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1.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124666, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479911

RESUMO

The toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) is well known, and for this reason studying and monitoring these chemicals is fundamental. Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are made of an adsorbent material widely used in the industrial field for the removal of micropollutants. The first step in this work was to perform a physico-chemical characterization of the adsorbent, focused on the analytical use of it. In particular, its specific surface area was defined around 2500 m2/g consisting in a homogeneous microporosity distribution and the characterization of ACF surface functional groups pointed out a balance between basic and acidic group. The validity of using the ACF as solid phase extraction and as passive sampler for PCDD/Fs and PCBs in water, has been evaluated by the percentage recovery (R %) of 13C12-labeled standards of PCDD/Fs and PCBs added in a known volume of water. The results were compared to the R% of Liquid-Liquid Extraction which showed a better reproducibility of the results and the proposed method satisfy completely the requirements of US EPA reference methods.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Benzofuranos/análise , Fibra de Carbono , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida , Água
2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 135354, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839322

RESUMO

Co-combustion of biomass and plastic waste has emerged as one of the most promising approach at the plastic waste management challenge. This strategy is particularly attractive since it can simultaneously solve the increasing energy demand and reduce the plastic wastes volume. However, since the combustion of both plastic wastes and natural materials is a potential source of organic micropollutants, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), beside particulate matter, the environmental sustainability of the waste to energy (WtE) co-combustion strategy has to be assessed. To this end, the emissions of dioxin like (dl)-PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PAHs from a 4-MW thermal power plant fueled with rice husk, partially replaced by end-of-life polyethylene (PE) industrial waste (up to 15% of the thermal power of the plant), were investigated. GC-MS/MS analyses have demonstrated that the co-combustion of PE waste and rice husk presents a profile of environmental sustainability. The concentrations of dl-PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PAHs were extremely low and they have remained almost unaffected by introducing PE in feed. In particular, emissions of PCCD/Fs and dl-PCBs in flue gas were in the range 0.6-1.0 and 0.2-0.6 pg TEQ/Nm3, respectively, while PAHs concentrations ranged from 410 to 825 ng/Nm3. Furthermore, the emission factors of these organic pollutants were found to be lower with PE increasing rate while particulate matter emissions were not affected by co-combustions. Collectively, the investigation has demonstrated that the noils of the industrial PE, due to the low content in halides and metals, can be used as auxiliary fuel and energetically recycled through co-combustion with rice husk. This case of study represents an effective application of the WtE strategy and a concrete approach to mitigate the threat of plastic pollution.

3.
Talanta ; 188: 671-675, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029430

RESUMO

Among the organic contaminants that could pass from waste to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), there are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). For this reason, we have developed a rapid analytical method for the determination of sixteen PAHs in PHAs. PAHs were extracted by n-hexane, after matrix dispersion and crumbling into sand; the extract was purified by solid phase extraction using florisil as adsorbent. Recoveries in the range of 89-101% were obtained for the deuterated analytes, except for the two with the lowest molecular weight. Trueness between 92% and 108% and within-laboratory precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) ≤ 18% were estimated for all the analytes. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used for analyte determination. Method limits of quantification were suitable to assure that PAH presence in PHA biolpolymers is much below the limits set by European law for plastic materials. Indeed, analysis of two different PHA samples showed that contamination is limited to few compounds at non-concerning levels.

4.
J Sep Sci ; 40(17): 3469-3478, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28703493

RESUMO

The European and American methods for the determination of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans in stationary source emissions require a high-resolution mass spectrometer detector. At the same time, all of the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted isomers have to be separated by an appropriate chromatographic method. The resulting analysis has long runtimes and sometimes a double-column run is needed, which results in a huge waste of time, money and manual labor. To obtain a fast and cost-effective but still reliable analytical system, a single-column gas chromatography with hydrogen as carrier gas and tandem mass spectrometry detection is proposed. The use of hydrogen as the carrier gas is a good choice to shorten runtimes and improve the chromatographic resolution, while tandem mass spectrometry is a well-known alternative for this analysis. All the chromatographic and mass spectrometric parameters fill the requirements of the reference methods with a 35% reduction of runtimes. The accuracy is tested with three fly ash samples of a proficiency interlaboratory test. A good correlation between the results is obtained (R2  = 0.992, slope = 0.9675), and no coelutions are noted. The system robustness is tested during 5 years of constant use and the maximal relative standard deviation of the relative response factor is 18.8%.

