of ART initiation and time-to-suppression among infants who tested HIV-positive and initiated ART within the first 28 days of life. The effect was estimated using cumulative probability flexible parametric spline models and a multivariable generalized additive mixed model was performed to test nonlinear associations. Forty-four neonates were included. Nineteen (43.2%) initiated ART within 7 days of life and 25 (56.8%) from 8 to 28 days. Infants treated within 7 days were 4-fold more likely to suppress earlier than those treated after 7 days [Hazard ratio (HR) 4.01 (1.7-9.5)]. For each week the ART initiation was delayed, the probability of suppression decreased by 35% (HR 0.65 [0.46-0.92]). Age at ART start was linearly associated with time-to-suppression. However, a linear association with normally distributed residuals was not found between baseline viral load and time-to-suppression, with no association found when baseline viral loads were ≤5 log(10) copies/mL, but with exponential increase in time-to-suppression with > log5 copies/mL at baseline. Starting ART within 7 days of life led to 4-fold faster time to viral suppression, in comparison to initiation from 8 to 28 days.

4.
Life Sci Alliance ; 2(6)2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719116

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetic disorder of the NADPH oxidase characterized by increased susceptibility to infections and hyperinflammation associated with defective autophagy and increased inflammasome activation. Herein, we demonstrate that thymosin ß4 (Tß4), a g-actin sequestering peptide with multiple and diverse intracellular and extracellular activities affecting inflammation, wound healing, fibrosis, and tissue regeneration, promoted in human and murine cells noncanonical autophagy, a form of autophagy associated with phagocytosis and limited inflammation via the death-associated protein kinase 1. We further show that the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)α was underexpressed in CGD but normalized by Tß4 to promote autophagy and up-regulate genes involved in mucosal barrier protection. Accordingly, inflammation and granuloma formation were impaired and survival increased in CGD mice with colitis or aspergillosis upon Tß4 treatment or HIF-1α stabilization. Thus, the promotion of endogenous pathways of inflammation resolution through HIF-1α stabilization is druggable in CGD by Tß4.

5.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766052

RESUMO

Description: The European Commission Initiative for Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis guidelines (European Breast Guidelines) are coordinated by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The target audience for the guidelines includes women, health professionals, and policymakers. Methods: An international guideline panel of 28 multidisciplinary members, including patients, developed questions and corresponding recommendations that were informed by systematic reviews of the evidence conducted between March 2016 and December 2018. GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) Evidence to Decision frameworks were used to structure the process and minimize the influence of competing interests by enhancing transparency. Questions and recommendations, expressed as strong or condi-tional, focused on outcomes that matter to women and provided a rating of the certainty of evidence. Recommendations: This synopsis of the European Breast Guidelines provides recommendations regarding organized screening programs for women aged 40 to 75 years who are at average risk. The recommendations address digital mammography screening and the addition of hand-held ultrasonography, automated breast ultrasonography, or magnetic resonance imaging compared with mammography alone. The recommendations also discuss the frequency of screening and inform decision making for women at average risk who are recalled for suspicious lesions or who have high breast density.

6.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(5-6 Suppl 1): 1-80, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744272

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Describing and monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in health are the prerequisite for planning equity policies. In Italy, some cities have integrated personal information from the municipal registries with Census data and with data from healthcare information systems to set up Longitudinal Metropolitan Studies (LMS). Under the coordination of the Italian National Institute for Health, Migration, and Poverty (NIHMP), six cities in the LMS network have contributed to the present monograph: Turin, Venice, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna, and Rome. MORTALITY RESULTS. Significant socioeconomic differences by level of education were seen in all the participating centres. People who live alone or in single-parent households are more likely to die, as are those living in a substandard dwelling. Immigrants resident in the six cities included in the study showed lower all-cause mortality than Italians (males: MRR 0.83; 95%CI 0.78-0.90 - females: MRR 0.70; 95%CI 0.64-0.77). Sub-Saharan Africans experienced a significant higher mortality than Italians (males: MRR 1.33; 95%CI 1.12-1.59 - females: MMR 1.69; 95%CI 1.31-2.17). Immigrants had a neonatal and post-neonatal mortality risk about 1.5 times higher than Italians (neonatal: OR 1.71; 95%CI 1.22-2.39 - post-neonatal: OR 1.63; 95%CI 1.03-2.57). A difference between Italians and immigrants was also observed for mortality in children aged 1-4 years, though less marked (OR 1.24; 95%CI 0.73-2.11). Excesses concerned particularly immigrants from North Africa and from sub-Saharan Africa as well as those residing in Italy for >5 years. HOSPITALISATION RESULTS. Hospitalisation rates are lower for immigrants than for Italians, except when due to infectious diseases, blood disorders, and, among women, for reasons linked to pregnancy and childbirth. Avoidable hospitalisation rates of adults from low migratory pressure Countries are lower than or equal to those of Italians. On the contrary, adults from low migratory pressure Countries show higher avoidable hospitalisation rates compared to Italians in every cohort, with the exception of Rome (RR 0.81; 95%CI 0.78-0.85), with RR ranging from 1.08 (95%CI 0.96-1.22) in Venice to 1.64 (95%CI 1.47-1.83) in Modena. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal and child health is the most critical area of health for immigrant population. Considering the importance that the issue of health equity has taken on in the political agenda, the data presented in this volume are a great asset, particularly in light of the long recession and the social crisis that have impacted the Country.

