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1.
J Neurol ; 266(9): 2129-2136, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the anti-sense oligonucleotide drug nusinersen was approved for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and our aim was to find a response marker for this treatment. METHODS: Twelve children with SMA type 1 and two copies of the SMN2 gene were included in a consecutive single-center study. The children were sampled for CSF at baseline and every time nusinersen was given intrathecally. The neuronal biomarkers NFL and tau and the glial biomarker GFAP were measured. Motor function was assessed using CHOP INTEND. Eleven similarly aged children, who were investigated to rule out neurological or infectious disease, were used as controls. RESULTS: Baseline levels of NFL (4598 ± 981 vs 148 ± 39, P = 0.001), tau (939 ± 159 vs 404 ± 86, P = 0.02), and GFAP (236 ± 44 vs 108 ± 26, P = 0.02) were significantly higher in SMA children than controls. Motor function improved by nusinersen treatment in median 13 points corresponding to 5.4 points per month of treatment (P = 0.001). NFL levels typically normalized ( < 380 pg/ml) between the fourth and fifth doses [- 879.5 pg/mL/dose, 95% CI (- 1243.4, - 415.6), P = 0.0001], tau levels decreased [- 112.6 pg/mL/dose, 95% CI (- 206-7, - 18.6), P = 0.01], and minor decreases in GFAP were observed [- 16.9 pg/mL/dose, 95% CI (- 22.8, - 11.2), P = 0.02] by nusinersen treatment. Improvement in motor function correlated with reduced concentrations of NFL (rho = - 0.64, P = 0.03) and tau (rho = - 0.85, P = 0.0008) but not GFAP. CONCLUSIONS: Nusinersen normalized the axonal damage marker NFL and correlated with motor improvement in children with SMA. NFL may, therefore, be a novel biomarker to monitor treatment response early in the disease course.

2.
Neurology ; 92(22): e2538-e2549, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The impetus for this consensus discussion was to recommend clinical trial designs that can deliver high-quality data for effective therapies for pediatric patients, in a reasonable timeframe, with a key focus on short- and long-term safety. METHODS: The International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group convened a meeting of experts to review the advances in the understanding of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) and the advent of clinical trials for this population. RESULTS: In the last few years, convincing evidence has emerged that the biological processes involved in MS are largely shared across the age span. As such, treatments proven efficacious for the care of adults with MS have a biological rationale for use in pediatric MS given the relapsing-remitting course at onset and high relapse frequency. There are also ethical considerations on conducting clinical trials in this age group including the use of placebo owing to highly active disease. It is imperative to reconsider study design and implementation based on what information is needed. Are studies needed for efficacy or should safety be the primary goal? Further, there have been major recruitment challenges in recently completed and ongoing pediatric MS trials. Phase 3 trials for every newly approved therapy for adult MS in the pediatric MS population are simply not feasible. CONCLUSIONS: A primary goal is to ensure high-quality evidence-based treatment for children and adolescents with MS, which will improve our understanding of the safety of these agents and remove regulatory or insurance-based limitations in access to treatment.

3.
Mult Scler ; 25(7): 927-936, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paediatric multiple sclerosis (pedMS) patients at a single site were shown to have reduced brain volumes and failure of age-expected brain growth compared to healthy controls. However, the precise time of onset of brain volume loss remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To longitudinally study brain volumes in a multi-centre European cohort at first presentation and after 2 years. METHODS: Brain volumes of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 37 pedMS patients at first presentation prior to steroid therapy and at 2-year follow-up ( n = 21) were compared to matched longitudinal MRI data from the NIH Paediatric MRI Data Repository. RESULTS: Patients showed significantly reduced whole brain, grey and white matter and increased ventricular volumes at initial presentation and at follow-up compared to controls. Over 2 years, patients exhibited significant reduction of whole brain and white matter volumes, accompanied by increased ventricular volume. Brain volume loss at follow-up correlated with a higher number of infratentorial lesions, relapses and an increased Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. CONCLUSIONS: In pedMS patients, brain volume loss is present already at first clinical presentation and accelerated over 2 years. Increased disease activity is associated with more severe brain volume loss. MRI brain volume change might serve as an outcome parameter in future prospective pedMS studies.

