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1.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 178, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool to identify novel etiologic pathways leading to cancer. Using a targeted approach, we prospectively investigated the associations between metabolite concentrations in plasma and breast cancer risk. METHODS: A nested case-control study was established within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort, which included 1624 first primary incident invasive breast cancer cases (with known estrogen and progesterone receptor and HER2 status) and 1624 matched controls. Metabolites (n = 127, acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, sphingolipids) were measured by mass spectrometry in pre-diagnostic plasma samples and tested for associations with breast cancer incidence using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among women not using hormones at baseline (n = 2248), and after control for multiple tests, concentrations of arginine (odds ratio [OR] per SD = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-0.90), asparagine (OR = 0.83 (0.74-0.92)), and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) ae C36:3 (OR = 0.83 (0.76-0.90)), aa C36:3 (OR = 0.84 (0.77-0.93)), ae C34:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.94)), ae C36:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.88)), and ae C38:2 (OR = 0.84 (0.76-0.93)) were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, while the acylcarnitine C2 (OR = 1.23 (1.11-1.35)) was positively associated with disease risk. In the overall population, C2 (OR = 1.15 (1.06-1.24)) and PC ae C36:3 (OR = 0.88 (0.82-0.95)) were associated with risk of breast cancer, and these relationships did not differ by breast cancer subtype, age at diagnosis, fasting status, menopausal status, or adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to potentially novel pathways and biomarkers of breast cancer development. Results warrant replication in other epidemiological studies.

2.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(22): e1900659, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483556

RESUMO

SCOPE: The goal of this work is to identify circulating biomarkers of habitual coffee intake using a metabolomic approach, and to investigate their associations with coffee intake in four European countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling is performed on serum samples from 451 participants of the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) originating from France, Germany, Greece, and Italy. Eleven coffee metabolites are found to be associated with self-reported habitual coffee intake, including eight more strongly correlated (r = 0.25-0.51, p < 10E-07 ). Trigonelline shows the highest correlation, followed by caffeine, two caffeine metabolites (paraxanthine and 5-Acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil), quinic acid, and three compounds derived from coffee roasting (cyclo(prolyl-valyl), cyclo(isoleucyl-prolyl), cyclo(leucyl-prolyl), and pyrocatechol sulfate). Differences in the magnitude of correlations are observed between countries, with trigonelline most highly correlated with coffee intake in France and Germany, quinic acid in Greece, and cyclo(isoleucyl-prolyl) in Italy. CONCLUSION: Several biomarkers of habitual coffee intake are identified. No unique biomarker is found to be optimal for all tested populations. Instead, optimal biomarkers are shown to depend on the population and on the type of coffee consumed. These biomarkers should help to further explore the role of coffee in disease risk.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee has been consistently associated with lower risk of liver cancer and chronic liver disease, suggesting that coffee affects mechanisms underlying disease development. METHODS: We measured serum metabolites using untargeted metabolomics in 1:1 matched nested case-control studies of liver cancer (n = 221 cases) and fatal liver disease (n = 242 cases) in the ATBC cohort (N = 29,133). Associations between baseline coffee drinking and metabolites were identified using linear regression; conditional logistic regression models were used to identify associations with subsequent outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 21 metabolites were associated with coffee drinking and also each subsequent endpoint; nine metabolites and trigonelline, a known coffee biomarker, were identified. Tyrosine and two bile acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA), were inversely associated with coffee but positively associated with both outcomes; odds ratios (ORs) comparing the 90th to 10th percentile (modeled on a continuous basis) ranged from 3.93 (95% CI = 2.00-7.74) for tyrosine to 4.95 (95% CI = 2.64-9.29) for GCA and from 4.00 (95% CI = 2.42-6.62) for GCA to 6.77 (95% CI = 3.62-12.65) for GCDCA for liver cancer and fatal liver disease, respectively. The remaining six metabolites and trigonelline were positively associated with coffee drinking but inversely associated with both outcomes; ORs ranged from 0.16 to 0.37. Associations persisted following diet-adjustment and for outcomes occurring >10 years after blood collection. CONCLUSIONS: A broad range of compounds were associated with coffee drinking, incident liver cancer and liver disease death over 27 years of follow-up. These associations provide novel insight into chronic liver disease and liver cancer etiology and support a possible hepatoprotective effect of coffee.

