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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(10): 107002, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transportation noise is increasingly acknowledged as a cardiovascular risk factor, but the evidence base for an association with stroke is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and stroke incidence in a large Scandinavian population. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled data from nine Scandinavian cohorts (seven Swedish, two Danish), totaling 135,951 participants. We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise for all addresses. Information on stroke incidence was acquired through linkage to national patient and mortality registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, and air pollution. RESULTS: During follow-up (median=19.5y), 11,056 stroke cases were identified. Road traffic noise (Lden) was associated with risk of stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.08] per 10-dB higher 5-y mean time-weighted exposure in analyses adjusted for individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. The association was approximately linear and persisted after adjustment for air pollution [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and NO2]. Stroke was associated with moderate levels of 5-y aircraft noise exposure (40-50 vs. ≤40 dB) (HR=1.12; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.27), but not with higher exposure (≥50 dB, HR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Railway noise was not associated with stroke. DISCUSSION: In this pooled study, road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of stroke. This finding supports road traffic noise as an important cardiovascular risk factor that should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to traffic noise. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8949.

2.
Environ Res ; 200: 111394, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: and Purpose: Cadmium has been associated with risk of cardiovascular events, including stroke. Human cadmium exposure occurs primarily through diet and tobacco smoke. Recent cohort studies have found an association with stroke, but residual confounding from smoking, could not be ruled out. We therefore conducted a case-cohort study to evaluate whether cadmium is associated with stroke in never-smokers. METHODS: The Danish Diet Cancer and Health cohort consists of Danes 50-64 years old, recruited in 1993-1997. From never-smoking cohort members without previous cancer or stroke we sampled a sub-cohort of 1200 persons. We also identified all (n = 534) cases in the cohort with a validated stroke diagnosis between baseline and 2009. We quantified cadmium and creatinine concentrations from baseline urine samples and used cadmium per creatinine as our main exposure metric. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with age as time scale and adjusting for BMI, education and urinary cotinine with and without stratification by sex. RESULTS: The median urinary cadmium concentration was 0.21 µg cadmium/g creatinine in cases and 0.19 µg/g in the sub-cohort. The majority (83%) of stroke cases were diagnosed with ischemic stroke. The HR for stroke in the highest quartile of exposure (median 0.44 µg/g creatinine) was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.79-1.54) compared with the lowest quartile (median 0.10 µg/g creatinine). The HR per inter quartile range (IQR, 0.19 µg/g creatinine) was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.92-1.12). Among men, the HR per IQR higher levels of cadmium (0.16 µg/g creatinine) was 1.18 (95% CI: 0.92-1.52), and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.89-1.12) among women. Adjusting for creatinine or using osmolality instead of creatinine standardization generally attenuated observed relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support that low levels of cadmium exposure among never-smokers are strongly associated with risk of stroke, although results varied somewhat by sex and method of accounting for urinary dilution.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumantes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
3.
Environ Int ; 150: 106428, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571817

RESUMO

Cadmium exposure has been associated with cardiovascular disease. Cigarette smoking is a key source of cadmium exposure and thus a potential confounder in observational studies of environmental cadmium and cardiovascular disease that include tobacco smokers. We leveraged up to 20 years of follow-up in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort to test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among people who never smoked. Between 1993 and 1997, 19,394 never-smoking participants (ages 50-64 years) were enrolled and provided a urine sample. From this sample, we randomly selected a subcohort of 600 males and 600 females. We identified 809 AMI cases occurring between baseline and the end of 2015 using the Danish National Patient Registry. We quantified cadmium, creatinine, and osmolality in baseline urine samples. Using an unweighted case-cohort approach, we estimated adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for AMI in Cox proportional hazards models with age as the time axis. Participants had relatively low concentrations of urinary cadmium, as expected for never smokers (median = 0.20; 25th, 75th = 0.13, 0.32 µg cadmium/g creatinine). We did not find strong evidence to support an association between higher urinary cadmium and AMI when comparing the highest versus lowest quartile (aHR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.86 - 1.56) and per IQR increment in cadmium concentration (aHR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.93 - 1.12). Results were not materially different across strata defined by sex. Results were generally similar using creatinine or osmolality to account for differences in urine dilution. While cadmium exposure has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, we did not find strong evidence that urinary cadmium at relatively low-levels is associated with AMI among people who have never smoked.