4.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389421

RESUMO

Regenerative processes that counteract perifascicular muscle atrophy and capillary loss in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) are not well characterized. We aimed to analyze the pattern of myo-regeneration in relation to vascular damage and repair in muscle specimens from JDM patients. Myogenic regulatory factors that are sequentially expressed during myogenesis were studied by immunohistochemistry. Capillary density, numbers of CD34+ endothelial progenitor cells within the endomysium and molecules implicated in angiogenesis were evaluated by double-immunofluorescence techniques. Myogenic regulatory factors were significantly up-regulated in JDM muscle exhibiting a different pattern in early and advanced lesions. In early lesions Pax7+ satellite cells and both MyoD+ and Myogenin+ myogenic cells were moderately increased. In lesions with advanced perifascicular atrophy Pax7+ satellite cells were numerous, but absence of MyoD+ in the context of increased Myogenin+ expression suggested a dysregulation of the myogenic regenerative pathway. The overall capillary density in JDM was decreased, but regions of capillary loss in advanced lesions alternated with focal increase of hyperplastic endothelial cells in early lesions. Up-regulation of endoglin in hyperplastic endothelial cells in conjunction with overexpression of TGF-ß1 and VEGF suggested activation of neovascularization. Conversely, CD34+ endothelial progenitor cells were not increased arguing against relevant contribution to vascular repair. Our results demonstrate substantial induction of myogenesis in JDM. While the early phase of myogenesis appears to be associated with endothelial cell activation, an altered expression of MRFs in perifascicular regions with capillary depletion suggests an impairment of myogenic differentiation that may contribute to perifascicular muscle fiber atrophy in JDM.

5.
N Engl J Med ; 379(11): 1017-1027, 2018 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of patients younger than 18 years of age with multiple sclerosis has not been adequately examined in randomized trials. We compared fingolimod with interferon beta-1a in this population. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients 10 to 17 years of age with relapsing multiple sclerosis in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral fingolimod at a dose of 0.5 mg per day (0.25 mg per day for patients with a body weight of ≤40 kg) or intramuscular interferon beta-1a at a dose of 30 µg per week for up to 2 years. The primary end point was the annualized relapse rate. RESULTS: Of a total of 215 patients, 107 were assigned to fingolimod and 108 to interferon beta-1a. The mean age of the patients was 15.3 years. Among all patients, there was a mean of 2.4 relapses during the preceding 2 years. The adjusted annualized relapse rate was 0.12 with fingolimod and 0.67 with interferon beta-1a (absolute difference, 0.55 relapses; relative difference, 82%; P<0.001). The key secondary end point of the annualized rate of new or newly enlarged lesions on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 4.39 with fingolimod and 9.27 with interferon beta-1a (absolute difference, 4.88 lesions; relative difference, 53%; P<0.001). Adverse events, excluding relapses of multiple sclerosis, occurred in 88.8% of patients who received fingolimod and 95.3% of those who received interferon beta-1a. Serious adverse events occurred in 18 patients (16.8%) in the fingolimod group and included seizures (in 4 patients), infection (in 4 patients), and leukopenia (in 2 patients). Serious adverse events occurred in 7 patients (6.5%) in the interferon beta-1a group and included infection (in 2 patients) and supraventricular tachycardia (in 1 patient). CONCLUSIONS: Among pediatric patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis, fingolimod was associated with a lower rate of relapse and less accumulation of lesions on MRI over a 2-year period than interferon beta-1a but was associated with a higher rate of serious adverse events. Longer studies are required to determine the durability and safety of fingolimod in pediatric multiple sclerosis. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; PARADIGMS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01892722 .).


Assuntos
Cloridrato de Fingolimode/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/efeitos adversos , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Infecção/induzido quimicamente , Injeções Intramusculares , Interferon beta/efeitos adversos , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Prevenção Secundária
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) both in children and adults is based on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features according to the McDonald criteria. Little is known about differences in the presentation between pre-pubertal children, adolescents, and adult patients at disease onset. OBJECTIVE: To compare (1) the clinical, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and MRI characteristics, and (2) the diagnostic performance of the 2010 McDonald criteria between pre-pubertal, adolescent, and adult patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the initial brain and spinal cord MRI scans from 11 pre-pubertal children, 46 adolescents, and 56 adults with a CIS. Furthermore, clinical, CSF characteristics, and the performance of the 2010 McDonald criteria were compared. RESULTS: The first inter-attack interval tended to increase with age. With respect to MRI presentation, significantly fewer pre-pubertal children presented with juxtacortical and callosal lesions. We found no significant differences in the fulfillment of the 2010 McDonald criteria between the groups. CONCLUSION: In this retrospective series, subtle differences between children, adolescents, and adults with a CIS were noted. Larger samples are required in order to establish distinct features of the different age groups.