5.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 65(1): 41-9, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25946956

RESUMO

Cement plants are responsible for particle and gaseous emissions into the atmosphere. With respect to particle emission, the greater part of is in the range from 0.05 to 5.0 µm in diameter. In the last years attention was paid to submicron particles, but there is a lack of available data on the emission from stationary sources. In this paper, concentration and size distribution of particles emitted from four cement kilns, in relationship to operational conditions (especially the use of alternative fuel to coal) of the clinker process are reported. Experimental campaigns were carried out by measuring particles concentration and size distribution at the stack of four cement plants through condensation particle counter (CPC) and scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS). Average total particle number concentrations were between 2000 and 4000 particles/cm³, about 8-10 times lower that those found in the corresponding surrounding areas. As for size distribution, for all the investigated plants it is stable with a unimodal distribution (120-150 nm), independent from the fuel used.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Indústrias Extrativas e de Processamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cloretos/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 64(11): 1270-8, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25509548

RESUMO

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the third most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane, and contributes about 6% to the greenhouse effect. Nitrous oxide is a minor component of the atmosphere, and it is a thousand times less than carbon dioxide (CO2). Nevertheless, it is much more potent than CO2 and methane, owing to its long stay in the atmosphere of approximately 120 yr and the high global warmingpotential (GWP) of298 times that of CO2. Although greenhouse gases are natural in the atmosphere, human activities have changed the atmospheric concentrations. Most of the values of emission of nitrous oxide are still obtained by means ofemission factors and not actually measured; the lack ofreal data may result in an underestimation ofcurrent emissions. The emission factors used for the calculation of N2O can be obtained from the "Guidelines for the implementation of the national inventory of emissions" of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which refer to all nations for the realization of their inventory. This study will present real data, measured in several Italian cement plants with different characteristics. The work also shows a comparison between N2O concentration measured with in situ-Fourier transform IR (FTIR) and the reference method EN ISO 21258 based on nondispersive IR (NDIR), in order to investigate the interfering compounds in the measurement with NDIR.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Materiais de Construção , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Indústrias , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Análise de Fourier , Óxido Nitroso
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 20(7): 4881-5, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23307079

RESUMO

A method to measure the emissive concentration of 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB), a reactive compound used in industrial synthesis of terpolymers, has been developed. The starting points for the development of the presented method are European and Italian reference methods for the quantification of nonreactive volatile organic compounds in industrial emission. In this study, sampling conditions and desorption solvent have been optimized in laboratory and the method was applied in an industrial plant. The laboratory tests showed a good recovery (88-95%). The concentrations of ENB in industrial emission obtained with the developed method were compared with an online gas chromatography-flame ionization results (R (2) > 0.97). In addition, several manual measurements were performed in parallel, and the resulting %RSD repeatability was <9%. The developed method provides a discontinuous technique to measure reactive volatile organic compounds using easy-to-use instruments and assures a very good accuracy and precision even with high-humidity gas flows. The method could be extended to other reactive compounds of the same class.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Norbornanos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Carvão Vegetal/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Umidade , Indústrias
8.
J Environ Monit ; 14(3): 1082-90, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22344557

RESUMO

A comprehensive clean-up method for quantitative analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDD/Fs) in one single extract of environmental samples was developed. Since the chemical nature and toxicity of planar PCBs are similar to those of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs are often surveyed together in their exposure assessments. The development of a method for the simultaneous analysis of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in environmental samples is invaluable. The automated clean-up system evaluated in this work consists of three additional steps after traditional extraction: the chromatography on gel permeation (GPC), the concentration of the solvent through the use of an in-line evaporation module and the further purification and separation of PCDDs/Fs and dl-PCBs on an alumina cartridge in the 'SPE module'. In this work, three fly ash samples from an interlaboratory study with different PCDD/F and PCB levels were Soxhlet-extracted and then cleaned up using an automated system. PCDD/Fs and PCBs were determined using isotope dilution and high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. The determined values of 17 PCDD/Fs were consistent with the certified values and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the determined values were less than 20%. The recoveries of (13)C labeled PCDD/Fs and planar PCBs, and their RSDs were within the ranges specified in EPA1613 and 1668a methods, respectively. An accurate and reliable method was successfully developed and can be used in the simultaneous analysis of PCDD/Fs and planar PCBs in environmental samples.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Benzofuranos/análise , Cromatografia em Gel , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Extração em Fase Sólida , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Benzofuranos/química , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/química
9.
J Environ Monit ; 12(5): 1092-9, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21491678