Assuntos
Cádmio/urina , Infarto do Miocárdio , Neoplasias , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Fumantes
4.
Environ Res ; 195: 110739, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that transportation noise may increase risk for breast cancer, but existing literature is scarce and inconclusive. We aimed to investigate associations between road traffic and railway noise and risk for breast cancer across the entire Danish female population. METHODS: For all 2.8 million residential addresses across Denmark, we modelled road and railway noise at the most and least exposed façades for the period 1990-2017. We calculated 10-year time-weighted mean noise exposure for 1.8 million women aged >35 years, of whom 66,006 developed breast cancer during follow-up from 2000 to 2017. We analysed data using Cox proportional hazards models with noise exposure included as 10-year running means and adjusted for a number of individual and area-level socioeconomic co-variates and air pollution with fine particles estimated for all addresses. RESULTS: For exposures at the least exposed façade, we found that a 10 dB increase in 10-year time-weighted noise was associated with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer of 1.032 (1.019-1.046) for road noise and 1.023 (0.993-1.053) for railway noise. For exposures at the most exposed façade, the IRRs (95% CIs) were 1.012 (1.002-1.022) for road noise and 1.020 (1.001-1.039) for railway noise. Associations were strongest among women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Road traffic and railway noise were associated with higher risk for breast cancer, especially noise at the least exposed façade, which is a proxy for noise exposure during sleep.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Ruído dos Transportes , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos
5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 231: 113652, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated whether road traffic noise is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and have yielded inconsistent findings. We aimed to investigate whether maternal exposure to residential transportation noise, before and during pregnancy, was associated with GDM in a nationwide cohort. METHODS: From the Danish population (2004-2017) we identified 629,254 pregnancies using the Danish Medical Birth Register. By linkage with the National Patient Registry, we identified 15,973 pregnancies complicated by GDM. Road traffic and railway noise (Lden) at the most and least exposed façades for all residential addresses from five years before pregnancy until birth were estimated for all. Analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equation models with adjustment for various individual and area-level sociodemographic covariates gathered from Danish registries, as well as green space and air pollution (PM2.5) estimated for all addresses. RESULTS: We found no positive associations between road traffic noise at either façade and GDM. For railway noise, a 10 dB increase in railway noise at the most and least exposed façades during the first trimester was associated with GDM, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.10) and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13), respectively. We found indications of higher odds of GDM among women exposed to both high road traffic and railway noise at the least exposed facade during the first trimester (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07-1.44). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this nationwide study suggests that railway noise but not road traffic noise might be associated with GDM.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 123(12): 1818-1824, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few population-based epidemiological studies of adults have examined the relationship between air pollution and leukaemias. METHODS: Using Danish National Cancer Registry data and Danish DEHM-UBM-AirGIS system-modelled air pollution exposures, we examined whether particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) averaged over 1, 5 or 10 years were associated with adult leukaemia in general or by subtype. In all, 14,986 adult cases diagnosed 1989-2014 and 51,624 age, sex and time-matched controls were included. Separate conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, assessed exposure to each pollutant with leukaemias. RESULTS: Fully adjusted models showed a higher risk of leukaemia with higher 1-, 5- and 10-year-average exposures to PM2.5 prior to diagnosis (e.g. OR per 10 µg/m3 for 10-year average: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32), and a positive relationship with 1-year average BC. Results were driven by participants 70 years and older (OR per 10 µg/m3 for 10-year average: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.58). Null findings for younger participants. Higher 1-year average PM2.5 exposures were associated with higher risks for acute myeloid and chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia. CONCLUSION: Among older adults, higher risk for leukaemia was associated with higher residential PM2.5 concentrations averaged over 1, 5 and 10 years prior to diagnosis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Leucemia/etiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Fuligem/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1654-1664, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant (95%) bladder cancer subtype in industrialized nations. Animal and epidemiologic human studies suggest that hormonal factors may influence urothelial carcinoma risk. METHODS: We used an analytic cohort of 333,919 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort. Associations between hormonal factors and incident urothelial carcinoma (overall and by tumor grade, tumor aggressiveness, and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma) risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a mean of 15 years of follow-up, 529 women developed urothelial carcinoma. In a model including number of full-term pregnancies (FTP), menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), number of FTP was inversely associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR≥5vs1 = 0.48; 0.25-0.90; P trend in parous women = 0.010) and MHT use (compared with nonuse) was positively associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR = 1.27; 1.03-1.57), but no dose response by years of MHT use was observed. No modification of HRs by smoking status was observed. Finally, sensitivity analyses in never smokers showed similar HR patterns for the number of FTP, while no association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. Association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk remained significant only in current smokers. No heterogeneity of the risk estimations in the final model was observed by tumor aggressiveness or by tumor grade. A positive association between MTH use and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that increasing the number of FTP may reduce urothelial carcinoma risk. IMPACT: More detailed studies on parity are needed to understand the possible effects of perinatal hormone changes in urothelial cells.

