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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059524

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Blood oxygen saturation is low compared with healthy controls (CONs) in the supine body position in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and has been associated with complications. Since most of daily life occurs in the upright position, it is of interest if this also applies in the standing body position. In addition, tissue oxygenation in other anatomical sites could show different patterns in T1D. Therefore, we investigated blood, arm and forehead oxygen levels in the supine and standing body positions in individuals with T1D (n=129) and CONs (n=55). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood oxygen saturation was measured with pulse oximetry. Arm and forehead mixed tissue oxygen levels were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy sensors applied on the skin. RESULTS: Data are presented as least squares means±SEM and differences (95% CIs). Overall blood oxygen saturation was lower in T1D (CON: 97.6%±0.2%; T1D: 97.0%±0.1%; difference: -0.5% (95% CI -0.9% to -0.0%); p=0.034). In all participants, blood oxygen saturation increased after standing up (supine: 97.1%±0.1%; standing: 97.6%±0.2%; difference: +0.6% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.8%); p<0.001). However, the increase was smaller in T1D compared with CON (CON supine: 97.3%±0.2%; CON standing: 98.0%±0.2%; T1D supine: 96.9%±0.2%; T1D standing: 97.2%±0.1%; difference between groups in the change: -0.4% (95% CI -0.6% to -0.2%); p<0.001). Arm oxygen saturation decreased in both groups after standing and more in those with T1D. Forehead oxygen saturation decreased in both groups after standing and there were no differences between the changes when comparing the groups. CONCLUSION: Compared with CON, individuals with T1D exhibit possible detrimental patterns of tissue oxygen adaptation to standing, with preserved adaptation of forehead oxygenation. Further studies are needed to explore the consequences of these differences.

2.
Am Fam Physician ; 103(11): 698-700, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060786
3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) due to cardiac remodeling and kidney complications. Finerenone, a novel, selective, nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, inhibited cardiac remodeling in preclinical models. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of finerenone on new-onset AFF and cardiorenal effects by history of AFF in FIDELIO-DKD. METHODS: Patients with CKD and T2D were randomized (1:1) to finerenone or placebo. Eligible patients had a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 to ≤5,000 mg/g, an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥25 to <75 ml/min/1.73 m2 and received optimized doses of renin-angiotensin system blockade. Effect on new-onset AFF was evaluated as a prespecified outcome adjudicated by an independent cardiologist committee. The primary composite outcome (kidney failure, sustained ≥40% decrease in eGFR from baseline, or renal death) and key secondary outcome (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure) were analyzed by history of AFF. RESULTS: Of 5,674 patients, 461 (8.1%) had a history of AFF. New-onset AFF occurred in 82 (3.2%) patients on finerenone and 117 (4.5%) on placebo (hazard ratio: 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.53 to 0.94; p = 0.016). The effect of finerenone on primary and key secondary kidney and cardiovascular outcomes was not significantly impacted by baseline AFF (interaction p value: 0.16 and 0.85, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CKD and T2D, finerenone reduced the risk of new-onset AFF. The risk of kidney or cardiovascular events was reduced irrespective of history of AFF at baseline.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10624, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012064

