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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3195, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324766

RESUMO

Genome analysis of diverse human populations has contributed to the identification of novel genomic loci for diseases of major clinical and public health impact. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in sub-Saharan Africans, an understudied ancestral group. We analyze ~18 million autosomal SNPs in 5,231 individuals from Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. We identify a previously-unreported genome-wide significant locus: ZRANB3 (Zinc Finger RANBP2-Type Containing 3, lead SNP p = 2.831 × 10-9). Knockdown or genomic knockout of the zebrafish ortholog results in reduction in pancreatic ß-cell number which we demonstrate to be due to increased apoptosis in islets. siRNA transfection of murine Zranb3 in MIN6 ß-cells results in impaired insulin secretion in response to high glucose, implicating Zranb3 in ß-cell functional response to high glucose conditions. We also show transferability in our study of 32 established T2D loci. Our findings advance understanding of the genetics of T2D in non-European ancestry populations.

2.
Diabetologia ; 62(7): 1204-1211, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049640

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes have uncovered >400 risk loci, primarily in populations of European and Asian ancestry. Here, we aimed to discover additional type 2 diabetes risk loci (including African-specific variants) and fine-map association signals by performing genetic analysis in African populations. METHODS: We conducted two type 2 diabetes genome-wide association studies in 4347 Africans from South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya and meta-analysed both studies together. Likely causal variants were identified using fine-mapping approaches. RESULTS: The most significantly associated variants mapped to the widely replicated type 2 diabetes risk locus near TCF7L2 (p = 5.3 × 10-13). Fine-mapping of the TCF7L2 locus suggested one type 2 diabetes association signal shared between Europeans and Africans (indexed by rs7903146) and a distinct African-specific signal (indexed by rs17746147). We also detected one novel signal, rs73284431, near AGMO (p = 5.2 × 10-9, minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.095; monomorphic in most non-African populations), distinct from previously reported signals in the region. In analyses focused on 100 published type 2 diabetes risk loci, we identified 21 with shared causal variants in African and non-African populations. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results demonstrate the value of performing GWAS in Africans, provide a resource to larger consortia for further discovery and fine-mapping and indicate that additional large-scale efforts in Africa are warranted to gain further insight in to the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.

3.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 167(4): 804-812, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Sahel is a semi-arid zone stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east and from the Sahara in the north to the Sudanian Savanna in the south. Here, we investigated the genetic history of the spread of Northern African ancestry common among Berbers, the Y DNA haplogroup R1b-V88, and Chadic languages throughout the Sahel, with a focus on Chad. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We integrated and analyzed genotype data from 751 individuals from Chad, Burkina Faso, Mali, South Sudan, and Sudan in the context of a global reference panel of 5,966 individuals. RESULTS: We found that genetic diversity in Chad was broadly divided by a north-south axis. The core ancestry of Southern Chadians was Central African, most closely related to Pygmies. Southern Chadians then experienced four waves of gene flow over the last 3,000 years from West-Central Africans, Eastern Africans, West-Central Africans again, and then Arabians. In contrast, Northern Chadians did not share Central African ancestry and were not influenced by the first wave of West-Central Africans but were influenced by Northern African ancestry. DISCUSSION: We found that Y DNA haplogroup R1b entered the Chadian gene pool during Baggarization. Baggara Arabs spoke Arabic, not Chadic, implying that people carrying R1b-V88 were not responsible for the spread of Chadic languages, which may have spread approximately 3,700 years ago. We found no evidence for migration of Near Eastern farmers or any ancient episodes involving Eurasian backflow.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107520