7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2471, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736942

RESUMO

Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) exhibit T lymphopenia and profound impairments in cellular and humoral immunity. IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) deficiency is a rare form of SCID that usually presents in the first months of life with severe and opportunistic infections, failure to thrive and high risk of mortality unless treated. Here, we reported an atypical and delayed onset of IL7Rα-SCID in a 15-month-old girl presenting with thrombocytopenia. Immunological investigations showed a normal lymphocyte count with isolated CD4-penia, absence of naïve T cells, marked hypergammaglobulinemia, and maternal T cell engraftment. Targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the IL-7Rα gene: c.160T>C (p.S54P) and c.245G>T (p.C82F). The atypical onset and the unusual immunological phenotype expressed by our patient highlights the diagnostic challenge in the field of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) and in particular in SCID patients where prompt diagnosis and therapy greatly affects survival.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583683

RESUMO

Aim of this study was to compare the 5-year risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+)/CIN3+ and the performance parameters at 3-year rescreening of a negative E6/E7 mRNA-human papillomavirus (HPV) test with those of a HPV-DNA-negative test. We studied a cohort of HPV-negative women tested with the Aptima HPV-mRNA Assay ("HPV-mRNA cohort") versus a cohort of HPV negatives tested with the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) DNA test living in neighboring areas. Both cohorts were rescreened after 3 years by a HPV-DNA test (HC2 or Cobas 4800 HPV test). HPV test positivity, referral to colposcopy and detection of CIN2+ at 3-year rescreening were computed. The Veneto Cancer Registry was checked to search for invasive cancers and CIN3 diagnosed up to 5 years from the negative baseline test. Some 22,338 HPV-mRNA and 68,695 HPV-DNA-negative women were invited to 3-year rescreening, and, respectively, 16,641 (74.5%) and 54,630 (79.6%) complied with the invitation. The proportion of HPV-positive tests, referral to colposcopy and detection of CIN2+ in the HPV-mRNA and HPV-DNA cohorts were, respectively. 4.0 and 3.9% (ratio 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-1.17), 2.6 and 2.5% (ratio 1.06, 95% CI 0.95-1.18) and 1.4 and 1.7‰ (ratio 0.85, 95% CI 0.54-1.33). The relative 5-year cumulative risk of cancer and of CIN2+ in the HPV-mRNA and HPV-DNA cohorts were 4.5 and 8.7/100,000 (ratio 0.51; 95%CI 0.01-4.22) and 1.1 and 1.5/1,000 (ratio 0.74; 95%CI 0.45-1.16), respectively. A negative HPV-mRNA test confers a risk of invasive cervical carcinoma and of CIN2+ at 5 years comparable to that of a negative HPV-DNA test.

9.
Science ; 365(6459): 1313-1319, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604242

RESUMO

Hsp70 and Hsp40 chaperones work synergistically in a wide range of biological processes including protein synthesis, membrane translocation, and folding. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the solution structure and dynamic features of an Hsp40 in complex with an unfolded client protein. Atomic structures of the various binding sites in the client complexed to the binding domains of the Hsp40 reveal the recognition pattern. Hsp40 engages the client in a highly dynamic fashion using a multivalent binding mechanism that alters the folding properties of the client. Different Hsp40 family members have different numbers of client-binding sites with distinct sequence selectivity, providing additional mechanisms for activity regulation and function modification. Hsp70 binding to Hsp40 displaces the unfolded client. The activity of Hsp40 is altered in its complex with Hsp70, further regulating client binding and release.