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists have shown cardioprotective effects which have been suggested to be mediated through inhibition of oxidative stress. We investigated the effect of treatment with a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (liraglutide) on oxidative stress measured as urinary nucleic acid oxidation in persons with type 2 diabetes. Post-hoc analysis of two independent, randomised, placebo-controlled and double-blinded clinical trials. In a cross-over study where persons with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria (LIRALBU, n = 32) received liraglutide (1.8 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks in random order, separated by 4 weeks of wash-out. In a parallel-grouped study where obese persons with type 2 diabetes (SAFEGUARD, n = 56) received liraglutide (1.8 mg/day), sitagliptin (100 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Endpoints were changes in the urinary markers of DNA oxidation (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG)) and RNA oxidation [8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo)]. In LIRALBU, we observed no significant differences between treatment periods in urinary excretion of 8-oxodG [0.028 (standard error (SE): 0.17] nmol/mmol creatinine, p = 0.87) or of 8-oxoGuo [0.12 (0.12) nmol/mmol creatinine, p = 0.31]. In SAFEGUARD, excretion of 8-oxodG was not changed in the liraglutide group [2.8 (- 8.51; 15.49) %, p = 0.62] but a significant decline was demonstrated in the placebo group [12.6 (- 21.3; 3.1) %, p = 0.02], resulting in a relative increase in the liraglutide group compared to placebo (0.16 nmol/mmol creatinine, SE 0.07, p = 0.02). Treatment with sitagliptin compared to placebo demonstrated no significant difference (0.07 (0.07) nmol/mmol creatinine, p = 0.34). Nor were any significant differences for urinary excretion of 8-oxoGuo liraglutide vs placebo [0.09 (SE: 0.07) nmol/mmol creatinine, p = 0.19] or sitagliptin vs placebo [0.07 (SE: 0.07) nmol/mmol creatinine, p = 0.35] observed. This post-hoc analysis could not demonstrate a beneficial effect of 12 weeks of treatment with liraglutide or sitagliptin on oxidatively generated modifications of nucleic acid in persons with type 2 diabetes.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 42(13): 1216-1227, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792669

RESUMO

AIMS: Mortality rates from chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased in the last decade. In this pre-specified analysis of the DAPA-CKD trial, we determined the effects of dapagliflozin on cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes of death. METHODS AND RESULTS: DAPA-CKD was an international, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a median of 2.4 years of follow-up. Eligible participants were adult patients with CKD, defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) 200-5000 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min/1.73 m2. All-cause mortality was a key secondary endpoint. Cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death was adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. The DAPA-CKD trial randomized participants to dapagliflozin 10 mg/day (n = 2152) or placebo (n = 2152). The mean age was 62 years, 33% were women, the mean eGFR was 43.1 mL/min/1.73 m2, and the median UACR was 949 mg/g. During follow-up, 247 (5.7%) patients died, of whom 91 (36.8%) died due to cardiovascular causes, 102 (41.3%) due to non-cardiovascular causes, and in 54 (21.9%) patients, the cause of death was undetermined. The relative risk reduction for all-cause mortality with dapagliflozin (31%, hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.69 [0.53, 0.88]; P = 0.003) was consistent across pre-specified subgroups. The effect on all-cause mortality was driven largely by a 46% relative risk reduction of non-cardiovascular death (HR [95% CI] 0.54 [0.36, 0.82]). Deaths due to infections and malignancies were the most frequently occurring causes of non-cardiovascular deaths and were reduced with dapagliflozin vs. placebo. CONCLUSION: In patients with CKD, dapagliflozin prolonged survival irrespective of baseline patient characteristics. The benefits were driven largely by reductions in non-cardiovascular death.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Kidney Int ; 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878338

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is a common form of glomerulonephritis, which despite use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system blockers and immunosuppressants, often progresses to kidney failure. In the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease trial, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and prolonged survival in participants with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes, including those with IgA nephropathy. Participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min/1.73m2 and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio 200-5000 mg/g (22.6-565 mg/mol) were randomized to dapagliflozin 10mg or placebo, as adjunct to standard care. The primary composite endpoint was a sustained decline in eGFR of 50% or more, end-stage kidney disease, or death from a kidney disease-related or cardiovascular cause. Of 270 participants with IgA nephropathy (254 [94%] confirmed by previous biopsy), 137 were randomized to dapagliflozin and 133 to placebo, and followed for median 2.1 years. Overall, mean age was 51.2 years; mean eGFR, 43.8 mL/min/1.73m2; and median urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, 900 mg/g. The primary outcome occurred in six (4%) participants on dapagliflozin and 20 (15%) on placebo (hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.12, 0.73). Mean rates of eGFR decline with dapagliflozin and placebo were -3.5 and -4.7 mL/min/1.73m2/year, respectively. Dapagliflozin reduced the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio by 26% relative to placebo. Adverse events leading to study drug discontinuation were similar with dapagliflozin and placebo. There were fewer serious adverse events with dapagliflozin, and no new safety findings in this population. Thus, in participants with IgA nephropathy, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of chronic kidney disease progression with a favorable safety profile.