8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(5): 57004, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research on effects of transportation noise on incident hypertension is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether residential road traffic noise increases the risk for hypertension. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 57,053 individuals 50-64 years of age at enrollment, we identified 21,241 individuals who fulfilled our case definition of filling ≥2 prescriptions and ≥180 defined daily doses of antihypertensive drugs (AHTs) within a year, during a mean follow-up time of 14.0 y. Residential addresses from 1987 to 2016 were obtained from national registers, and road traffic noise at the most exposed façade as well as the least exposed façade was modeled for all addresses. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: We found no associations between the 10-y mean exposure to road traffic noise and filled prescriptions for AHTs, with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 0.999 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.980, 1.019)] per 10-dB increase in road traffic noise at the most exposed façade and of 1.001 (95% CI: 0.977, 1.026) at the least exposed façade. Interaction analyses suggested an association with road traffic noise at the least exposed façade among subpopulations of current smokers and obese individuals. CONCLUSION: The present study does not support an association between road traffic noise and filled prescriptions for AHTs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6273.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
9.
Sleep ; 43(8)2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083664

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Traffic noise has been associated with poor sleep quality and short sleep duration. This study investigates the association between nighttime road traffic noise at the least and most exposed façades of the residence and redemption of sleep medication. METHODS: In a cohort of 44,438 Danes, aged 50-64 at baseline (1993-1997), we identified all addresses from 1987 to 2015 from a national registry and calculated nighttime road traffic noise at the most and least exposed façades. Using Cox Proportional Hazard Models we investigated the association between residential traffic noise over 1, 5, and 10 years before redemption of the first sleep medication prescription in the Danish National Prescription Registry. During a median follow-up time of 18.5 years, 13,114 persons redeemed a prescription. RESULTS: We found that 10-year average nighttime exposure to road traffic noise at the most exposed façade was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.00 to 1.10) for Ln greater than 55 as compared to not more than 45 dB, which when stratified by sex was confined to men (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.25). For the least exposed façade the HR for Ln >45 vs ≤35 dB was 1.00, 95% CI (0.95 to 1.05). For the most exposed façade, the overall association was strongest in smokers and physically inactive. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term residential nighttime noise exposure at the most exposed façade may be associated with a higher likelihood of redeeming prescriptions for sleep medication, especially among men, smokers, and physically inactive.


Assuntos
Ruído dos Transportes , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Prescrições , Sono
10.
Environ Res ; 182: 109051, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896468