10.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(5-6): 354-363, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: the Italian National Prevention Plan (PNP) posed the standard to be achieved by Italian Regions for the implementation of cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening: to invite all of the target populations and to increase the screening uptake up to 50%, 60%, and 50%, respectively, the standard defined by the Essential Levels of Care (LEA). Moreover, for cervical cancer screening, it requires the implementation of HPV-DNA test and, for breast cancer screening, the PNP demands for the definition of diagnostic and follow up pathways for high familial risk women. The PNP also set up a monitoring system to assess the impact of implemented policies. A conceptual model has been defined to facilitate interpretation of variation in outcome indicators. DESIGN: after a systematic review, the DPSEEA (Driving forces, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Actions) was identified as the more appropriate framework to assess the results of preventive policies. Factors for each component of the model were identified and indicators that allow measuring the changing of each of these factors were defined. RESULTS: among the "driving forces", the trust in the health care system and the social capital were included. The presence of opportunistic screening, the competing private clinical activity, the commitment of General Practitioners and "medical" leaders, the attitude to cooperation and to patients' involvement, and the level of agreement between the positions of scientific societies and the recommendations implemented in organized screening programmes were included in the "pressures". In "state", the availability of technological and human resources, the level of management skills and of accessibility were identified. The "exposure" was defined as the coverage of active invitation of the target population and the uptake of screening tests. The "exposure" factors influence the "effect", described as the impact on anticipation of cancer diagnosis, on disease incidence (for cervical and colorectal cancer) and prognosis. The changing in screening programs performance modifies the impact of invitation coverage and test uptake ("exposure"). CONCLUSIONS: through the DPSEEA framework, we set up a logical conceptual model, which includes implementable actions and the mechanisms through which these actions should impact on the "exposure" (invitation coverage and screening uptake) and on the screening performance (quality).

12.
Tumori ; : 300891619869505, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of neoadjuvant therapy (NT) in women with stage I-III breast cancer in Italy and whether it is influenced by biological characteristics, screening history, and geographic area. METHODS: Data from the High Resolution Study conducted in 7 Italian cancer registries were used; they are a representative sample of incident cancers in the study period (2009-2013). Included were 3546 women aged <85 years (groups <50, 50-69, 70-64, and 75+) with stage I-III breast cancer at diagnosis who underwent surgery. Women were classified as receiving NT if they received chemotherapy, target therapy, and/or hormone therapy before the first surgical treatment. Logistic models were built to test the association with biological and contextual variables. RESULTS: Only 8.2% of women (290 cases) underwent NT; the treatment decreases with increasing age (14.5% in age <50 and 2.2% in age 75+), is more frequent in women with negative receptors (14.8%), HER2-positive (15.7%), and triple-negative (15.6%). The multivariable analysis showed the probability of receiving NT is higher in stage III (odds ratio [OR] 3.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.83-5.18), luminal B (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.27-2.76), triple-negatives (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.15-3.08), and in symptomatic cancers (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.13-3.48). Use of NT varied among geographic areas: Reggio Emilia had the highest rates (OR 2.29; 95% CI 1.37-3.82) while Palermo had the lowest (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.24-0.68). CONCLUSIONS: The use of NT in Italy is limited and variable. There are no signs of greater use in hospitals with more advanced care.

13.
Dig Liver Dis ; 51(11): 1522-1536, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526716

RESUMO

Multichannel intraluminal impedance pH (MII-pH) monitoring currently represents the gold standard diagnostic technique for the detection of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), since it allows to quantify and characterize all reflux events and their possible relation with symptoms. Over the last ten years, thanks to its strengths and along with the publication of several clinical studies, its worldwide use has gradually increased, particularly in infants and children. Nevertheless, factors such as the limited pediatric reference values and limited therapeutic options still weaken its current clinical impact. Through an up-to-date review of the available scientific evidence, our aim was to produce a position paper on behalf of the working group on neurogastroenterology and acid-related disorders of the Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SIGENP) on MII-pH monitoring technique, indications and interpretation in pediatric age, in order to standardise its use and to help clinicians in the diagnostic approach to children with GER symptoms.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366013

RESUMO

Natural Killer (NK) cells play a critical role in host defense against viral infections. The mechanisms of recognition and killing of virus-infected cells mediated by NK cells are still only partially defined. Several viruses induce, on the surface of target cells, the expression of molecules that are specifically recognized by NK cell-activating receptors. The main NK cell-activating receptors involved in the recognition and killing of virus-infected cells are NKG2D and DNAM-1. In particular, ligands for DNAM-1 are nectin/nectin-like molecules involved also in mechanisms allowing viral infection. Viruses adopt several immune evasion strategies, including those affecting NK cell-mediated immune surveillance, causing persistent viral infection and the development of virus-associated diseases. The virus's immune evasion efficacy depends on molecules differently expressed during the various phases of infection. In this review, we overview the molecular strategies adopted by viruses, specifically cytomegalovirus (CMV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpes virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), aiming to evade NK cell-mediated surveillance, with a special focus on the modulation of DNAM-1 activating receptor and its ligands in various phases of the viral life cycle. The increasing understanding of mechanisms involved in the modulation of activating ligands, together with those mediating the viral immune evasion strategies, would provide critical tools leading to design novel NK cell-based immunotherapies aiming at viral infection control, thus improving cure strategies of virus-associated diseases.

