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1.
Sci Immunol ; 5(43)2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901073

RESUMO

During industrialization, humans have been exposed to increasing numbers of foreign chemicals. Failure of the immune system to tolerate drugs, cosmetics, and other skin products causes allergic contact dermatitis, a T cell-mediated disease with rising prevalence. Models of αß T cell response emphasize T cell receptor (TCR) contact with peptide-MHC complexes, but this model cannot readily explain activation by most contact dermatitis allergens, which are nonpeptidic molecules. We tested whether CD1a, an abundant MHC I-like protein in human skin, mediates contact allergen recognition. Using CD1a-autoreactive human αß T cell clones to screen clinically important allergens present in skin patch testing kits, we identified responses to balsam of Peru, a tree oil widely used in cosmetics and toothpaste. Additional purification identified benzyl benzoate and benzyl cinnamate as antigenic compounds within balsam of Peru. Screening of structurally related compounds revealed additional stimulants of CD1a-restricted T cells, including farnesol and coenzyme Q2. Certain general chemical features controlled response: small size, extreme hydrophobicity, and chemical constraint from rings and unsaturations. Unlike lipid antigens that protrude to form epitopes and contact TCRs, the small size of farnesol allows sequestration deeply within CD1a, where it displaces self-lipids and unmasks the CD1a surface. These studies identify molecular connections between CD1a and hypersensitivity to consumer products, defining a mechanism that could plausibly explain the many known T cell responses to oily substances.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(6): 3063-3073, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974305

RESUMO

The highly homologous human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 molecules, HLA-DQ2.5 and HLA-DQ2.2, are implicated in the pathogenesis of celiac disease (CeD) by presenting gluten peptides to CD4+ T cells. However, while HLA-DQ2.5 is strongly associated with disease, HLA-DQ2.2 is not, and the molecular basis underpinning this differential disease association is unresolved. We here provide structural evidence for how the single polymorphic residue (HLA-DQ2.5-Tyr22α and HLA-DQ2.2-Phe22α) accounts for HLA-DQ2.2 additionally requiring gluten epitopes possessing a serine at the P3 position of the peptide. In marked contrast to the biased T cell receptor (TCR) usage associated with HLA-DQ2.5-mediated CeD, we demonstrate with extensive single-cell sequencing that a diverse TCR repertoire enables recognition of the immunodominant HLA-DQ2.2-glut-L1 epitope. The crystal structure of two CeD patient-derived TCR in complex with HLA-DQ2.2 and DQ2.2-glut-L1 (PFSEQEQPV) revealed a docking strategy, and associated interatomic contacts, which was notably distinct from the structures of the TCR:HLA-DQ2.5:gliadin epitope complexes. Accordingly, while the molecular surfaces of the antigen-binding clefts of HLA-DQ2.5 and HLA-DQ2.2 are very similar, differences in the nature of the peptides presented translates to differences in responding T cell repertoires and the nature of engagement of the respective antigen-presenting molecules, which ultimately is associated with differing disease penetrance.

3.
J Immunol ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988181

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are important for immune responses against microbial infections. Although known to undergo marked numerical changes with age in humans, our understanding of how MAIT cells are altered during different phases across the human life span is largely unknown. Although also abundant in the tissues, our study focuses on MAIT cell analyses in blood. Across the human life span, we show that naive-like MAIT cells in umbilical cord blood switch to a central/effector memory-like profile that is sustained into older age. Whereas low-grade levels of plasma cytokine/chemokine were apparent in older donors (>65 y old), surprisingly, they did not correlate with the ex vivo MAIT hyperinflammatory cytokine profile observed in older adults. Removal of MAIT cells from older individuals and an aged environment resulted in the reversal of the baseline effector molecule profile comparable with MAIT cells from younger adults. An upregulated basal inflammatory profile accounted for reduced Escherichia coli-specific responses in aged MAIT cells compared with their young adult counterparts when fold change in expression levels of GzmB, CD107a, IFN-γ, and TNF was examined. However, the magnitude of antimicrobial MR1-dependent activation remained as potent and polyfunctional as with younger adults. Paired TCRαß analyses of MAIT cells revealed large clonal expansions in older adults and tissues that rivalled, remarkably, the TCRαß repertoire diversity of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. These data suggest that MAIT cells in older individuals, although associated with large clonal TCRαß expansions and increased baseline inflammatory potential, demonstrate plasticity and provide potent antimicrobial immunity.