RESUMO

Recent studies show associations between transportation noise and various diseases. However, selection bias remains an inherent limitation in many cohort studies. In this study, we aimed to model road traffic noise exposure across the entire Danish population and investigate its distribution in relation to area-level socioeconomic indicators and green space. Based on the Nordic prediction method, we estimated road traffic noise for all Danish residential addresses, in total 2,761,739 addresses, for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 at the most and least exposed façades. Area-level sociodemographic variables encompassing education, income, and unemployment were collected and residential green within a 150 m radius buffer at the address level was estimated using high-resolution national land use classification data. Median levels of noise at both the most and least exposed facades across Denmark increased slightly from 1995 to 2015. Correlations between most and least exposed façades varied based on population density and building type, with the highest correlations between the most and least exposed façades found for semidetached homes and lowest for multistory buildings. Increasing median noise levels were observed across increasing levels of higher education, lower income, and higher unemployment. A decreasing trend in median noise levels with increasing levels of green space was observed. In conclusion, we showed that it is feasible to estimate nationwide, address-specific exposure over a long time-period. Furthermore, the low correlations found between most and least exposed façade for multistory buildings, which characterize metropolitan centers, suggests that the most exposed façade estimation used in most previous studies and predicts exposure at the silent façade relatively poorly.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Ruído dos Transportes , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Int J Cancer ; 145(9): 2349-2359, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694528

RESUMO

Published associations between dietary folate and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. This nested case-control analysis within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) investigated associations between pre-diagnostic serum folate, homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas of the bladder (UCC). A total of 824 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 824 cohort members. Serum folate, homocysteine, and vitamins B6 and B12 were measured. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total, aggressive, and non-aggressive UCC were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, and other potential confounders. Additionally, statistical interaction with smoking status was assessed. A halving in serum folate concentrations was moderately associated with risk of UCC (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.98-1.43), in particular aggressive UCC (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02-1.75; p-heterogeneity = 0.19). Compared to never smokers in the highest quartile of folate concentrations, this association seemed only apparent among current smokers in the lowest quartile of folate concentrations (OR: 6.26; 95% CI: 3.62-10.81, p-interaction = 0.07). Dietary folate was not associated with aggressive UCC (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.81-1.95; p-heterogeneity = 0.14). No association was observed between serum homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and risk of UCC. This study suggests that lower serum folate concentrations are associated with increased UCC risk, in particular aggressive UCC. Residual confounding by smoking cannot be ruled out and these findings require confirmation in future studies with multiple measurements.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/epidemiologia , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/sangue , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina B 6/sangue
12.
Int J Cancer ; 143(10): 2351-2358, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971779

RESUMO

Previous in vitro and case-control studies have found an association between the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis and bladder cancer risk. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I have also been found to be associated with an increased risk of several cancer types; however, the relationship between pre-diagnostic circulating IGF-I concentrations and bladder cancer has never been studied prospectively. We investigated the association of pre-diagnostic plasma concentrations of IGF-I with risk of overall bladder cancer and urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 843 men and women diagnosed with bladder cancer between 1992 and 2005 were matched with 843 controls by recruitment centre, sex, age at recruitment, date of blood collection, duration of follow-up, time of day and fasting status at blood collection using an incidence density sampling protocol. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status. No association was found between pre-diagnostic circulating IGF-I concentration and overall bladder cancer risk (adjusted OR for highest versus lowest fourth: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.66-1.24, ptrend = 0.40) or UCC (n of cases = 776; 0.91, 0.65-1.26, ptrend = 0.40). There was no significant evidence of heterogeneity in the association of IGF-I with bladder cancer risk by tumour aggressiveness, sex, smoking status, or by time between blood collection and diagnosis (pheterogeneity > 0.05 for all). This first prospective study indicates no evidence of an association between plasma IGF-I concentrations and bladder cancer risk.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949863

RESUMO

Arsenic is a risk factor for several noncommunicable diseases, even at low doses. Urinary arsenic (UAs) concentration is a good biomarker for internal dose, and demographic, dietary, and lifestyle factors are proposed predictors in nonoccupationally exposed populations. However, most predictor studies are limited in terms of size and number of predictors. We investigated demographic, dietary, and lifestyle determinants of UAs concentrations in 744 postmenopausal Danish women who had UAs measurements and questionnaire data on potential predictors. UAs concentrations were determined using mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and determinants of the concentration were investigated using univariate and multivariate regression models. We used a forward selection procedure for model optimization. In all models, fish, alcohol, and poultry intake were associated with higher UAs concentration, and tap water, fruit, potato, and dairy intake with lower concentration. A forward regression model explained 35% (R²) of the variation in concentrations. Age, smoking, education, and area of residence did not predict concentration. The results were relatively robust across sensitivity analyses. The study suggested that UAs concentration in postmenopausal women was primarily determined by dietary factors, with fish consumption showing the strongest direct association. However, the majority of variation in UAs concentration in this study population is still unexplained.


