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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701114

RESUMO

This paper examines the thermodynamics of PtO2 stripes formed as intermediates of Pt(111) surface oxidation as a function of the degree of dilation parallel to the stripes, using density functional theory and atomistic thermodynamics. Internal energy calculations predict 7/8 and 8/9 stripe structures to dominate at standard temperature and pressure, which contain 7 or 8 elevated PtO2 units per 8 or 9 supporting surface Pt atoms, respectively. Moreover, we found a thermodynamic optimum with respect to mean in-stripe Pt-Pt spacing close to that of α-PtO2. Vibrational zero point energies, including bulk layer contributions, make a small but significant contribution to the stripe free energies, leading to the 6/7 stripe being most stable, although the 7/8 structure is still close in free energy. These findings correspond closely to experimental observations, providing insight into the driving force for oxide stripe formation and structure as the initial intermediate of platinum surface oxidation, and aiding our understanding of platinum catalysts and surface roughening under oxidative conditions.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5233, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748552

RESUMO

In homoepitaxial crystal growth, four basic growth morphologies (idealized growth modes) have been established that describe the deposition of atoms on single crystal surfaces: step-flow, layer-by-layer, mound formation, and random/self-affine growth. Mound formation leads to nano-scale surface patterning. However, the formation of (nano)-islands, patterns, and roughness occurs also during ion bombardment, electrochemical etching and oxidation/reduction cycling. Here we show, in analogy to many particle/anti-particle formalisms in physics, the existence of the dualism between individual adatom and single vacancy growth modes. We predict that all standard adatom growth modes do exist also in their counter, vacancy version. For the particular case of mound formation, we derive the theoretical equations and show the inverse similarity of the solution. We furthermore treat simultaneous growth by adatoms and vacancies, and derive the analytical solution of the growth shape evolution of the mounds. Finally, we present an experimental verification, in which both adatom and vacancy mound formation are active. The theoretically predicted mound shape nicely fits the experimental observation.

3.
Nat Mater ; 17(3): 277-282, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434306

RESUMO

Platinum plays a central role in a variety of electrochemical devices and its practical use depends on the prevention of electrode degradation. However, understanding the underlying atomic processes under conditions of repeated oxidation and reduction inducing irreversible surface structure changes has proved challenging. Here, we examine the correlation between the evolution of the electrochemical signal of Pt(111) and its surface roughening by simultaneously performing cyclic voltammetry and in situ electrochemical scanning tunnelling microscopy (EC-STM). We identify a 'nucleation and early growth' regime of nanoisland formation, and a 'late growth' regime after island coalescence, which continues up to at least 170 cycles. The correlation analysis shows that each step site that is created in the 'late growth' regime contributes equally strongly to both the electrochemical and the roughness evolution. In contrast, in the 'nucleation and early growth' regime, created step sites contribute to the roughness, but not to the electrochemical signal.

4.
Ultramicroscopy ; 182: 233-242, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28734230

RESUMO

A combined X-ray and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) instrument is presented that enables the local detection of X-ray absorption on surfaces in a gas environment. To suppress the collection of ion currents generated in the gas phase, coaxially shielded STM tips were used. The conductive outer shield of the coaxial tips can be biased to deflect ions away from the tip core. When tunneling, the X-ray-induced current is separated from the regular, 'topographic' tunneling current using a novel high-speed separation scheme. We demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument by measuring the local X-ray-induced current on Au(1 1 1) in 800 mbar Ar.

5.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10733, 2016 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26888311

RESUMO

Vapour deposition on polycrystalline films can lead to extremely high levels of compressive stress, exceeding even the yield strength of the films. A significant part of this stress has a reversible nature: it disappears when the deposition is stopped and re-emerges on resumption. Although the debate on the underlying mechanism still continues, insertion of atoms into grain boundaries seems to be the most likely one. However, the required driving force has not been identified. To address the problem we analyse, here, the entire film system using thermodynamic arguments. We find that the observed, tremendous stress levels can be explained by the flux-induced entropic effects in the extremely dilute adatom gas on the surface. Our analysis justifies any adatom incorporation model, as it delivers the underlying thermodynamic driving force. Counterintuitively, we also show that the stress levels decrease, if the barrier(s) for adatoms to reach the grain boundaries are decreased.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 52(9): 2454-8, 2013 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23345172

RESUMO

Under the microscope: In situ, video-rate scanning-tunneling-microscopy imaging during Cu electrodeposition reveals a profound structural accelerating effect of Cl(-) on the deposition process. This effect could be present in systems with different metals and different additives. The structural accelerating effect is important for the fundamental understanding of electrodeposition phenomena and for applications in industry.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(35): 16095-103, 2011 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21811734

RESUMO

Bis(3-sulfopropyl)disulfide (SPS) is a common additive in commercial copper electroplating baths. We have studied the influence of SPS on Cu underpotential deposition (UPD) on a Au(111) single crystal surface by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM). By combining our results with the results from the literature we propose a model that describes different stages of Cu UPD in the presence of SPS. Further analysis shows that our model is also applicable to a more general case of UPD of different metals, e.g. Cu and Ag, on a thiol-modified single-crystal surface, where the bond between the substrate and the thiol is adatom mediated. In addition, we have verified our model by in situ observation of the lifting of the Herringbone reconstruction on the Au(111) surface by Cu UPD.

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