9.
Transpl Int ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880815

RESUMO

Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication of solid organ transplantation and a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality. Additionally, solid organ transplant patients may have pre-existent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While insulin is the treatment of choice for hyperglycemia in the first weeks after transplantation, there is no preferred first line agent for long-term management of PTDM or pre-existent T2DM. Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve glycemic control, lower body weight and blood pressure, are recommended after lifestyle and metformin as initial therapy for diabetic patients with cardiovascular or kidney comorbidities regarding their cardiorenal benefits. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of GLP-1RA may counteract some of the driving forces for PTDM, as calcineurin-induced ß cell toxicity as per preclinical data, and improve obesity. However, their use in the treatment of PTDM is currently limited by a paucity of data. Retrospective observational and small exploratory studies suggest that GLP-1RA effectively improve glycemic control and induce weight loss in patients with PTDM without interacting with commonly used immunosuppressive agents, although randomized controlled clinical trials are required to confirm their safety and efficacy. In this narrative review, we evaluate the risk factors and pathogenesis of PTDM and compare the potential roles of GLP-1RA and SGLT2 inhibitors in PTDM prevention and management as well as in pre-existent T2DM, and providing a roadmap for evidence generation on newer antidiabetic drugs for solid organ transplantation.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0244402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657115

RESUMO

AIMS: The trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) pathway is related to intestinal microbiota and has been associated to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated associations between four plasma metabolites in the TMAO pathway and risk of all-cause mortality, CVD and deterioration in renal function in individuals with type 2-diabetes (T2D) and albuminuria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma concentrations of TMAO, choline, carnitine, and betaine were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline in 311 individuals with T2D and albuminuria. Information on all-cause mortality and fatal/non-fatal CVD during follow-up was obtained from registries. The association of each metabolite, and a weighted sum score of all four metabolites, with the endpoints were examined. Serum creatinine was measured at follow-up visits and the renal endpoint was defined as eGFR-decline of ≥30%. Associations were analysed using proportional hazards models adjusted for traditional risk factors. RESULTS: Baseline mean(SD) age was 57.2(8.2) years and 75% were males. Follow-up was up to 21.9 years (median (IQR) follow-up 6.8 (6.1-15.5) years for mortality and 6.5 (5.5-8.1) years for CVD events). The individual metabolites and the weighted sum score were not associated with all-cause mortality (n = 106) or CVD (n = 116) (adjusted p≥0.09). Higher choline, carnitine and the weighted sum score of the four metabolites were associated with higher risk of decline in eGFR (n = 106) (adjusted p = 0.001, p = 0.03 and p<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with T2D and albuminuria, higher choline, carnitine and a weighted sum of four metabolites from the TMAO pathway were risk markers for deterioration in renal function during long-term follow-up. Metabolites from the TMAO pathway were not independently related to risk of all-cause mortality or CVD.