4.
Nat Immunol ; 21(2): 178-185, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959982

RESUMO

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-independent, T cell-mediated targeting of cancer cells would allow immune destruction of malignancies in all individuals. Here, we use genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening to establish that a T cell receptor (TCR) recognized and killed most human cancer types via the monomorphic MHC class I-related protein, MR1, while remaining inert to noncancerous cells. Unlike mucosal-associated invariant T cells, recognition of target cells by the TCR was independent of bacterial loading. Furthermore, concentration-dependent addition of vitamin B-related metabolite ligands of MR1 reduced TCR recognition of cancer cells, suggesting that recognition occurred via sensing of the cancer metabolome. An MR1-restricted T cell clone mediated in vivo regression of leukemia and conferred enhanced survival of NSG mice. TCR transfer to T cells of patients enabled killing of autologous and nonautologous melanoma. These findings offer opportunities for HLA-independent, pan-cancer, pan-population immunotherapies.

5.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(2): 113-127, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666730

RESUMO

The coordinated activities of innate and adaptive immunity are critical for effective protection against viruses. To counter this, some viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to circumvent immune cell recognition. In particular, cytomegaloviruses encode large arsenals of molecules that seek to subvert T cell and natural killer cell function via a remarkable array of mechanisms. Consequently, these 'immunoevasins' play a fundamental role in shaping the nature of the immune system by driving the evolution of new immune receptors and recognition mechanisms. Here, we review the diverse strategies adopted by cytomegaloviruses to target immune pathways and outline the host's response.

6.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(1): 49-61, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873306

RESUMO

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus is strongly associated with T cell-mediated autoimmune disorders. HLA-DQ2.5-mediated celiac disease (CeD) is triggered by the ingestion of gluten, although the relative roles of genetic and environmental risk factors in CeD is unclear. Here we identify microbially derived mimics of gliadin epitopes and a parental bacterial protein that is naturally processed by antigen-presenting cells and activated gliadin reactive HLA-DQ2.5-restricted T cells derived from CeD patients. Crystal structures of T cell receptors in complex with HLA-DQ2.5 bound to two distinct bacterial peptides demonstrate that molecular mimicry underpins cross-reactivity toward the gliadin epitopes. Accordingly, gliadin reactive T cells involved in CeD pathogenesis cross-react with ubiquitous bacterial peptides, thereby suggesting microbial exposure as a potential environmental factor in CeD.

7.
Science ; 366(6472): 1522-1527, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857486

RESUMO

T cell receptors (TCRs) recognize antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-like molecules. We describe a diverse population of human γδ T cells isolated from peripheral blood and tissues that exhibit autoreactivity to the monomorphic MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). The crystal structure of a γδTCR-MR1-antigen complex starkly contrasts with all other TCR-MHC and TCR-MHC-I-like complex structures. Namely, the γδTCR binds underneath the MR1 antigen-binding cleft, where contacts are dominated by the MR1 α3 domain. A similar pattern of reactivity was observed for diverse MR1-restricted γδTCRs from multiple individuals. Accordingly, we simultaneously report MR1 as a ligand for human γδ T cells and redefine the parameters for TCR recognition.

8.
Cell Rep ; 29(13): 4245-4255.e6, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875536

RESUMO

To reduce the use of non-specific immunosuppressive drugs detrimental to transplant patient health, therapies in development aim to achieve antigen-specific tolerance by promoting antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, identification of the natural antigens recognized by Tregs and the contribution of their dominance in transplantation has been challenging. We identify epitopes derived from distinct major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, sharing a 7-amino acid consensus sequence positioned in a central mobile section in complex with MHC class I, recognized by cross-reactive CD8+ Tregs, enriched in the graft. Antigen-specific CD8+ Tregs can be induced in vivo with a 16-amino acid-long peptide to trigger transplant tolerance. Peptides derived from human HLA class II molecules, harboring the rat consensus sequence, also activate and expand human CD8+ Tregs, suggesting its potential in human transplantation. Altogether, this work should facilitate the development of therapies with peptide epitopes for transplantation and improve our understanding of CD8+ Treg recognition.