7.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016768

RESUMO

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deletion of the maternally inherited 15q11q13 region, paternal uniparental disomy 15 [upd(15)pat], an imprinting defect of the maternal chromosome region 15q11q13, or a pathogenic mutation of the maternal UBE3A allele. Predisposing factors for upd(15)pat, such as nonhomologous robertsonian translocation involving chromosome 15, have been discussed, but no evidence for this predisposition has been published. In the present study, chromosomal analysis was performed in a child with AS, both parents, and the maternal grandparents. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) was employed on DNA of the index individual, and microsatellite analysis was carried out on DNA of the index individual and his parents. The cytogenetic analysis showed that the mother and maternal grandfather are carriers of a rob(14;15). The index individual has a numerically normal karyotype, but MS-MLPA and microsatellite analyses confirmed the clinical diagnosis of AS and revealed a pattern highly suggestive of isodisomic upd(15)pat. This is the first report of an AS-affected individual with isodisomic upd(15)pat and a numerically normal karyotype that most likely results from a rob(14;15)-associated meiotic error in the maternal germline followed by monosomy 15 rescue in the early embryo.

8.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 155: 313-332, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891069

RESUMO

Immune-mediated cerebellar ataxia (CA) comprises a group of rare diseases that are still incompletely described, and are probably underdiagnosed. Both acute and progressive progressions are possible. Different syndromes have been identified, including CA associated with anti-GAD antibodies, the cerebellar type of Hashimoto encephalopathy, primary autoimmune CA, gluten ataxia, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, and paraneoplastic cerebellar degenerations. Most of these syndromes are associated with autoantibodies targeting neuronal antigens. Additionally, autoimmune CA can be triggered by infections, especially in children, and in rare cases occur in the context of an autoimmune multisystem disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, or Behçet disease. A careful workup is needed to distinguish autoimmune CA from other causes. In adults, a paraneoplastic origin must be ruled out, especially in cases with subacute onset. Neurologic outcome in adults is frequently poor, and optimal therapeutic strategies remain ill defined. The outcome in children is in general good, but children with a poor recovery are on record. The precise pathophysiologic mechanisms even in the presence of detectable autoantibodies are still largely unknown. Further research is needed on both the clinical and mechanistic aspects of immune-mediated CA, and to determine optimal therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Ataxia Cerebelar/complicações , Ataxia Cerebelar/imunologia , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/imunologia
9.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 31(3): 244-248, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29629942

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroimmunological diseases encompass a wide spectrum of diseases in children. Apart from the discovery of autoantibodies affecting primarily grey matter structures and the improved clinical characterization of rare entities such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptor-R- encephalitis, important strides have also been made in autoimmune-mediated white matter diseases, including paediatric multiple sclerosis (pedMS) and other acute demyelinating syndromes (ADS) often associated with antibodies (abs) against myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG). This review will cover findings of recent studies in pedMS, in the emerging field of non-MS acute demyelinating episodes associated with MOG abs and lastly from new imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) revealing new insights in the pathogenesis of ADS in children. RECENT FINDINGS: The first prospective randomized clinical pedMS trial assessing the clinical and radiological efficacy of fingolimod versus a standard disease-modifying agent has shown clear superiority of fingolimod. The clinical spectrum of MOG-associated diseases has been characterized in more detail revealing clinical subtypes distinct from pedMS. A recent large European study further showed that MOG-associated diseases do not respond to first-line disease-modifying treatment (DMT) in MS but fare better with B-cell modulating therapies including regular intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). SUMMARY: Recent findings strongly indicate that in particular in highly active pedMS characterized by new relapses or accrual of new MRI lesions despite first-line DMT treatment should be escalated. Secondly, several studies have shown that MOG-spectrum diseases include children with monophasic and recurrent subtypes other than MS with different clinical, radiological characteristics and treatment challenges.

11.
Ann Neurol ; 83(4): 863-869, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572931

RESUMO

We performed a genome-wide association study in 1,194 controls and 150 patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR, n = 96) or anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated1 (anti-LGI1, n = 54) autoimmune encephalitis. Anti-LGI1 encephalitis was highly associated with 27 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HLA-II region (leading SNP rs2858870 p = 1.22 × 10-17 , OR = 13.66 [7.50-24.87]). Potential associations, below genome-wide significance, were found with rs72961463 close to the doublecortin-like kinase 2 gene (DCLK2) and rs62110161 in a cluster of zinc-finger genes. HLA allele imputation identified association of anti-LGI1 encephalitis with HLA-II haplotypes encompassing DRB1*07:01, DQA1*02:01 and DQB1*02:02 (p < 2.2 × 10-16 ) and anti-NMDAR encephalitis with HLA-I allele B*07:02 (p = 0.039). No shared genetic risk factors between encephalitides were identified. Ann Neurol 2018;83:863-869.