RESUMO

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from a complex interplay between genetics and the environment. Several epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have found DNA methylation loci associated with T2D in European populations. However, data from African populations are lacking. We undertook the first EWAS for T2D among sub-Saharan Africans, aiming at identifying ubiquitous and novel DNA methylation loci associated with T2D. Methods: The Illumina 450k DNA-methylation array was used on whole blood samples of 713 Ghanaian participants (256 with T2D, 457 controls) from the cross-sectional Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study. Differentially methylated positions (DMPs) for T2D and HbA1c were identified through linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, estimated cell counts, hybridization batch, array position and body mass index (BMI). We also did a candidate analysis of previously reported EWAS loci for T2D in non-African populations, identified through a systematic literature search. Results: Four DMPs [cg19693031 (TXNIP), cg04816311 (C7orf50), cg00574958 (CPT1A), cg07988171 (TPM4)] were associated with T2D after correction for inflation by possible systematic biases. The most strongly associated DMP-cg19693031, TXNIP (P = 2.6E-19) -showed hypomethylation in T2D cases compared with controls. Two out of the four DMPs [cg19693031 (TXNIP), cg04816311 (C7orf50)] remained associated with T2D after adjustment for BMI, and one locus [cg07988171 (TPM4)] that has not been reported previously. Conclusions: In this first EWAS for T2D in sub-Saharan Africans, we have identified four DMPs at epigenome-wide level, one of which is novel. These findings provide insight into the epigenetic loci that underlie the burden of T2D in sub-Saharan Africans.

5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7680, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769661

RESUMO

Obese individuals without expected metabolic co-morbidities are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO). The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype remain elusive. MicroRNAs may be involved in the MHO phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we screened 179 serum miRNAs in 20 African-American women (10 MHOs and 10 metabolically abnormal obese individuals -MAO). We identified 8 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) with validation in an independent sample of 64 MHO and 34 MAO. Of the eight DEMs in the screening phase (p ≤ 0.05), miR-374a-5p remained significant (p = 0.04) with directional consistency in the validation sample. Ingenuity Pathway analysis revealed that miR-374a-5p putatively targeted 37 mRNAs (e.g. chemokines and transcription factors) which are members of canonical pathways involved in inflammation (IL-17A signaling) and lipid metabolism. Analysis restricted to adipocytes, the main source of circulating miRNAs in obesity, identified 3 mRNAs (CCL2, STEAP2, EN1) as the main target of miR-374a-5p. Evaluation of the 3 mRNAs in an independent sample showed that CCL2 was significantly downregulated (p = 0.0005). In summary, MiR-374a-5p is upregulated in MHO compared to MAO individuals and appears to show association with downregulation of pro-inflammatory markers that are linked to insulin resistance. Given the correlative nature of our findings, functional studies are needed.