9.
Curr Protoc Immunol ; 127(1): e89, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763782

RESUMO

This unit describes the utility of various mouse models of infection and immunization for studying mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cell immunity: MAIT cells can be isolated from the lungs (or from other tissues/organs) and then identified and characterized by flow cytometry using MR1 tetramers in combination with a range of antibodies. The response kinetics, cytokine profiles, and functional differentiation of lung MAIT cells are studied following infection with the bacterial pathogen Legionella longbeachae or Salmonella enterica Typhimurium or immunization with synthetic MAIT cell antigen plus Toll-like receptor agonist. MAIT cells enriched or expanded during the process can be used for further studies. A step-by-step protocol is provided for MAIT cell sorting and adoptive transfer. Mice can then be challenged and MAIT cells tracked and further examined. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10.
Curr Protoc Immunol ; 127(1): e90, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763790

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a subset of unconventional T cells restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). MAIT cells are found throughout the body, especially in human blood and liver. Unlike conventional T cells, which are stimulated by peptide antigens presented by MHC molecules, MAIT cells recognize metabolite antigens derived from an intermediate in the microbial biosynthesis of riboflavin. MAIT cells mediate protective immunity to infections by riboflavin-producing microbes via the production of cytokines and cytotoxicity. The discovery of stimulating MAIT cell antigens allowed for the development of an analytical tool, the MR1 tetramer, that binds specifically to the MAIT T cell receptor (TCR) and is becoming the gold standard for identification of MAIT cells by flow cytometry. This article describes protocols to characterize the phenotype of human MAIT cells in blood and tissues by flow cytometry using fluorescently labeled human MR1 tetramers alongside antibodies specific for MAIT cell markers. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The main protocols include: Basic Protocol 1: Determining the frequency and steady-state surface phenotype of human MAIT cells Basic Protocol 2: Determining the activation phenotype of human MAIT cells in blood Basic Protocol 3: Characterizing MAIT cell TCRs using TCR-positive reporter cell lines Alternate protocols are provided for determining the absolute number, transcription factor phenotype, and TCR usage of human MAIT cells; and determining activation phenotype by staining for intracellular markers, measuring secreted cytokines, and measuring fluorescent dye dilution due to proliferation. Additional methods are provided for determining the capacity of MAIT cells to produce cytokine independently of antigen using plate-bound or bead-immobilized CD3/CD28 stimulation; and determining the MR1-Ag dependence of MAIT cell activation using MR1-blocking antibody or competitive inhibition. For TCR-positive reporter cell lines, methods are also provided for evaluating the MAIT TCR-mediated MR1-Ag response, determining the capacity of the reporter lines to produce cytokine independently of antigen, determining the MR1-Ag dependence of the reporter lines, and evaluating the MR1-Ag response of the reporter lines using IL-2 secretion. Support Protocols describe the preparation of PBMCs from human blood, the preparation of single-cell suspensions from tissue, the isolation of MAIT cells by FACS and MACS, cloning MAIT TCRα and ß chain genes and MR1 genes for transduction, generating stably and transiently transfected cells lines, generating a stable MR1 knockout antigen-presenting cell line, and generating monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5242, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748533

RESUMO

Type I and type II natural killer T (NKT) cells are restricted to the lipid antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. While we have an understanding of the antigen reactivity and function of type I NKT cells, our knowledge of type II NKT cells in health and disease remains unclear. Here we describe a population of type II NKT cells that recognise and respond to the microbial antigen, α-glucuronosyl-diacylglycerol (α-GlcADAG) presented by CD1d, but not the prototypical type I NKT cell agonist, α-galactosylceramide. Surprisingly, the crystal structure of a type II NKT TCR-CD1d-α-GlcADAG complex reveals a CD1d F'-pocket-docking mode that contrasts sharply with the previously determined A'-roof positioning of a sulfatide-reactive type II NKT TCR. Our data also suggest that diverse type II NKT TCRs directed against distinct microbial or mammalian lipid antigens adopt multiple recognition strategies on CD1d, thereby maximising the potential for type II NKT cells to detect different lipid antigens.