4.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903362

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of polyphenol intake during adolescence to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS) is little explored. This study aimed to evaluate the association between intake of total polyphenols, polyphenol classes and the 10 most consumed individual polyphenols with MetS risk in European adolescents. METHODS: Of the cross-sectional HELENA study, 657 adolescents (54% girls; 14.8% overweight; 12.5-17.5 year) had a fasting blood sample and polyphenol intake data from two non-consecutive 24-h recalls matched with the Phenol-Explorer database. MetS was defined via the pediatric American Heart Association definition. Multilevel linear regressions examined the associations of polyphenol quartiles with MetS components, while logistic regression examined the associations with MetS risk. RESULTS: After adjusting for all potential confounders (socio-demographics and nine nutrients), total polyphenol intake, polyphenol classes and individual polyphenols were not associated with MetS risk. From all MetS components, only BMI z-score was modestly inversely associated with total polyphenol intake. Further sub analyses on polyphenol classes revealed that flavonoid intake was significantly associated with higher diastolic blood pressure and lower BMI, and phenolic acid intake was associated with higher low-density cholesterol. For individual polyphenols, the above BMI findings were often confirmed (not independent from dietary intake) and a few associations were found with insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: Higher intakes of total polyphenols and flavonoids were inversely associated with BMI. No consistent associations were found for other MetS components.

5.
Metabolites ; 9(1)2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669279

RESUMO

Coffee drinking has been associated with a lower risk of certain chronic diseases and overall mortality. Its effects on disease risk may vary according to the type of coffee brew consumed and its chemical composition. We characterized variations in the chemical profiles of 76 coffee brew samples representing different brew methods, roast levels, bean species, and caffeine types, either prepared or purchased from outlets in Rockville, Maryland, United States of America. Samples were profiled using liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry, and the main sources of chemical variability identified by the principal component partial R-square multivariable regression were found to be brew methods (Rpartial² = 36%). A principal component analysis (PCA) was run on 18 identified coffee compounds after normalization for total signal intensity. The three first principal components were driven by roasting intensity (41% variance), type of coffee beans (29%), and caffeine (8%). These variations were mainly explained by hydroxycinnamoyl esters and diketopiperazines (roasting), N-caffeoyltryptophan, N-p-coumaroyltryptophan, feruloylquinic acids, and theophylline (coffee bean variety) and theobromine (decaffeination). Instant coffees differed from all coffee brews by high contents of diketopiperazines, suggesting a higher roast of the extracted beans. These variations will be important to consider for understanding the effects of different coffee brews on disease risk.

6.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(7): 1323-1331.e6, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer located at different anatomical subsites may have distinct etiologies and risk factors. Previous studies that have examined this hypothesis have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because most studies have been of insufficient size to identify heterogeneous associations with precision. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, we used multivariable joint Cox proportional hazards models, which accounted for tumors at different anatomical sites (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum) as competing risks, to examine the relationships between 14 established/suspected lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive/menstrual risk factors with colorectal cancer risk. Heterogeneity across sites was tested using Wald tests. RESULTS: After a median of 14.9 years of follow-up of 521,330 men and women, 6291 colorectal cancer cases occurred. Physical activity was related inversely to proximal colon and distal colon cancer, but not to rectal cancer (P heterogeneity = .03). Height was associated positively with proximal and distal colon cancer only, but not rectal cancer (P heterogeneity = .0001). For men, but not women, heterogeneous relationships were observed for body mass index (P heterogeneity = .008) and waist circumference (P heterogeneity = .03), with weaker positive associations found for rectal cancer, compared with proximal and distal colon cancer. Current smoking was associated with a greater risk of rectal and proximal colon cancer, but not distal colon cancer (P heterogeneity = .05). No heterogeneity by anatomical site was found for alcohol consumption, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and reproductive/menstrual factors. CONCLUSIONS: The relationships between physical activity, anthropometry, and smoking with colorectal cancer risk differed by subsite, supporting the hypothesis that tumors in different anatomical regions may have distinct etiologies.