Assuntos
Arsênio/urina , Exposição Dietética , Animais , Biomarcadores/urina , Dinamarca , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Pós-Menopausa/urina , Fatores de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos , Fumar/urina , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Nutrients ; 10(6)2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee and tea are among the most commonly consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide, but methodological differences in assessing intake often hamper comparisons across populations. We aimed to (i) describe coffee and tea intakes and (ii) assess their contribution to intakes of selected nutrients in adults across 10 European countries. METHOD: Between 1995 and 2000, a standardized 24-h dietary recall was conducted among 36,018 men and women from 27 European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study centres. Adjusted arithmetic means of intakes were estimated in grams (=volume) per day by sex and centre. Means of intake across centres were compared by sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: In women, the mean daily intake of coffee ranged from 94 g/day (~0.6 cups) in Greece to 781 g/day (~4.4 cups) in Aarhus (Denmark), and tea from 14 g/day (~0.1 cups) in Navarra (Spain) to 788 g/day (~4.3 cups) in the UK general population. Similar geographical patterns for mean daily intakes of both coffee and tea were observed in men. Current smokers as compared with those who reported never smoking tended to drink on average up to 500 g/day more coffee and tea combined, but with substantial variation across centres. Other individuals' characteristics such as educational attainment or age were less predictive. In all centres, coffee and tea contributed to less than 10% of the energy intake. The greatest contribution to total sugar intakes was observed in Southern European centres (up to ~20%). CONCLUSION: Coffee and tea intake and their contribution to energy and sugar intake differed greatly among European adults. Variation in consumption was mostly driven by geographical region.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Café , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Int J Cancer ; 143(6): 1367-1373, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633247

RESUMO

Exposure to benzene increases the risk for acute myeloid leukemia and possibly other types of cancer in adults. For children, only limited evidence about benzene and cancer exists. A few studies have indicated that benzene may increase risk for some subtypes of childhood cancer but not for others. We aimed to investigate if outdoor levels of benzene at the residence increase the risk for subtypes of leukemia, lymphoma and CNS tumor in children. We identified 1,989 children diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma or CNS tumor during 1968-1991 in the Danish Cancer Registry and randomly selected 5,506 control children from the Danish population, matched on sex, age and calendar time. We traced residential history of all children from 9 months before birth to time of diagnosis, calculated outdoor benzene concentration at all addresses and summarized cumulative exposure over fetal and childhood periods separately. We used conditional logistic regression for the statistical analyses. Benzene exposure during childhood above the 90th percentile was associated with relative risks for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of 1.0 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.6-1.7) and 1.9 (95% CI: 0.3-11.1), respectively, when compared with exposure levels below the median. For CNS tumors, there was a tendency of lower risk for ependymoma and higher risk for medulloblastoma in association with higher exposure. In conclusion, benzene was associated with higher risk for childhood AML, but not ALL, which is consistent with the few previous studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Linfoma/etiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(4-5): 399-404, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Traffic is the most important source of community noise, and it has been proposed to be associated with a range of disease outcomes, including breast cancer. As mammographic breast density (MD) is one of the strongest risk factors for developing breast cancer, the present study investigated whether there is an association between residential exposure to traffic noise and MD in a Danish cohort. METHODS: We included women with reproductive and lifestyle information available from the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, who also participated in the Copenhagen Mammography Screening Programme (n = 5,260). Present and historical addresses from 1987 to 2011 were found in national registries, and traffic noise was modeled 5 years before mammogram. Analyses between residential traffic noise and MD were performed using logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no association between residential road and railway noise exposure 5 years before mammogram, and having a mixed/dense versus a fatty mammogram, and no interaction with menopausal status, BMI, HRT use, and railway noise exposure, for analyses on road traffic noise. CONCLUSION: The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise exposure and subsequent MD in a cohort of middle-aged Danish women.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Mamografia/métodos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
Environ Res ; 163: 237-248, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated an association between organochlorine-concentrations and breast cancer incidence, whereas few have investigated an association with breast cancer mortality. METHODS: We used Cox Proportional Hazards Models to estimate the association between adipose organochlorine-concentrations and mortality after breast cancer in a survivor-cohort of 399 postmenopausal women. During a median follow-up of 16.1 years, 177 women died; 119 from breast cancer. RESULTS: There was a general inverse association with PCB-concentration (e.g. ΣPCBs: Mortality Rate Ratio (MRR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.64-0.98) per inter-quartile range (IQR)), and for all pesticides, except ß-Hexachlorocyclohexane, which was not associated with mortality (MRR 1.02(0.87-1.18) per IQR), and dieldrin, which was associated with a significantly increased risk of death (MRR 1.22(1.05-1.41) per IQR). We found an interaction with prognostic factors for all PCBs, confining the inverse association to those with adverse prognostic factors. Results for pesticides suggested a similar, but mostly non-significant interaction. Dieldrin diverged from the general picture by being associated with increased mortality across all strata. CONCLUSION: A higher concentration of PCBs and several organochlorine pesticides may be inversely associated with breast cancer mortality among women with adverse prognostic factors. Further studies are required to investigate if this is a causal association. Dieldrin was associated with a higher mortality, regardless of prognostic factors. IMPACT: This is the first study to investigate an association between organochlorine concentrations in adipose tissue and breast cancer mortality. A prominent finding is a strong interaction with prognostic factors. The unexpected direction of association for most organochlorines encourages further studies of the role of individual metabolism of the organochlorines and a potentially stronger effect of the metabolites on mortality.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Neoplasias da Mama , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Tecido Adiposo/química , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Pós-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco
18.
Environ Pollut ; 236: 983-991, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption. METHODS: In a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway). RESULTS: Road traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Ruído dos Transportes , Fumar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(2): 224-226, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254933