11.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic tests including echocardiography, albuminuria, electrocardiogram (ECG), high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI), and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) have been suggested as cardiovascular (CV) risk predictors in type 2 diabetes. We studied the separate and combined prognostic yield of these risk markers. METHODS: In all, 1030 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from specialized clinics in this prospective cohort study. Full echocardiographic evaluation was feasible in 886 patients in sinus rhythm with adequate image quality. ECG was performed in 998 patients. Albuminuria was measured in 1009 and NT-proBNP/hs-TnI in 933 patients. The end point was a composite of CV events. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 4.7 years (interquartile range: 4.0-5.3), and 174 patients experienced a CV disease event. All considered markers, except hs-TnI, were significantly (P < .001) associated with the outcome: abnormal echocardiogram (hazard ratio 2.40 [1.70-3.39]), albuminuria 2.01 (1.47-2.76), abnormal ECG (2.27 [1.66-3.08]), high NT-proBNP (>150 pg/mL) 3.05 (2.11-4.40), and hs-TnI 1.12 (0.79-1.59). After adjusting for clinical variables, all remained significantly associated with the end point. However, after adjusting for each other, only NT-proBNP >150 pg/mL remained significantly associated with the end point (2.07 [1.28-3.34], P < .001). Measured by C-statistics, model performance was highest with log2 (NT-proBNP) (0.70 [0.65-0.75]) and similar to clinical variables alone (0.71 [0.67-0.76]). Combining all risk markers only resulted in a very limited increase in C-statistics (0.69 [0.64-0.74]). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified NT-proBNP over echocardiography, ECG, and albuminuria in risk prediction in patients with type 2 diabetes. The diagnostic yield in considering more than one risk marker was limited in this population.

12.
Hypertension ; 77(4): 1029-1035, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583200

RESUMO

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) became binding law in the European Union Member States in 2018, as a step toward harmonizing personal data protection legislation in the European Union. The Regulation governs almost all types of personal data processing, hence, also, those pertaining to biomedical research. The purpose of this article is to highlight the main practical issues related to data and biological sample sharing that biomedical researchers face regularly, and to specify how these are addressed in the context of GDPR, after consulting with ethics/legal experts. We identify areas in which clarifications of the GDPR are needed, particularly those related to consent requirements by study participants. Amendments should target the following: (1) restricting exceptions based on national laws and increasing harmonization, (2) confirming the concept of broad consent, and (3) defining a roadmap for secondary use of data. These changes will be achieved by acknowledged learned societies in the field taking the lead in preparing a document giving guidance for the optimal interpretation of the GDPR, which will be finalized following a period of commenting by a broad multistakeholder audience. In parallel, promoting engagement and education of the public in the relevant issues (such as different consent types or residual risk for re-identification), on both local/national and international levels, is considered critical for advancement. We hope that this article will open this broad discussion involving all major stakeholders, toward optimizing the GDPR and allowing a harmonized transnational research approach.

13.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(6): 1371-1378, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591613

RESUMO

AIM: To determine whether metformin's effects on carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) in type 1 diabetes differ according to smoking status. METHODS: Regression model effect estimates for the effect of metformin versus placebo (double-blind) on carotid IMT were calculated as a subgroup analysis of the REMOVAL trial. RESULTS: In 428 randomized participants (227 never-smokers, 201 ever-smokers), averaged mean carotid IMT progression (per year) was reduced by metformin versus placebo in never-smokers (-0.012 mm, 95% CI -0.021 to -0.002; p = .0137) but not in ever-smokers (0.003 mm, 95% CI -0.008 to 0.014; p = .5767); and similarly in non-current smokers (-0.008 mm, 95% CI -0.015 to -0.00001; p = .0497) but not in current smokers (0.013 mm, 95% CI -0.007 to 0.032; p = .1887). Three-way interaction terms (treatment*time*smoking status) were significant for never versus ever smoking (p = .0373, prespecified) and non-current versus current smoking (p = .0496, exploratory). Averaged maximal carotid IMT progression (per year) was reduced by metformin versus placebo in never-smokers (-0.020 mm, 95% CI -0.034 to -0.006; p = .0067) but not in ever-smokers (-0.006 mm, 95% CI -0.020 to 0.008; p = .4067), although this analysis was not supported by a significant three-way interaction term. CONCLUSIONS: This subgroup analysis of the REMOVAL trial provides additional support for a potentially wider role of adjunct metformin therapy in cardiovascular risk management in type 1 diabetes, particularly for individuals who have never smoked cigarettes.