7.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(6): 2345-2363, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062491

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Knowledge about polyphenols intakes and their determinants among adolescents might be helpful for planning targeted prevention strategies at an early age. METHODS: In the European multicenter cross-sectional HELENA study of 2006-2007, 2428 subjects (47% boys) had data on dietary intake of polyphenols from 2 non-consecutive 24 h recalls via linking with the Phenol-Explorer database. Differences by sex, age, country, BMI, maternal education, paternal education, family affluence, smoking status, alcohol use, and physical activity were explored by linear regression. RESULTS: Median, lower and upper quartiles of polyphenol intakes were 326, 167 and 564 mg/day, respectively. Polyphenol intake was significantly higher in the oldest (16-17.49 years), girls, non-Mediterranean countries, lowest BMI, highest paternal education, and alcohol consumers. Main food contributors were fruit (23%, mainly apple and pear, i.e., 16.3%); chocolate products (19.2%); and fruit and vegetable juices (15.6%). Main polyphenol classes were flavonoids (75-76% of total) and phenolic acids (17-19% of total). The three most consumed polyphenols were proanthocyanidin polymers (> 10 mers), hesperidin, and proanthocyanidin 4-6 oligomers. CONCLUSION: The current study provided for the first time numbers on the total polyphenol intake and their main food sources in a heterogeneous group of European adolescents. Major differences with adult populations are the lower polyphenol consumption and the major food sources, such as chocolate and biscuits. The discussed determinants and polyphenol types already point to some important population groups that need to be targeted in future public health initiatives.

8.
Genes Nutr ; 13: 15, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997698

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic beverages are important sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds that may influence human health and increase or decrease the risk of chronic diseases. A wide variety of beverage constituents are absorbed in the gut, found in the systemic circulation and excreted in urine. They may be used as compliance markers in intervention studies or as biomarkers of intake to improve measurements of beverage consumption in cohort studies and reveal new associations with disease outcomes that may have been overlooked when using dietary questionnaires. Here, biomarkers of intake of some major non-alcoholic beverages-coffee, tea, sugar-sweetened beverages, and low-calorie-sweetened beverages-are reviewed. Results from dietary intervention studies and observational studies are reviewed and analyzed, and respective strengths and weaknesses of the various identified biomarkers discussed. A variety of compounds derived from phenolic acids, alkaloids, and terpenes were shown to be associated with coffee intake and trigonelline and cyclo(isoleucylprolyl) showed a particularly high specificity for coffee intake. Epigallocatechin and 4'-O-methylepigallocatechin appear to be the most sensitive and specific biomarkers for green or black tea, while 4-O-methylgallic acid may be used to assess black tea consumption. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has been assessed through the measurement of carbon-13 enrichment of whole blood or of blood alanine in North America where sugar from sugarcane or corn is used as a main ingredient. The most useful biomarkers for low-calorie-sweetened beverages are the low-calorie sweeteners themselves. Further studies are needed to validate these biomarkers in larger and independent populations and to further evaluate their specificity, reproducibility over time, and fields of application.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(3): 517-524, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of polyphenol intakes is needed in epidemiologic research in order to study their health effects, and this can be particularly challenging in international study settings. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to describe the procedures to prepare a comprehensive polyphenol food-composition database that was used to calculate standardized polyphenol intakes from 24-h diet recalls (24HDRs) and dietary questionnaires (DQs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design: With the use of the comparable food classification and facet-descriptor system of the computerized 24HDR program EPIC-Soft (renamed GloboDiet), foods reported in the 24HDR (n = 74,626) were first aggregated following a stepwise process. Multi-ingredient and generic foods were broken down into ingredients or more-specific foods with consideration of regional consumption habits before matching to foods in the Phenol-Explorer database. Food-composition data were adjusted by using selected retention factors curated in Phenol-Explorer. DQ foods (n = 13,946) were matched to a generated EPIC 24HDR polyphenol-composition database before calculation of daily intakes from the 24HDR and DQ. RESULTS: Food matching yielded 2.0% and 2.7% of foods with missing polyphenol content in the 24HDR and DQ food data sets, respectively. Process-specific retention factors for 42 different polyphenol compounds were applied to adjust the polyphenol content in 35 prioritized Phenol-Explorer foods, thereby adjusting the polyphenol content in 70% of all of the prepared 24 food occurrences. A detailed food-composition database was finally generated for 437 polyphenols in 19,899 aggregated raw and prepared foods reported by 10 EPIC countries in the 24HDR. Conclusions: An efficient procedure was developed to build the most-comprehensive food-composition database for polyphenols, thereby standardizing the calculations of dietary polyphenol intakes obtained from different dietary assessment methods and European populations. The whole database is accessible online. This procedure could equally be used for other food constituents and in other cohorts.