12.
J Neurol ; 265(4): 845-855, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423614

RESUMO

Antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-Ab) can be detected in various pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS). Here, we analyze the spectrum of neuroradiologic findings in children with MOG-Ab and a first demyelinating event. The cerebral and spinal MRI of 69 children with different ADS was assessed in regard to the distribution and characteristics of lesions. Children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 36) or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (n = 5) presented an imaging pattern characterized predominantly by poorly demarcated lesions with a wide supra- and infratentorial distribution. Younger children also tended to have poorly defined and widespread lesions. The majority of patients with an isolated optic neuritis (n = 16) only presented small non-specific brain lesions or none at all. A longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis mainly affecting the cervical, and less often so the thoracic, lumbar, and conus regions, was detected in 31 children. The three children of our cohort who were then finally diagnosed with multiple sclerosis had at onset already demarcated white matter lesions as well as transverse myelitis. In conclusion, children with MOG seropositive ADS present disparate, yet characteristic imaging patterns. These patterns have been seen to correlate to the disease entity as well as to age of symptom onset.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Desmielinizantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Aquaporina 4/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Desmielinizantes/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(4): 478-487, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305608

RESUMO

Importance: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Abs) are consistently identified in a range of demyelinating disorders in adults and children. Current therapeutic strategies are largely center specific, and no treatments have been formally evaluated. Objective: To examine the clinical phenotypes, treatment responses, and outcomes of children with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study prospectively collected demographic, clinical, and radiologic data from 102 patients from 8 countries of the EU Paediatric Demyelinating Disease Consortium from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2016. Patients were treated according to local protocols. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annualized relapse rates (ARRs) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores before and during treatment with disease-modifying drugs (DMDs). Results: A total of 102 children were identified (median [range] age, 7.0 [1.5-7.9] years; male to female ratio, 1.0:1.8; white to other race/ethnicity ratio, 3.6:1.0). Original diagnoses were neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (44 patients [43.1%]), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis followed by optic neuritis (20 [19.6%]), multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (20 [19.6%]), and relapsing optic neuritis (18 [17.6%]). In all, 464 demyelinating events were reported. Treated patients had more relapses (median, 3.0; range, 1.0-17.0) than untreated patients (median, 1.0; range 1.0-7.0) (P = .009) and higher EDSS scores (median, 1.5; interquartile range, 0-2.5) than untreated patients (median, 1.0; interquartile range, 0-1.5) (P < .001). Fifty-two children (51.0%) received DMDs: 28 (53.8%) were treated with 1 DMD, 17 (32.7%) with 2, and 7 (13.5%) with 3 or more sequential DMDs. Patients relapsed during all treatments, with a total of 127 relapses on treatment reported. No changes in median ARR and EDSS score were observed between the preinitiation and postinitiation phases of interferon beta and glatiramer acetate treatment (n = 11). The median ARR was reduced from 1.84 to 1.0 with azathioprine (n = 20, P < .001), 1.79 to 0.52 with mycophenolate mofetil (n = 15, P = .003), and 2.12 to 0.67 with rituximab (n = 9, P < .001), although the median EDSS score remained unchanged. An improvement in ARR (from 2.16 to 0.51, P < .001) and EDSS score (from 2.2 to 1.2, P = .01) was observed in the 12 patients treated with regular intravenous immunoglobulins. Conclusions and Relevance: Although commonly used to treat patients with multiple sclerosis, DMDs were not associated with clinical improvement in children with MOG-Ab-associated disease, whereas azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, and particularly intravenous immunoglobulins were associated with a reduction in relapse frequency. A correct diagnosis of relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disorders is therefore important to optimize immune treatment.