14.
Diabetes Care ; 44(4): 901-907, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes that can be prevented or delayed by intervention. Hence, early detection of people at increased risk is essential. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: From a population-based cohort of 5,460 clinically diagnosed Danish adults with type 1 diabetes followed from 2001 to 2016, we developed a prediction model for ESKD accounting for the competing risk of death. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the model on the basis of information routinely collected from clinical examinations. The effect of including an extended set of predictors (lipids, alcohol intake, etc.) was further evaluated, and potential interactions identified in a survival tree analysis were tested. The final model was externally validated in 9,175 adults from Denmark and Scotland. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10.4 years (interquartile limits 5.1; 14.7), 303 (5.5%) of the participants (mean [SD] age 42.3 [16.5] years) developed ESKD, and 764 (14.0%) died without having developed ESKD. The final ESKD prediction model included age, male sex, diabetes duration, estimated glomerular filtration rate, micro- and macroalbuminuria, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, smoking, and previous cardiovascular disease. Discrimination was excellent for 5-year risk of an ESKD event, with a C-statistic of 0.888 (95% CI 0.849; 0.927) in the derivation cohort and confirmed at 0.865 (0.811; 0.919) and 0.961 (0.940; 0.981) in the external validation cohorts from Denmark and Scotland, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We have derived and validated a novel, high-performing ESKD prediction model for risk stratification in the adult type 1 diabetes population. This model may improve clinical decision making and potentially guide early intervention.

15.
Diabetes Care ; 44(4): 1020-1026, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A post hoc analysis to investigate the association between 1-year changes in albuminuria and subsequent risk of cardiovascular and renal events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: LEADER was a randomized trial of liraglutide up to 1.8 mg/day versus placebo added to standard care for 3.5-5 years in 9,340 participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. We calculated change in urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) from baseline to 1 year in participants with >30% reduction (n = 2,928), 30-0% reduction (n = 1,218), or any increase in UACR (n = 4,124), irrespective of treatment. Using Cox regression, risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and a composite nephropathy outcome (from 1 year to end of trial in subgroups by baseline UACR [<30 mg/g, 30-300 mg/g, or ≥300 mg/g]) were assessed. The analysis was adjusted for treatment allocation alone as a fixed factor and for baseline variables associated with cardiovascular and renal outcomes. RESULTS: For MACE, hazard ratios (HRs) for those with >30% and 30-0% UACR reduction were 0.82 (95% CI 0.71, 0.94; P = 0.006) and 0.99 (0.82, 1.19; P = 0.912), respectively, compared with any increase in UACR (reference). For the composite nephropathy outcome, respective HRs were 0.67 (0.49, 0.93; P = 0.02) and 0.97 (0.66, 1.43; P = 0.881). Results were independent of baseline UACR and consistent in both treatment groups. After adjustment, HRs were significant and consistent in >30% reduction subgroups with baseline micro- or macroalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in albuminuria during the 1st year was associated with fewer cardiovascular and renal outcomes, independent of treatment. Albuminuria monitoring remains an important part of diabetes care, with great unused potential.

16.
Diabet Med ; 38(6): e14517, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac Rubidium-82 (82 Rb) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) provides a measure of the myocardial blood flow and the myocardial flow reserve, which reflects the function of both large epicardial arteries and the myocardial microcirculation. Knowledge on changes in the myocardial microvascular function over time is lacking. METHODS: In this cohort study, we recruited 60 persons with type 2 diabetes and 30 non-diabetic controls, in 2013; all free of overt cardiovascular disease. All underwent a cardiac 82 Rb PET/CT scan. In 2019, all survivors (n = 82) were invited for a repeated cardiac 82 Rb PET/CT scan using the same protocol, and 29 with type 2 diabetes and 19 controls participated. RESULTS: Median duration between visits was 6.2 years (IQR: 6.1-6.3). In the total cohort, the mean age was 66.4 years (SD: 9.3) and 33% were females. The myocardial flow reserve was lower in persons with type 2 diabetes compared to controls (p = 0.002) but there was no temporal change in the myocardial flow reserve in participants with type 2 diabetes: mean change: -0.22 (95% CI: -0.47 to 0.02) nor in controls: -0.12 (-0.49 to 0.25) or when comparing type 2 diabetes to controls: mean difference: -0.10 (95% CI: -0.52 to 0.31). The temporal reduction in stress-induced myocardial blood flow did not differ within the groups but was more pronounced in type 2 diabetes compared to controls: mean difference: -0.30 (95% CI: -0.55 to -0.04). CONCLUSION: The myocardial microvascular function was impaired in persons with type 2 diabetes compared to controls but did not change significantly in either of the groups when evaluated over 6 years.