6.
Genome Biol Evol ; 10(3): 875-882, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608727

RESUMO

The Hadza and Sandawe populations in present-day Tanzania speak languages containing click sounds and therefore thought to be distantly related to southern African Khoisan languages. We analyzed genome-wide genotype data for individuals sampled from the Hadza and Sandawe populations in the context of a global data set of 3,528 individuals from 163 ethno-linguistic groups. We found that Hadza and Sandawe individuals share ancestry distinct from and most closely related to Omotic ancestry; share Khoisan ancestry with populations such as ≠Khomani, Karretjie, and Ju/'hoansi in southern Africa; share Niger-Congo ancestry with populations such as Yoruba from Nigeria and Luhya from Kenya, consistent with migration associated with the Bantu Expansion; and share Cushitic ancestry with Somali, multiple Ethiopian populations, the Maasai population in Kenya, and the Nama population in Namibia. We detected evidence for low levels of Arabian, Nilo-Saharan, and Pygmy ancestries in a minority of individuals. Our results indicate that west Eurasian ancestry in eastern Africa is more precisely the Arabian parent of Cushitic ancestry. Relative to the Out-of-Africa migrations, Hadza ancestry emerged early whereas Sandawe ancestry emerged late.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano/genética , DNA Antigo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Tanzânia
7.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194400, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign ethnic neutropenia (BEN) is a hematologic condition associated with people of African ancestry and specific Middle Eastern ethnic groups. Prior genetic association studies in large population showed that rs2814778 in Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene, specifically DARC null red cell phenotype, was associated with BEN. However, the mechanism of this red cell phenotype leading to low white cell count remained elusive. METHODS: We conducted an extreme phenotype design genome-wide association study (GWAS), analyzed ~16 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 1,178 African-Americans individuals from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study and replicated from 819 African-American participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Conditional analyses on rs2814778 were performed to identify additional association signals on chromosome 1q22. In a separate cohort of healthy individuals with and without BEN, whole genome gene expression from peripheral blood neutrophils were analyzed for DARC. RESULTS: We confirmed that rs2814778 in DARC was associated with BEN (p = 4.09×10-53). Conditioning on rs2814778 abolished other significant chromosome 1 associations. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, 6, and 10) in participants in the Howard University Family Study (HUFS) and Multi-Ethnic Study in Atherosclerosis (MESA) showed similar levels in individuals homozygous for the rs2814778 allele compared to others, indicating cytokine sink hypothesis played a minor role in leukocyte homeostasis. Gene expression in neutrophils of individuals with and without BEN was also similar except for low DARC expression in BEN, suggesting normal function. BEN neutrophils had slightly activated profiles in leukocyte migration and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization pathways (expression fold change <2). CONCLUSIONS: These results in humans support the notion of DARC null erythroid progenitors preferentially differentiating to myeloid cells, leading to activated DARC null neutrophils egressing from circulation to the spleen, and causing relative neutropenia. Collectively, these human data sufficiently explained the mechanism DARC null red cell phenotype causing BEN and further provided a biologic basis that BEN is clinically benign.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Citocinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neutropenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Neutropenia/etnologia , Neutropenia/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 547-556, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526279

RESUMO

Five classical designations of sickle haplotypes are made on the basis of the presence or absence of restriction sites and are named after the ethno-linguistic groups or geographic regions from which the individuals with sickle cell anemia originated. Each haplotype is thought to represent an independent occurrence of the sickle mutation rs334 (c.20A>T [p.Glu7Val] in HBB). We investigated the origins of the sickle mutation by using whole-genome-sequence data. We identified 156 carriers from the 1000 Genomes Project, the African Genome Variation Project, and Qatar. We classified haplotypes by using 27 polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with rs334. Network analysis revealed a common haplotype that differed from the ancestral haplotype only by the derived sickle mutation at rs334 and correlated collectively with the Central African Republic (CAR), Cameroon, and Arabian/Indian haplotypes. Other haplotypes were derived from this haplotype and fell into two clusters, one composed of Senegal haplotypes and the other composed of Benin and Senegal haplotypes. The near-exclusive presence of the original sickle haplotype in the CAR, Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa is consistent with this haplotype predating the Bantu expansions. Modeling of balancing selection indicated that the heterozygote advantage was 15.2%, an equilibrium frequency of 12.0% was reached after 87 generations, and the selective environment predated the mutation. The posterior distribution of the ancestral recombination graph yielded a sickle mutation age of 259 generations, corresponding to 7,300 years ago during the Holocene Wet Phase. These results clarify the origin of the sickle allele and improve and simplify the classification of sickle haplotypes.

9.
NPJ Genom Med ; 3: 4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387454

RESUMO

Several clinical guidelines have been proposed to distinguish metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) from other subgroups of obesity but the molecular mechanisms by which MHO individuals remain metabolically healthy despite having a high fat mass are yet to be elucidated. We conducted the first whole blood transcriptomic study designed to identify specific sets of genes that might shed novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that protect or delay the occurrence of obesity-related co-morbidities in MHO. The study included 29 African-American obese individuals, 8 MHO and 21 metabolically abnormal obese (MAO). Unbiased transcriptome-wide network analysis was carried out to identify molecular modules of co-expressed genes that are collectively associated with MHO. Network analysis identified a group of 23 co-expressed genes, including ribosomal protein genes (RPs), which were significantly downregulated in MHO subjects. The three pathways enriched in the group of co-expressed genes are EIF2 signaling, regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling, and mTOR signaling. The expression of ten of the RPs collectively predicted MHO status with an area under the curve of 0.81. Triglycerides/HDL (TG/HDL) ratio, an index of insulin resistance, was the best predictor of the expression of genes in the MHO group. The higher TG/HDL values observed in the MAO subjects may underlie the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and related-stress pathways that lead to a chronic inflammatory state. In summary, these findings suggest that controlling ER stress and/or ribosomal stress by downregulating RPs or controlling TG/HDL ratio may represent effective strategies to prevent or delay the occurrence of metabolic disorders in obese individuals.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(R2): R225-R236, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977439