14.
Neuropediatrics ; 49(1): 3-11, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859212

RESUMO

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies (abs) are present in one third of all children with an acute demyelinating syndrome (ADS). MOG-abs can be found in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), transverse myelitis, isolated optic neuritis (ON), or recurrent demyelinating diseases, such as multiphasic neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) without aquaporin-4 (AQP4) abs or multiphasic ADEM (MDEM), but rarely in children who subsequently develop multiple sclerosis (MS). The presence of MOG-abs is age dependent with the highest seropositivity rates found in young children and an episode of ADEM, whereas older children with MOG-abs present with ON, myelitis, or brainstem symptoms. MOG-abs, initially thought to be associated with a benign disease course, are found in a substantial proportion of children with relapsing episodes associated with high and persisting MOG-ab titers. This review describes, in particular, the increasing spectrum of phenotypes associated with MOG-abs with a focus on clinical characteristics, radiological features, and therapeutic aspects.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/sangue , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/terapia , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/imunologia , Humanos
15.
J Neuroinflammation ; 14(1): 208, 2017 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29070051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibodies to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are associated with a subset of inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. However, whether human MOG antibodies are pathogenic or an epiphenomenon is still not completely clear. Although MOG is highly conserved within mammals, previous findings showed that not all human MOG antibodies bind to rodent MOG. We therefore hypothesized that human MOG antibody-mediated pathology in animal models may only be evident using species-specific MOG antibodies. METHODS: We screened 80 human MOG antibody-positive samples for their reactivity to mouse and rat MOG using either a live cell-based assay or immunohistochemistry on murine, rat, and human brain tissue. Selected samples reactive to either human MOG or rodent MOG were subsequently tested for their ability to induce complement-mediated damage in murine organotypic brain slices or enhance demyelination in an experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) model in Lewis rats. The MOG monoclonal antibody 8-18-C5 was used as a positive control. RESULTS: Overall, we found that only a subset of human MOG antibodies are reactive to mouse (48/80, 60%) or rat (14/80, 18%) MOG. Purified serum antibodies from 10 human MOG antibody-positive patients (8/10 reactive to mouse MOG, 6/10 reactive to rat MOG), 3 human MOG-negative patients, and 3 healthy controls were tested on murine organotypic brain slices. Purified IgG from one patient with high titers of anti-human, mouse, and rat MOG antibodies and robust binding to myelin tissue produced significant, complement-mediated myelin loss in organotypic brain slices, but not in the EAE model. Monoclonal 8-18-C5 MOG antibody caused complement-mediated demyelination in both the organotypic brain slice model and in EAE. CONCLUSION: This study shows that a subset of human MOG antibodies can induce complement-dependent pathogenic effects in a murine ex vivo animal model. Moreover, a high titer of species-specific MOG antibodies may be critical for demyelinating effects in mouse and rat animal models. Therefore, both the reactivity and titer of human MOG antibodies must be considered for future pathogenicity studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/metabolismo , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Doenças Desmielinizantes/metabolismo , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Cerebelo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Desmielinizantes/patologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuromielite Óptica/metabolismo , Neuromielite Óptica/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Adulto Jovem
16.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458517732843, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28933245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Study aims were to determine the frequency of highly active disease in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS), the response to natalizumab (NTZ) and fingolimod (FTY) treatment, and the impact of current treatment modalities on the clinical course. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study in the German Center for MS in Childhood and Adolescence. RESULTS: Of 144 patients with first MS manifestation between 2011 and 2015, 41.6% fulfilled the criteria for highly active MS. In total, 55 patients treated with NTZ and 23 with FTY demonstrated a significant reduction in relapse rate (NTZ: 95.2%, FTY: 75%), new T2 lesions (NTZ: 97%, FTY: 81%), and contrast-enhancing lesions (NTZ: 97%, FTY: 93%). However, seven patients switched from NTZ to FTY experienced an increase in disease activity. Comparing pediatric MS patients treated in 2005 with those treated in 2015 showed a 46% reduction in relapse rate and a 44% reduction in mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). CONCLUSION: The rate of highly active disease among pediatric MS patients is high; more than 40% in our cohort. Response to NTZ and FTY treatment is similar if not better than observed in adults. Current treatment modalities including earlier treatment initiation and the introduction of NTZ and FTY have significantly improved the clinical course of pediatric MS.