15.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456805

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.

16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(2): 405-420, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a clinically heterogeneous disease. Multiple atypical syndromes, distinct from the usual amnesic phenotype, have been described. In this context, the existence of a right variant of AD (RAD), characterized by enduring visuospatial impairment associated with right-sided asymmetric brain damage, has been proposed. However, to date, this phenotype remains controversial. In particular, its peculiar characteristics and the independence from more prevalent cases (especially the posterior cortical atrophy syndrome) have to be demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To explore the existence of focal RAD on the basis of existing literature. METHODS: We performed a literature search for the description of atypical AD presentations, potentially evoking cases of focal RAD. To be considered as affected by RAD, the described cases had to present: 1) well documented right-sided asymmetry at neuroimaging; 2) predominant cognitive deficits localizable on the right hemisphere; 3) no specific diagnosis of a known variant of AD. RESULTS: Twenty-one cases were found in the literature, but some of them were subsequently excluded because some features of a different clinical syndrome were overlapped with the clinical features of RAD. Thirteen positive cases, three of them with pathologically confirmed AD, remained. A common right clinical-radiological syndrome, characterized by memory and visuospatial impairment with temporal and parietal involvement, consistently emerged. However, the heterogeneity among the reports prevented a definitive and univocal description of the syndrome. CONCLUSION: Even if sporadic observations strongly support the existence of a focal RAD, no definitive conclusions can still be drawn about it as an independent condition.

17.
Obes Rev ; 20(12): 1720-1739, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468647

RESUMO

Childhood obesity has a strong social gradient. This scoping review aims to synthesize the evidence on the impact on inequalities of non-targeted interventions to reduce the prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in high-income countries. We updated a review by Hillier-Brown, searching up to 31 December 2017 on MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, with no limitations on study design. Fifty-eight studies describing 51 interventions were included: 31 randomized clinical trials and 27 non-randomized trials, with sample sizes from 67 to 2,700,880 subjects. The majority were implemented in the school setting at a community level; the others were in health services or general population setting and targeting individuals or the system. Twenty-nine interventions proved to be effective overall; seven others had an effect only in a subgroup, while 15 proved not to be effective. All types of included interventions can increase inequalities. Moreover, some interventions had opposite effects based on the socioeconomic characteristics. Any kind of intervention can reduce equity. Consequences are difficult to predict based on intervention construct. Complex interventions acting on multiple targets, settings, and risk factors are more effective and have a lower risk of increasing inequalities.

18.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for children with Down syndrome (DS) recommend a complete blood count (CBC) at birth and hemoglobin annually to screen for iron deficiency (ID) and ID anemia (IDA) in low-risk children. We aimed to determine if macrocytosis masks the diagnosis of ID/IDA and to evaluate the utility of biochemical and red blood cell indices for detecting ID/IDA in DS. METHODS: We reviewed data from 856 individuals from five DS specialty clinics. Data included hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width (RDW), percent transferrin saturation (TS), ferritin, and c-reactive protein. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated. RESULTS: Macrocytosis was found in 32% of the sample. If hemoglobin alone was used for screening, all individuals with IDA would have been identified, but ID would have been missed in all subjects. RDW had the highest discriminability of any single test for ID/IDA. The combination of RDW with ferritin or TS led to 100% sensitivity, and RDW combined with ferritin showed the highest discriminability for ID/IDA. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence to support that a CBC and ferritin be obtained routinely for children over 1 year old with DS rather than hemoglobin alone for detection of ID.

20.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443594

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is an age-related and accelerated process characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength/function. It is a multifactorial process associated with several adverse outcomes including falls, frailty, functional decline, hospitalization, and mortality. Hence, sarcopenia represents a major public health problem and has become the focus of intense research. Unfortunately, no pharmacological treatments are yet available to prevent or treat this age-related condition. At present, the only strategies for the management of sarcopenia are mainly based on nutritional and physical exercise interventions. The purpose of this review is, thus, to provide an overview on the role of proteins and other key nutrients, alone or in combination with physical exercise, on muscle parameters.

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