17.
Diabetes Care ; 44(2): 595-603, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have compared midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). We compared their value as risk markers for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) and renal complications in individuals with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: MR-proANP and NT-proBNP were measured in 664 individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) were assessed per doubling of NT-proBNP or MR-proANP for risk of a composite of ischemic events, heart failure (HF), a combined renal end point of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30%, and all-cause mortality or individual end points. Adjustments included CV risk factors and addition of MR-proANP or NT-proBNP. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 5.1-6.2 years. MR-proANP was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality (n = 57; HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7), combined CV end point (n = 94; 1.6, 1.1-2.2), HF (n = 27; 2.8, 1.5-5.2), combined renal end point (n = 123; 1.6, 1.2-2.1), and ESKD (n = 21; 3.1, 1.2-7.8) independent of CV risk factors (P ≤ 0.02). After addition of NT-proBNP, significance for all end points was lost. A doubling of NT-proBNP was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.8), the combined CV end point (1.3, 1.1-1.5), HF (1.7, 1.3-2.1), and the combined renal end point (1.3, 1.1-1.4) independent of CV risk factors (model 2 [P < 0.001]) and MR-proANP (model 3 [P ≤ 0.03]). There was no association with decline in eGFR ≥30% (n = 93). CONCLUSIONS: Higher NT-proBNP was independently associated with all-cause mortality, CV disease, HF, and the combined renal end point. MR-proANP was associated with all end points but decline in eGFR, although not independent of NT-proBNP. MR-proANP may contribute to the predictive value of NT-proBNP for risk stratification in type 1 diabetes.

18.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(1): 22-31, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin reduces the risk of kidney failure and heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the effects of dapagliflozin on kidney, cardiovascular, and mortality outcomes according to presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and according to underlying cause of chronic kidney disease, reported as diabetic nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritides, ischaemic or hypertensive chronic kidney disease, or chronic kidney disease of other or unknown cause. METHODS: DAPA-CKD was a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial done at 386 study sites in 21 countries, in which participants with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 200-5000 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25-75 mL/min per 1·73m2 were randomly assigned (1:1) to dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily or matching placebo, as an adjunct to standard care. The primary outcome was a composite of sustained decline in eGFR of at least 50%, end-stage kidney disease, or kidney-related or cardiovascular death. Secondary efficacy outcomes were a kidney-specific composite (the same as the primary outcome but excluding cardiovascular death), a composite of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure, and all-cause mortality. In this study, we conducted a prespecified subgroup analysis of the DAPA-CKD primary and secondary endpoints by presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and by aetiology of chronic kidney disease. DAPA-CKD is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03036150. FINDINGS: The study took place between Feb 2, 2017, and June 12, 2020. 4304 participants were randomly assigned (2152 to dapagliflozin and 2152 to placebo) and were followed up for a median of 2·4 years (IQR 2·0-2·7). Overall, 2906 (68%) participants had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, of whom 396 (14%) had chronic kidney disease ascribed to causes other than diabetic nephropathy. The relative risk reduction for the primary composite outcome with dapagliflozin was consistent in participants with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0·64, 95% CI 0·52-0·79) and those without diabetes (0·50, 0·35-0·72; pinteraction=0·24). Similar findings were seen for the secondary outcomes: kidney-specific composite outcome (0·57 [0·45-0·73] vs 0·51 [0·34-0·75]; Pinteraction=0·57), cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure (0·70 [0·53-0·92] vs 0·79 [0·40-1·55]; Pinteraction=0·78), and all-cause mortality (0·74 [0·56-0·98] vs 0·52 [0·29-0·93]; Pinteraction=0·25). The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome was also consistent among patients with diabetic nephropathy (n=2510; HR 0·63, 95% CI 0·51-0·78), glomerulonephritides (n=695; 0·43, 0·26-0·71), ischaemic or hypertensive chronic kidney disease (n=687; 0·75, 0·44-1·26), and chronic kidney disease of other or unknown cause (n=412; 0·58, 0·29-1·19; Pinteraction=0·53), with similar consistency seen across the secondary outcomes. The proportions of participants in the dapagliflozin and placebo groups who had serious adverse events or discontinued study drug due to adverse events did not vary between those with and those without type 2 diabetes. INTERPRETATION: Dapagliflozin reduces the risks of major adverse kidney and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Falência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Diabetes ; 70(1): 39-50, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355308