17.
Neurology ; 89(9): 900-908, 2017 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic value of MOG antibodies (abs) in the differential diagnosis of acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS). METHODS: Clinical course, MRI, MOG-abs, AQP4-abs, and CSF cells and oligoclonal bands (OCB) in children with ADS and 24 months of follow-up were reviewed in this observational prospective multicenter hospital-based study. RESULTS: Two hundred ten children with ADS were included and diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (n = 60), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) (n = 12), clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) (n = 101), and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 37) after the first episode. MOG-abs were predominantly found in ADEM (57%) and less frequently in NMOSD (25%), CIS (25%), or MS (8%). Increased MOG-ab titers were associated with younger age (p = 0.0001), diagnosis of ADEM (p = 0.005), increased CSF cell counts (p = 0.011), and negative OCB (p = 0.012). At 24-month follow-up, 96 children had no further relapses. Thirty-five children developed recurrent non-MS episodes (63% MOG-, 17% AQP4-abs at onset). Seventy-nine children developed MS (4% MOG-abs at onset). Recurrent non-MS episodes were associated with high MOG-ab titers (p = 0.0003) and older age at onset (p = 0.024). MS was predicted by MS-like MRI (p < 0.0001) and OCB (p = 0.007). An MOG-ab cutoff titer ≥1:1,280 predicted a non-MS course with a sensitivity of 47% and a specificity of 100% and a recurrent non-MS course with a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 86%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the presence of MOG-abs strongly depends on the age at disease onset and that high MOG-ab titers were associated with a recurrent non-MS disease course.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/sangue , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Neuromielite Óptica/imunologia , Adolescente , Autoanticorpos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/sangue , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuromielite Óptica/sangue , Neuromielite Óptica/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neuromielite Óptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Bandas Oligoclonais , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Neuropediatrics ; 48(3): 161-165, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301881

RESUMO

Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with idiopathic epilepsy compared with a healthy matched control group. Methods In this study, 107 children conducted a 6-minute walk test, anthropometric parameters were measured, and HRQoL was assessed using a standardized questionnaire (KINDL-R). Children were divided into two groups: (1) the patient group (n = 48) and (2) the healthy control group (n = 59). Results HRQoL of children with focal epilepsy was greater when compared with healthy children and children with generalized epilepsy. A significant association could be demonstrated for the 6-minute walk distance and mental wellbeing in children with epilepsy but not in healthy children. Furthermore, a negative correlation between the HRQoL and the amount of time spent in front of TV and computer in children with epilepsy and healthy children was seen. In children with focal epilepsy, a significant negative correlation could be shown between school sport and mental wellbeing as well as between school sport and self-esteem. Conclusion HRQoL in children with idiopathic epilepsy is significantly associated with physical fitness and might be positively influenced by an adequate education of patients and parents, a reduction of consumption of computer and TV in combination with age- and disease-adapted physical activity and sports.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Antropometria , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teste de Caminhada
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(3)2017 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327523

RESUMO

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune-mediated demyelinating disease affecting mainly children and young adults. Differentiation to multiple sclerosis is not always possible, due to overlapping clinical symptoms and recurrent and multiphasic forms. Until now, immunoglobulins reactive to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG antibodies) have been found in a subset of patients with ADEM. However, there are still patients lacking autoantibodies, necessitating the identification of new autoantibodies as biomarkers in those patients. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel autoantibody targets in ADEM patients. Sixteen ADEM patients (11 seronegative, 5 seropositive for MOG antibodies) were analysed for potential new biomarkers, using a protein microarray and immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue to identify antibodies against intracellular and surface neuronal and glial antigens. Nine candidate antigens were identified in the protein microarray analysis in at least two patients per group. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue did not reveal new target antigens. Although no new autoantibody targets could be found here, future studies should aim to identify new biomarkers for therapeutic and prognostic purposes. The microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry methods used here have several limitations, which should be considered in future searches for biomarkers.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/imunologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Animais , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/imunologia , Proteínas/imunologia , Proteoma , Proteômica/métodos , Ratos
20.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 30(3): 295-301, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28248700

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Serum IgG autoantibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are present in atypical demyelinating disorders such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Whereas the role of aquaporin-4 antibodies as diagnostic markers for NMOSD is meanwhile well established, the role of MOG antibodies is less clear. RECENT FINDINGS: Initial studies suggested that MOG antibodies are associated with a more benign disease course than aquaporin-4antibodies. However, recent findings challenged this view. Data from the two largest cohorts of adult MOG antibody-positive patients with the longest clinical follow-up published so far indicate that the majority of patients develop a recurrent disease course with optic neuritis as the most frequent symptom, particularly in women. Frequent attacks are often associated with accumulating damage and functional impairment. The clinical spectrum of acquired demyelinating syndromes associated with MOG antibodies seems to be broader as anticipated in prior studies, with only a third of patients fulfilling the current diagnostic criteria for NMOSD. SUMMARY: MOG antibodies are associated with an increasing spectrum of age and sex-dependent clinical phenotypes, only partly overlapping with NMOSD and multiple sclerosis and with a high risk of a recurrent disease course.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Desmielinizantes/terapia , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Neuromielite Óptica/terapia
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