12.
Sci Immunol ; 4(41)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732518

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are activated in a TCR-dependent manner by antigens derived from the riboflavin synthesis pathway, including 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-OP-RU), bound to MHC-related protein-1 (MR1). However, MAIT cell activation in vivo has not been studied in detail. Here, we have found and characterized additional molecular signals required for optimal activation and expansion of MAIT cells after pulmonary Legionella or Salmonella infection in mice. We show that either bone marrow-derived APCs or non-bone marrow-derived cells can activate MAIT cells in vivo, depending on the pathogen. Optimal MAIT cell activation in vivo requires signaling through the inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS), which is highly expressed on MAIT cells. Subsequent expansion and maintenance of MAIT-17/1-type responses are dependent on IL-23. Vaccination with IL-23 plus 5-OP-RU augments MAIT cell-mediated control of pulmonary Legionella infection. These findings reveal cellular and molecular targets for manipulating MAIT cell function under physiological conditions.

13.
J Biol Chem ; 294(52): 20185-20195, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740583

RESUMO

Expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is strongly associated with predisposition toward ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and other spondyloarthropathies. However, the exact involvement of HLA-B27 in disease initiation and progression remains unclear. The homodimer theory, which proposes that HLA-B27 heavy chains aberrantly form homodimers, is a central hypothesis that attempts to explain the role of HLA-B27 in disease pathogenesis. Here, we examined the ability of the eight most prevalent HLA-B27 allotypes (HLA-B*27:02 to HLA-B*27:09) to form homodimers. We observed that HLA-B*27:03, a disease-associated HLA-B27 subtype, showed a significantly reduced ability to form homodimers compared with all other allotypes, including the non-disease-associated/protective allotypes HLA-B*27:06 and HLA-B*27:09. We used X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis to unravel the molecular and structural mechanisms in HLA-B*27:03 that are responsible for its compromised ability to form homodimers. We show that polymorphism at position 59, which differentiates HLA-B*27:03 from all other allotypes, is responsible for its compromised ability to form homodimers. Indeed, histidine 59 in HLA-B*27:03 leads to a series of local conformational changes that act in concert to reduce the accessibility of the nearby cysteine 67, an essential amino acid residue for the formation of HLA-B27 homodimers. Considered together, the ability of both protective and disease-associated HLA-B27 allotypes to form homodimers and the failure of HLA-B*27:03 to form homodimers challenge the role of HLA-B27 homodimers in AS pathoetiology. Rather, this work implicates other features, such as peptide binding and antigen presentation, as pivotal mechanisms for disease pathogenesis.

14.
J Immunol ; 203(12): 3395-3406, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694911

RESUMO

High-throughput TCR sequencing allows interrogation of the human TCR repertoire, potentially connecting TCR sequences to antigenic targets. Unlike the highly polymorphic MHC proteins, monomorphic Ag-presenting molecules such as MR1, CD1d, and CD1b present Ags to T cells with species-wide TCR motifs. CD1b tetramer studies and a survey of the 27 published CD1b-restricted TCRs demonstrated a TCR motif in humans defined by the TCR ß-chain variable gene 4-1 (TRBV4-1) region. Unexpectedly, TRBV4-1 was involved in recognition of CD1b regardless of the chemical class of the carried lipid. Crystal structures of two CD1b-specific TRBV4-1+ TCRs show that germline-encoded residues in CDR1 and CDR3 regions of TRBV4-1-encoded sequences interact with each other and consolidate the surface of the TCR. Mutational studies identified a key positively charged residue in TRBV4-1 and a key negatively charged residue in CD1b that is shared with CD1c, which is also recognized by TRBV4-1 TCRs. These data show that one TCR V region can mediate a mechanism of recognition of two related monomorphic Ag-presenting molecules that does not rely on a defined lipid Ag.