RESUMO

In diabetes, increasing albuminuria and decreasing glomerular filtration rate are hallmarks of chronic kidney disease in diabetes and increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events and mortality as well as the risk for end-stage kidney disease. For two decades, standard of care has been controlling risk factors, such as glucose, blood pressure, lipids, and lifestyle factors, and specifically use of agents blocking the renin-angiotensin system. This has improved outcome, but a large unmet need has been obvious. After many failed attempts to advance the therapeutic options, the past few years have provided several new promising treatment options such as sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists, and nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. The benefits and side effects of these agents demonstrate the link between kidney and heart; some have beneficial effects on both, whereas for other potentially renoprotective agents, development of heart failure has been a limiting factor. They work on different pathways such as hemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, and fibrotic targets. We propose that treatment may be personalized if biomarkers or physiological investigations assessing activity in these pathways are applied. This could potentially pave the way for precision medicine, where treatment is optimized for maximal benefit and minimal adverse outcomes. At least it may help prioritizing agents for an individual subject.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Distinções e Prêmios , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Prognóstico
20.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301877

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: GFR estimation based on creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys) is more accurate than eGFR based on either creatinine or cystatin C alone (eGFRcr or eGFRcys), but the inclusion of creatinine in eGFRcr-cys requires specification of a person's race. Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) and beta-trace protein (BTP) are alternative filtration markers that appear to be less influenced by race than creatinine. STUDY DESIGN: Study of diagnostic test accuracy. SETTING: and Participants: Development in pooled population of seven studies with 5017 participants with and without chronic kidney disease. External validation in a pooled population of seven other studies with 2245 participants. TESTS COMPARED: Panel eGFR using B2M and BTP in addition to cystatin C (three-marker panel) or creatinine and cystatin C (four-marker panel) with and without age and sex or race. OUTCOMES: GFR measured as the urinary clearance of iothalamate, plasma clearance of iohexol, or plasma clearance of Cr-EDTA RESULTS: Mean measured GFR was 58.1 and 83.2 ml/min/1.73m2 and the proportion of blacks was 38.6% and 24.0%, in the development and validation populations, respectively. In development, addition of age and sex improved the performance of all equations compared to equations without age and sex, but addition of race did not further improve the performance. In validation, the four-marker panels were more accurate than the three-marker panels (p<0.001). The three-marker panel without race was more accurate than eGFRcys [1- P30 of 15.6 vs 17.4% (p=0.014)], and the four-marker panel without race was as accurate as eGFRcr-cys [1- P30 of 8.6 vs 9.4% (p=0.17)]. Results were generally consistent across subgroups. LIMITATIONS: No representation of participants with severe comorbid illness and from geographic areas outside of North America and Europe. CONCLUSIONS: The four-marker panel eGFR is as accurate as eGFRcr-cys, without requiring specification of race. A more accurate race-free eGFR could be an important advance.

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