RESUMO

A deeper appreciation of the complex architecture of African genomes is critical to the global effort to understand human history, biology and differential distribution of disease by geography and ancestry. Here, we report on how the growing engagement of African populations in genome science is providing new insights into the forces that shaped human genomes before and after the Out-of-Africa migrations. As a result of this human evolutionary history, African ancestry populations have the greatest genomic diversity in the world, and this diversity has important ramifications for genomic research. In the case of pharmacogenomics, for instance, variants of consequence are not limited to those identified in other populations, and diversity within African ancestry populations precludes summarizing risk across different African ethnic groups. Exposure of Africans to fatal pathogens, such as Plasmodium falciparum, Lassa Virus and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, has resulted in elevated frequencies of alleles conferring survival advantages for infectious diseases, but that are maladaptive in modern-day environments. Illustrating with cardiometabolic traits, we show that while genomic research in African ancestry populations is still in early stages, there are already many examples of novel and African ancestry-specific disease loci that have been discovered. Furthermore, the shorter haplotypes in African genomes have facilitated fine-mapping of loci discovered in other human ancestry populations. Given the insights already gained from the interrogation of African genomes, it is imperative to continue and increase our efforts to describe genomic risk in and across African ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Alelos , Evolução Biológica , Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Saúde , Humanos , Farmacogenética/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
11.
Clin Epigenetics ; 9: 103, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28947923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have identified DNA methylation loci involved in adiposity. However, EWAS on adiposity in sub-Saharan Africans are lacking despite the high burden of adiposity among African populations. We undertook an EWAS for anthropometric indices of adiposity among Ghanaians aiming to identify DNA methylation loci that are significantly associated. METHODS: The Illumina 450k DNA methylation array was used to profile DNA methylation in whole blood samples of 547 Ghanaians from the Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study. Differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and differentially methylation regions (DMRs) were identified for BMI and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), as well as for waist circumference (WC) and abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 102 cm in men, ≥88 cm in women). All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, blood cell distribution estimates, technical covariates, recruitment site and population stratification. We also did a replication study of previously reported EWAS loci for anthropometric indices in other populations. RESULTS: We identified 18 DMPs for BMI and 23 for WC. For obesity and abdominal obesity, we identified three and one DMP, respectively. Fourteen DMPs overlapped between BMI and WC. DMP cg00574958 annotated to gene CPT1A was the only DMP associated with all outcomes analysed, attributing to 6.1 and 5.6% of variance in obesity and abdominal obesity, respectively. DMP cg07839457 (NLRC5) and cg20399616 (BCAT1) were significantly associated with BMI, obesity and with WC and had not been reported by previous EWAS on adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: This first EWAS for adiposity in Africans identified three epigenome-wide significant loci (CPT1A, NLRC5 and BCAT1) for both general adiposity and abdominal adiposity. The findings are a first step in understanding the role of DNA methylation in adiposity among sub-Saharan Africans. Studies on other sub-Saharan African populations as well as translational studies are needed to determine the role of these DNA methylation variants in the high burden of adiposity among sub-Saharan Africans.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Metilação de DNA , DNA/sangue , Epigenômica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Obesidade/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Circunferência da Cintura
12.
J Community Genet ; 8(4): 255-266, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770442