Assuntos
Dieta , Análise de Alimentos , Alimentos/classificação , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/análise , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Registros de Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/análise , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Br J Nutr ; 120(3): 353-360, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860950

RESUMO

Several descriptive studies on the intake of polyphenols, mostly flavonoids, have been published, especially in Europe and the USA, but insufficient data are still available in Latin-American countries, where different types of foods are consumed and different dietary habits are observed. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to estimate dietary intakes of polyphenols, including grand total, total per classes and subclasses and individual compounds, and to identify their main food sources in Mexican women. The Mexican Teachers' Cohort includes 115 315 female teachers, 25 years and older, from twelve states of Mexico, including urban and rural areas. Dietary data were collected in the period 2008-2011 using a validated FFQ, and individual polyphenol intake was estimated using food composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. Median total polyphenol intake was the highest in Baja California (750 mg/d) and the lowest in Yucatan (536 mg/d). The main polyphenols consumed were phenolic acids (56·3-68·5 % total polyphenols), followed by flavonoids (28·8-40·9 %). Intake of other polyphenol subclasses (stilbenes, lignans and others) was insignificant. Coffee and fruits were the most important food sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids, respectively. Intake of a total of 287 different individual polyphenols could be estimated, of which forty-two were consumed in an amount ≥1 mg/d. The most largely consumed polyphenols were several caffeoylquinic acids (ranging from 20 and 460 mg/d), ferulic acid, hesperidin and proanthocyanidins. This study shows a large heterogeneity in intakes of individual polyphenols among Mexican women, but a moderate heterogeneity across Mexican states. Main food sources were also similar in the different states.


Assuntos
Dieta , Flavonoides/sangue , Alimentos , Polifenóis/sangue , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Estilo de Vida , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Fenóis/análise , População Rural , Ensino , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 33(11): 1063-1075, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761424

RESUMO

Polyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and subclasses of polyphenols and CRC risk and its main subsites, colon and rectum, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The cohort included 476,160 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 5991 incident CRC cases, of which 3897 were in the colon and 2094 were in the rectum. Polyphenol intake was estimated using validated centre/country specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, a doubling in total dietary polyphenol intake was not associated with CRC risk in women (HRlog2 = 1.06, 95% CI 0.99-1.14) or in men (HRlog2 = 0.97, 95% CI 0.90-1.05), respectively. Phenolic acid intake, highly correlated with coffee consumption, was inversely associated with colon cancer in men (HRlog2 = 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.97) and positively associated with rectal cancer in women (HRlog2 = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19); although associations did not exceed the Bonferroni threshold for significance. Intake of other polyphenol classes was not related to colorectal, colon or rectal cancer risks. Our study suggests a possible inverse association between phenolic acid intake and colon cancer risk in men and positive with rectal cancer risk in women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Avaliação Nutricional , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Café/química , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Chá/química
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(3): 233-244, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254934

RESUMO

Very large international and ethnic differences in cancer rates exist, are minimally explained by genetic factors, and show the huge potential for cancer prevention. A substantial portion of the differences in cancer rates can be explained by modifiable factors, and many important relationships have been documented between diet, physical activity, and obesity, and incidence of important cancers. Other related factors, such as the microbiome and the metabolome, are emerging as important intermediary components in cancer prevention. It is possible with the incorporation of newer technologies and studies including long follow-up and evaluation of effects across the life cycle, additional convincing results will be produced. However, several challenges exist for cancer researchers; for example, measurement of diet and physical activity, and lack of standardization of samples for microbiome collection, and validation of metabolomic studies. The United States National Cancer Institute convened the Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention Workshop on June 28-29, 2016, in Rockville, Maryland, during which the experts addressed the state of the science and areas of emphasis. This current paper reflects the state of the science and priorities for future research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(3); 233-44. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exercício , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , Incidência , Maryland , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
13.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 20(6): 512-521, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915128

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polyphenols are a large and diverse family of phytochemicals widely consumed by humans. Here we summarize the latest epidemiological evidence for associations between cancer risk and polyphenol intake, taking into account difficulties in the accurate estimation of exposure. RECENT FINDINGS: Flavonoids are the most studied subgroup of polyphenols with regard to cancer risk. In recent epidemiological studies, total flavonoid intake has rarely been associated with a reduction in cancer risk. However, isoflavones, whose main dietary source is soy foods, plausibly reduce the risk of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers, especially in Asian countries. Findings depend heavily upon the assessment of polyphenol intake, which is usually measured by food frequency questionnaires coupled to databases of food polyphenol composition. To a lesser extent, nutritional biomarkers have been used whenever estimating associations of polyphenol intake with cancer. SUMMARY: Polyphenol intake may mitigate cancer risk but this depends on cancer site, the subgroup of compounds under study, and accurate assessment of dietary exposure. Further work must better characterize the effects of intake of different flavonoid subclasses and begin to investigate the role of phenolic acids and other minor polyphenol classes.