RESUMO

Background: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in the world. Involvement of organochlorines has been proposed in disease etiology. No study has investigated organochlorine exposure in relation to survival after a NHL diagnosis.Methods: In a survivor cohort consisting of 232 NHL cases from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, we examined the association between adipose tissue organochlorine concentrations [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides] and subsequent survival, using Cox proportional hazards models.Results: We found no statistically significant association between organochlorine concentrations and subsequent survival. If anything, there was a nonsignificant tendency toward an inverse association with PCBs, but not pesticides.Conclusions: In conclusion, the current study does not support an increased risk of death among NHL patients with high tissue concentrations of organochlorines.Impact: This is the first study to investigate adipose organochlorine concentrations and survival after a NHL diagnosis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(2); 224-6. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Linfoma não Hodgkin/mortalidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Environ Res ; 160: 292-297, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29045908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise exposure has been found associated with diabetes incidence. Evidence for an association between railway noise exposure is less clear, as large studies with detailed railway noise modelling are lacking. PURPOSE: To investigate the association between residential railway noise and diabetes incidence, and to repeat previous analyses on road traffic noise and diabetes with longer follow-up time. METHODS: Among 50,534 middle-aged Danes enrolled into the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort from 1993 to 97, we identified 5062 cases of incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 15.5 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2012 were found in national registries, and railway and road traffic noise (Lden) were modelled for all addresses, using the Nordic prediction method. We used Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the association between residential traffic noise over 1 and 5 years before diagnosis, and diabetes incidence. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated as crude and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: We found no association between railway noise exposure and diabetes incidence among the 9527 persons exposed, regardless of exposure time-window: HR 0.99 (0.94-1.04) per 10dB for 5-year exposure in fully adjusted models. There was no effect modification by sex, road traffic noise, and education. We confirmed the previously found association between road traffic noise exposure and diabetes including 6 additional years of follow-up: HR 1.08 (1.04-1.13) per 10dB for 5-year exposure in fully adjusted models. CONCLUSION: The study does not suggest an association between residential railway noise exposure and diabetes incidence, but supports the finding of a direct association with residential road traffic noise.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferrovias/estatística & dados numéricos
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