RESUMO

Conducting genomic research in diverse populations has led to numerous advances in our understanding of human history, biology, and health disparities, in addition to discoveries of vital clinical significance. Conducting genomic research in diverse populations is also important in ensuring that the genomic revolution does not exacerbate health disparities by facilitating discoveries that will disproportionately benefit well-represented populations. Despite the general agreement on the need for genomic research in diverse populations in terms of equity and scientific progress, genomic research remains largely focused on populations of European descent. In this article, we describe the rationale for conducting genomic research in diverse populations by reviewing examples of advances facilitated by their inclusion. We also explore some of the factors that perpetuate the disproportionate attention on well-represented populations. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to ameliorate this continuing bias. Collaborative and intensive efforts at all levels of research, from the funding of studies to the publication of their findings, will be necessary to ensure that genomic research does not conserve historical inequalities or curtail the contribution that genomics could make to the health of all humanity.

13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1572, 2017 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28484253

RESUMO

Genetic and archaeological studies have established a sub-Saharan African origin for anatomically modern humans with subsequent migrations out of Africa. Using the largest multi-locus data set known to date, we investigated genetic differentiation of early modern humans, human admixture and migration events, and relationships among ancestries and language groups. We compiled publicly available genome-wide genotype data on 5,966 individuals from 282 global samples, representing 30 primary language families. The best evidence supports 21 ancestries that delineate genetic structure of present-day human populations. Independent of self-identified ethno-linguistic labels, the vast majority (97.3%) of individuals have mixed ancestry, with evidence of multiple ancestries in 96.8% of samples and on all continents. The data indicate that continents, ethno-linguistic groups, races, ethnicities, and individuals all show substantial ancestral heterogeneity. We estimated correlation coefficients ranging from 0.522 to 0.962 between ancestries and language families or branches. Ancestry data support the grouping of Kwadi-Khoe, Kx'a, and Tuu languages, support the exclusion of Omotic languages from the Afroasiatic language family, and do not support the proposed Dené-Yeniseian language family as a genetically valid grouping. Ancestry data yield insight into a deeper past than linguistic data can, while linguistic data provide clarity to ancestry data.

14.
Public Health Genomics ; 20(1): 9-26, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28482349

RESUMO

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is experiencing a growing burden of cardiometabolic disorders, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, coronary heart disease, and stroke. The increasing trends are expected to accelerate as SSA continues to experience economic progress, population growth, and the shift from communicable to noncommunicable diseases. These complex disorders are caused by multiple, potentially interacting, environmental, and genetic factors. While considerable progress has been made in the identification of the sociocultural, demographic, and lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders, many genetic factors that underlie individual susceptibility to these diseases remain largely unknown. Although progress in genomic technologies has allowed for systematic characterization of genome-wide genetic diversity in health and disease in European and Asian ancestry populations, conduct of genetic studies in SSA has been underwhelming until recently. Here, we summarize recent understanding of the body of knowledge and highlight research opportunities on the genomics of cardiometabolic disorders in SSA. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Genômica , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/genética , Previsões , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética
15.
Glob Heart ; 12(2): 141-150, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28528248

RESUMO

African Americans generally have a healthier lipid profile (lower triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration) compared with those of other ethnicities. Paradoxically, African Americans do not experience a decreased risk of the cardiometabolic diseases that serum lipids are expected to predict. This review explores this mismatch between biomarker and disease among African ancestry individuals by investigating the presence of interethnic differences in the biological relationships underlying the serum lipids-disease association. This review also discusses the physiologic and genomic factors underlying these interethnic differences. Additionally, because of the importance of serum lipids in assessing disease risk, interethnic differences in serum lipids have implications for identifying African ancestry individuals at risk of cardiometabolic disease. Where possible, data from Africa is included, to further elucidate these ancestral differences in the context of a different environmental background.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , África/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173784, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346466