Assuntos
Dieta , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Avaliação Nutricional , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biomarcadores/sangue , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Soja/química , Chá/química
14.
Br J Nutr ; 117(11): 1596-1602, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637522

RESUMO

In vitro studies have shown several beneficial properties of resveratrol. Epidemiological evidence is still scarce, probably because of the difficulty in estimating resveratrol exposure accurately. The current study aimed to assess the relationships between acute and habitual dietary resveratrol and wine intake and urinary resveratrol excretion in a European population. A stratified random subsample of 475 men and women from four countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study, who had provided 24-h urine samples and completed a 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) on the same day, were included. Acute and habitual dietary data were collected using standardised 24-HDR software and a validated country-specific dietary questionnaire, respectively. Phenol-Explorer was used to estimate the intake of resveratrol and other stilbenes. Urinary resveratrol was analysed using tandem MS. Spearman's correlation coefficients between estimated dietary intakes of resveratrol and other stilbenes and consumption of wine, their main food source, were very high (r>0·9) when measured using dietary questionnaires and were slightly lower with 24-HDR (r>0·8). Partial Spearman's correlations between urinary resveratrol excretion and intake of resveratrol, total stilbenes or wine were found to be higher when using the 24-HDR (R 2 partial approximately 0·6) than when using the dietary questionnaires (R 2 partial approximately 0·5). Moderate to high correlations between dietary resveratrol, total stilbenes and wine, and urinary resveratrol concentrations were observed. These support the earlier findings that 24-h urinary resveratrol is an effective biomarker of both resveratrol and wine intakes. These correlations also support the validity of the estimation of resveratrol intake using the dietary questionnaire and Phenol-Explorer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Fenóis/urina , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Vinho , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resveratrol , Estilbenos/urina
15.
Int J Cancer ; 140(8): 1836-1844, 2017 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28006847

RESUMO

Flavonoids have been shown to inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and protect against colorectal carcinogenesis in animal models. However, epidemiological evidence on the potential role of flavonoid intake in colorectal cancer (CRC) development remains sparse and inconsistent. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses and risk of development of CRC, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cohort of 477,312 adult men and women were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary intakes of total flavonoids and individual subclasses were estimated using centre-specific validated dietary questionnaires and composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 4,517 new cases of primary CRC were identified, of which 2,869 were colon (proximal = 1,298 and distal = 1,266) and 1,648 rectal tumours. No association was found between total flavonoid intake and the risk of overall CRC (HR for comparison of extreme quintiles 1.05, 95% CI 0.93-1.18; p-trend = 0.58) or any CRC subtype. No association was also observed with any intake of individual flavonoid subclasses. Similar results were observed for flavonoid intake expressed as glycosides or aglycone equivalents. Intake of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses, as estimated from dietary questionnaires, did not show any association with risk of CRC development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/dietoterapia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Flavonoides/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Sci Rep ; 6: 26905, 2016 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27273479

RESUMO

Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 µmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20-50 µmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 µmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/urina , Polifenóis/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 55(4): 1359-75, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26081647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations. The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group, followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food sources of total polyphenols. A total of 437 different individual polyphenols were consumed, including 94 consumed at a level >1 mg/day. The most abundant ones were the caffeoylquinic acids and the proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers. CONCLUSION: This study describes the large number of dietary individual polyphenols consumed and the high variability of their intakes between European populations, particularly between MED and non-MED countries.