RESUMO

The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) was signed in May 2001 by 127 countries. Currently, 12 substances are regulated by the convention, and the work on finding new candidate chemicals to the convention has started. Among these 12 substances, dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the objects of this study. There are no European standard methods for the simultaneous determination of these microorganic compounds, together with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air--they must be referred to three different methods developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The quali-quantitative analysis of these microorganic pollutants is an important challenge due to the low concentrations at which they may be present. In this study, the development of a simplified, alternative, fast and affordable sampling method for the determination of PAHs, PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in ambient air was performed. The sampling time was extended from 24 h to 7 d in order to enrich the sample, to fall within the instrumental limits of detection and to reduce the number of samples to be processed and, therefore, errors that may arise. First of all, experiments with labelled standards were conducted in the research area of Montelibretti (rural station, which is sited about 20 km northeast of Rome), with the purpose of optimizing sampling efficiency. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of these compounds in the air of a suburban area with small industrial plants in order to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed sampling method system, by comparing concentrations of native compounds acquired during simultaneous daily and weekly sampling.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Benzofuranos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Itália , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 172(2-3): 1498-504, 2009 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19733437

RESUMO

This study investigates the removal efficiency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by the APCDs of an iron ore sintering plant, an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wetfine scrubbing system (WS). The removal efficiencies of the ESP on the total PCDD/Fs concentration and the total PCDD/Fs I-TEQ concentration are 44.3% and 41.4%, respectively, while those of the WS are 66.7% and 68.4%, respectively, but the vapor/solid phase distribution changes after APCDs abatement. At ESP inlet, the PCDD/Fs account for 31.2% in vapor phase and for 68.8% in particulate phase while, at ESP outlet, the PCDD/Fs account for 63.3% in vapor phase and for 36.7% in solid phase. The ESP removes effectively solid-phase PCDD/Fs for its effectiveness to capture the particulate while it is ineffective in removing vapor-phase PCDD/Fs. It, on the contrary, increase for the vaporization within the ESP, especially for these congeners with a lower chlorination degree, and for the PCDD/Fs "stripping" from particulate to gas-phase during the sampling. At WS inlet, the PCDD/Fs account for 63.3% in vapor phase and for 36.7% in solid phase while, at WS outlet, the PCDD/Fs account for 21.4% in vapor phase and for 78.6% in solid phase. Considering that WS outlet temperature is about 40 degrees C, the PCDD/Fs vapor-phase condense to particles: therefore, even if the particulate is removed by WS, the final result is that PCDD/Fs percentage decreases in vapor-phase and increases in solid-phase.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos Industriais/prevenção & controle , Ferro , Metalurgia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/isolamento & purificação
12.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 58(11): 1401-6, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19044155

RESUMO

A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 microg/N x m3, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 microg/N x m3, and in ESP dust is 0.53 microg/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Quartzo/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Titânio/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Catálise , Fotoquímica , Temperatura Ambiente , Raios Ultravioleta
13.
Chemosphere ; 54(9): 1337-50, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14659427

RESUMO

The factors affecting polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) formation were studied in sewage sludge incineration tests carried out on a demonstrative plant. The plant includes a circulating fluidised bed furnace (FBF) and a rotary kiln furnace (RKF), operating alternatively. During the tests sewage sludge was spiked with chlorinated hydrocarbons and the operating parameters of the afterburning chamber were varied. PCDD/F were sampled in each test before the bag filter, thus collecting the above contaminants before abatement systems. From the tests it appeared that PCDD/F were always produced in more abundance in the tests carried out by FBF than by RKF. The higher PCDD/F concentrations in the tests by FBF were reached when sewage sludge was spiked with a high dosage of a surrogate organic mixture of chlorinated hydrocarbons and when the afterburning chamber was used only as transit equipment with the burner off. The distribution of the different PCDD/F homologues was compared. P5CDFs were generally the prevalent fraction, with very few exceptions for the tests by RKF at high temperature of the afterburning chamber. As for FBF tests, it was found that the PCDD/F homologue profile depends on the afterburning chamber temperature.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/química , Dioxinas/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Incineração/instrumentação , Esgotos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Cinética , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
Ann Chim ; 93(1-2): 157-67, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12650584

RESUMO

A short field campaign was performed in the outskirts of Rome at four sites located pretty along the four rose wind directions to city centre. Both chlorinated (PCB and PCDD/F) and non-chlorinated (n-alkanes, PAH, nitrated-PAH, n-alkanoic acids) organic micropollutants were investigated for their contents in the atmosphere. Concentrations reached by these pollutants in the outskirts were compared to those found in downtown Rome, both inside and outside of its largest city garden. Although concentrations of organic pollutants found in the outskirts were quite low, however they seemed enough high to induce some health risk in humans. Rural sites were less affected than industrial and waste disposal/treatment areas.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Roma , População Rural , População Urbana
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