15.
JCI Insight ; 4(18)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487265

RESUMO

Autoimmune diseases resulting from MHC class II-restricted autoantigen-specific T cell immunity include the systemic inflammatory autoimmune conditions rheumatoid arthritis and vasculitis. While currently treated with broad-acting immunosuppressive drugs, a preferable strategy is to regulate antigen-specific effector T cells (Teffs) to restore tolerance by exploiting DC antigen presentation. We targeted draining lymph node (dLN) phagocytic DCs using liposomes encapsulating 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and antigenic peptide to elucidate mechanisms of tolerance used by DCs and responding T cells under resting and immunized conditions. PD-L1 expression was upregulated in dLNs of immunized relative to naive mice. Subcutaneous administration of liposomes encapsulating OVA323-339 and calcitriol targeted dLN PD-L1hi DCs of immunized mice and reduced their MHC class II expression. OVA323-339/calcitriol liposomes suppressed expansion, differentiation, and function of Teffs and induced Foxp3+ and IL-10+ peripheral Tregs in an antigen-specific manner, which was dependent on PD-L1. Peptide/calcitriol liposomes modulated CD40 expression by human DCs and promoted Treg induction in vitro. Liposomes encapsulating calcitriol and disease-associated peptides suppressed the severity of rheumatoid arthritis and Goodpasture's vasculitis models with suppression of antigen-specific memory T cell differentiation and function. Accordingly, peptide/calcitriol liposomes leverage DC PD-L1 for antigen-specific T cell regulation and induce antigen-specific tolerance in inflammatory autoimmune diseases.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3392, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358739

RESUMO

Autoreactivity to myeloperoxidase (MPO) causes anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Here, we show that a Staphylococcus aureus peptide, homologous to an immunodominant MPO T-cell epitope (MPO409-428), can induce anti-MPO autoimmunity. The peptide (6PGD391-410) is part of a plasmid-encoded 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase found in some S. aureus strains. It induces anti-MPO T-cell autoimmunity and MPO-ANCA in mice, whereas related sequences do not. Mice immunized with 6PGD391-410, or with S. aureus containing a plasmid expressing 6PGD391-410, develop glomerulonephritis when MPO is deposited in glomeruli. The peptide induces anti-MPO autoreactivity in the context of three MHC class II allomorphs. Furthermore, we show that 6PGD391-410 is immunogenic in humans, as healthy human and AAV patient sera contain anti-6PGD and anti-6PGD391-410 antibodies. Therefore, our results support the idea that bacterial plasmids might have a function in autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Complexo Antigênico da Nefrite de Heymann/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Peroxidase/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite/imunologia , Complexo Antigênico da Nefrite de Heymann/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Peptídeos/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
17.
Nat Immunol ; 20(9): 1129-1137, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358998

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells can recognize virus-infected and stressed cells1 using activating and inhibitory receptors, many of which interact with HLA class I. Although early studies also suggested a functional impact of HLA class II on NK cell activity2,3, the NK cell receptors that specifically recognize HLA class II molecules have never been identified. We investigated whether two major families of NK cell receptors, killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), contained receptors that bound to HLA class II, and identified a direct interaction between the NK cell receptor NKp44 and a subset of HLA-DP molecules, including HLA-DP401, one of the most frequent class II allotypes in white populations4. Using NKp44ζ+ reporter cells and primary human NKp44+ NK cells, we demonstrated that interactions between NKp44 and HLA-DP401 trigger functional NK cell responses. This interaction between a subset of HLA-DP molecules and NKp44 implicates HLA class II as a component of the innate immune response, much like HLA class I. It also provides a potential mechanism for the described associations between HLA-DP subtypes and several disease outcomes, including hepatitis B virus infection5-7, graft-versus-host disease8 and inflammatory bowel disease9,10.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA-DP/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Receptor 2 Desencadeador da Citotoxicidade Natural/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Células Jurkat
18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1158, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191533