Assuntos
Dieta , Avaliação Nutricional , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Café/química , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Exercício , Feminino , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/administração & dosagem , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proantocianidinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Chá/química
18.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 60(1): 203-11, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26310602

RESUMO

SCOPE: The Phenol-Explorer web database details 383 polyphenol metabolites identified in human and animal biofluids from 221 publications. Here, we exploit these data to characterize and visualize the polyphenol metabolome, the set of all metabolites derived from phenolic food components. METHODS AND RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative data on 383 polyphenol metabolites as described in 424 human and animal intervention studies were systematically analyzed. Of these metabolites, 301 were identified without prior enzymatic hydrolysis of biofluids, and included glucuronide and sulfate esters, glycosides, aglycones, and O-methyl ethers. Around one-third of these compounds are also known as food constituents and corresponded to polyphenols absorbed without further metabolism. Many ring-cleavage metabolites formed by gut microbiota were noted, mostly derived from hydroxycinnamates, flavanols, and flavonols. Median maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) of all human metabolites were 0.09 and 0.32 µM when consumed from foods or dietary supplements, respectively. Median time to reach maximum plasma concentration in humans (T(max)) was 2.18 h. CONCLUSION: These data show the complexity of the polyphenol metabolome and the need to take into account biotransformations to understand in vivo bioactivities and the role of dietary polyphenols in health and disease.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Animais , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacocinética , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Análise de Alimentos , Glucuronídeos/análise , Glucuronídeos/farmacocinética , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Éteres Metílicos/análise , Éteres Metílicos/farmacocinética
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 102(4): 905-13, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26269369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of the contribution of the diet to health and disease risks requires accurate assessments of dietary exposure in nutritional epidemiologic studies. The use of dietary biomarkers may improve the accuracy of estimates. OBJECTIVE: We applied a metabolomic approach in a large cohort study to identify novel biomarkers of intake for a selection of polyphenol-containing foods. The large chemical diversity of polyphenols and their wide distribution over many foods make them ideal biomarker candidates for such foods. DESIGN: Metabolic profiles were measured with the use of high-resolution mass spectrometry in 24-h urine samples from 481 subjects from the large European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Peak intensities were correlated to acute and habitual dietary intakes of 6 polyphenol-rich foods (coffee, tea, red wine, citrus fruit, apples and pears, and chocolate products) measured with the use of 24-h dietary recalls and food-frequency questionnaires, respectively. RESULTS: Correlation (r > 0.3, P < 0.01 after correction for multiple testing) and discriminant [pcorr (1) > 0.3, VIP > 1.5] analyses showed that >2000 mass spectral features from urine metabolic profiles were significantly associated with the consumption of the 6 selected foods. More than 80 polyphenol metabolites associated with the consumption of the selected foods could be identified, and large differences in their concentrations reflecting individual food intakes were observed within and between 4 European countries. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that 5 polyphenol metabolites, which are characteristic of 5 of the 6 selected foods, had a high predicting ability of food intake. CONCLUSION: Highly diverse food-derived metabolites (the so-called food metabolome) can be characterized in human biospecimens through this powerful metabolomic approach and screened to identify novel biomarkers for dietary exposures, which are ultimately essential to better understand the role of the diet in the cause of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Dieta , Metaboloma , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/urina , Cacau , Citrus , Café , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Malus , Rememoração Mental , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pyrus , Inquéritos e Questionários , Chá , Vinho
20.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 59(1): 160-70, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25338821

RESUMO

SCOPE: The Phenol-Explorer web database (http://www.phenol-explorer.eu) was recently updated with new data on polyphenol retention due to food processing. Here, we analyze these data to investigate the effect of different variables on polyphenol content and make recommendations aimed at refining estimation of intake in epidemiological studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data on the effects of processing upon 161 polyphenols compiled for the Phenol-Explorer database were analyzed to investigate the effects of polyphenol structure, food, and process upon polyphenol loss. These were expressed as retention factors (RFs), fold changes in polyphenol content due to processing. Domestic cooking of common plant foods caused considerable losses (median RF = 0.45-0.70), although variability was high. Food storage caused fewer losses, regardless of food or polyphenol (median RF = 0.88, 0.95, 0.92 for ambient, refrigerated, and frozen storage, respectively). The food under study was often a more important determinant of retention than the process applied. CONCLUSION: Phenol-Explorer data enable polyphenol losses due to processing from many different foods to be rapidly compared. Where experimentally determined polyphenol contents of a processed food are not available, only published RFs matching at least the food and polyphenol of interest should be used when building food composition tables for epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Polifenóis/análise , Fast Foods , Análise de Alimentos
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