RESUMO

Manipulation of the MHC-I presentation pathway, and thus limiting MHC-I cell surface expression, is used by many viruses to evade immune recognition. In particular, downregulation of MHC-I molecules at the cell surface can reduce the ability of CD8+ T cells to recognize viral peptides presented by MHC-I molecules and thereby delay viral clearance by CD8+ T cells. To date, MHC-I downregulation by influenza viruses has not been reported. Given that influenza virus infections are a global health concern and that CD8+ T cells play an important role in promoting influenza virus clearance and recovery from influenza disease, we investigated whether influenza A and B viruses (IAV, IBV) downregulated MHC-I as a novel mechanism to evade cellular immunity. Here, we showed that infection of several cell types, including epithelial A549 cells, with a panel of IAV and IBV viruses downregulated the surface MHC-I expression on IAV/IBV-infected cells during the late stages of influenza virus infection in vitro. This observation was consistent across a panel of class I-reduced (C1R) cell lines expressing 14 different HLA-A or -B alleles and a panel of 721.221 cell lines expressing 11 HLA-C alleles. Interestingly, IBV infection caused more pronounced reduction in surface MHC-I expression compared to IAV. Importantly, the two viruses utilized two distinct mechanisms for MHC-I downregulation. Our data demonstrated that while IAV caused a global loss of MHC-I within influenza-infected cells, IBV infection resulted in the preferential loss of MHC-I molecules from the cell surface, consequent of delayed MHC-I trafficking to the cell surface, resulting from retaining MHC-I intracellularly during IBV infection. Overall, our study suggests that influenza viruses across both IAV and IBV subtypes have the potential to downregulate MHC-I surface expression levels. Our findings provide new insights into the host-pathogen interaction of influenza A and B viruses and inform the design of novel vaccine strategies against influenza viruses.

19.
J Biol Chem ; 294(33): 12534-12546, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253644

RESUMO

Nectin and nectin-like (Necl) adhesion molecules are broadly overexpressed in a wide range of cancers. By binding to these adhesion molecules, the immunoreceptors DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1), CD96 molecule (CD96), and T-cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT) play a crucial role in regulating the anticancer activities of immune effector cells. However, within this axis, it remains unclear how DNAM-1 recognizes its cognate ligands. Here, we determined the structure of human DNAM-1 in complex with nectin-like protein-5 (Necl-5) at 2.8 Å resolution. Unexpectedly, we found that the two extracellular domains (D1-D2) of DNAM-1 adopt an unconventional "collapsed" arrangement that is markedly distinct from those in other immunoglobulin-based immunoreceptors. The DNAM-1/Necl-5 interaction was underpinned by conserved lock-and-key motifs located within their respective D1 domains, but also included a distinct interface derived from DNAM-1 D2. Mutation of the signature DNAM-1 "key" motif within the D1 domain attenuated Necl-5 binding and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Altogether, our results have implications for understanding the binding mode of an immune receptor family that is emerging as a viable candidate for cancer immunotherapy.

20.
Brief Bioinform ; 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204427

RESUMO

Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) molecules are encoded by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I loci in humans. The binding and interaction between HLA-I molecules and intracellular peptides derived from a variety of proteolytic mechanisms play a crucial role in subsequent T-cell recognition of target cells and the specificity of the immune response. In this context, tools that predict the likelihood for a peptide to bind to specific HLA class I allotypes are important for selecting the most promising antigenic targets for immunotherapy. In this article, we comprehensively review a variety of currently available tools for predicting the binding of peptides to a selection of HLA-I allomorphs. Specifically, we compare their calculation methods for the prediction score, employed algorithms, evaluation strategies and software functionalities. In addition, we have evaluated the prediction performance of the reviewed tools based on an independent validation data set, containing 21 101 experimentally verified ligands across 19 HLA-I allotypes. The benchmarking results show that MixMHCpred 2.0.1 achieves the best performance for predicting peptides binding to most of the HLA-I allomorphs studied, while NetMHCpan 4.0 and NetMHCcons 1.1 outperform the other machine learning-based and consensus-based tools, respectively. Importantly, it should be noted that a peptide predicted with a higher binding score for a specific HLA allotype does not necessarily imply it will be immunogenic. That said, peptide-binding predictors are still very useful in that they can help to significantly reduce the large number of epitope candidates that need to be experimentally verified. Several other factors, including susceptibility to proteasome cleavage, peptide transport into the endoplasmic reticulum and T-cell receptor repertoire, also contribute to the immunogenicity of peptide antigens, and some of them can be considered by some predictors. Therefore, integrating features derived from these additional factors together with HLA-binding properties by using machine-learning algorithms may increase the prediction accuracy of immunogenic peptides. As such, we anticipate that this review and benchmarking survey will assist researchers in selecting appropriate prediction tools that best suit their purposes and provide useful guidelines for the development of improved antigen predictors in the future.

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