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified over one hundred common genetic risk variants associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, most of the heritability of T2D has not been accounted for. In this study, we investigated the contribution of rare and common variants to T2D susceptibility by analyzing exome array data in 1,908 Han Chinese genotyped with Affymetrix Axiom® Exome Genotyping Arrays. Based on the joint common and rare variants analysis of 57,704 autosomal SNPs within 12,244 genes using Sequence Kernel Association Tests (SKAT), we identified significant associations between T2D and 25 variants (9 rare and 16 common) in MUC5B, p-value 1.01×10-14. This finding was replicated (p = 0.0463) in an independent sample that included 10,401 unrelated individuals. Sixty-six of 1,553 possible haplotypes based on 25 SNPs within MUC5B showed significant association with T2D (Bonferroni corrected p values < 3.2×10-5). The expression level of MUC5B is significantly higher in pancreatic tissues of persons with T2D compared to those without T2D (p-value = 5×10-5). Our findings suggest that dysregulated MUC5B expression may be involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. As a strong candidate gene for T2D, MUC5B may play an important role in the mechanisms underlying T2D etiology and its complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Mucina-5B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Éxons , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/patologia
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 25(4): 794-800, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity varies between ethnic groups. No genome-wide association study (GWAS) for body mass index (BMI) has been conducted in continental Africans. METHODS: We performed a GWAS for BMI in 1,570 West Africans (WA). Replication was conducted in independent samples of WA (n = 1,411) and African Americans (AA) (n = 9,020). RESULTS: We identified a novel genome-wide significant African-specific locus for BMI (SEMA4D, rs80068415; minor allele frequency = 0.008, P = 2.10 × 10-8 ). This finding was replicated in independent samples of WA (P = 0.013) and AA (P = 0.017). Individuals with obesity had higher serum SEMA4D levels compared to those without obesity (P < 0.0001), and elevated levels of serum SEMA4D were associated with increased obesity risk (OR = 4.2, P < 1 × 10-4 ). The prevalence of obesity was higher in individuals with the CT versus TT genotypes (55.6% vs. 22.9%). CONCLUSIONS: A novel variant in SEMA4D was significantly associated with BMI. Carriers of the C allele were 4.6 BMI units heavier than carriers of the T allele (P = 0.0007). This variant is monomorphic in Europeans and Asians, highlighting the importance of studying diverse populations. While there is evidence for the involvement of SEMA4D in inflammatory processes, this study is the first to implicate SEMA4D in obesity pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Antígenos CD/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Semaforinas/genética , África Ocidental , Alelos , Antígenos CD/sangue , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Semaforinas/sangue
18.
J Asthma ; 54(1): 1-8, 2017 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27177148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transferability of significantly associated loci or GWAS "hits" adds credibility to genotype-disease associations and provides evidence for generalizability across different ancestral populations. We sought evidence of association of known asthma-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an African American population. METHODS: Subjects comprised 661 participants (261 asthma cases and 400 controls) from the Howard University Family Study. Forty-eight SNPs previously reported to be associated with asthma by GWAS were selected for testing. We adopted a combined strategy by first adopting an "exact" approach where we looked-up only the reported index SNP. For those index SNPs missing form our dataset, we used a "local" approach that examined all the regional SNPs in LD with the index SNP. RESULTS: Out of the 48 SNPs, our cohort had genotype data available for 27, which were examined for exact replication. Of these, two SNPs were found positively associated with asthma. These included: rs10508372 (OR = 1.567 [95%CI, 1.133-2.167], P = 0.0066) and rs2378383 (OR = 2.147 [95%CI, 1.149-4.013], P = 0.0166), located on chromosomal bands 10p14 and 9q21.31, respectively. Local replication of the remaining 21 loci showed association at two chromosomal loci (9p24.1-rs2381413 and 6p21.32-rs3132947; Bonferroni-corrected P values: 0.0033 and 0.0197, respectively). Of note, multiple SNPs in LD with rs2381413 located upstream of IL33 were significantly associated with asthma. CONCLUSIONS: This study has successfully transferred four reported asthma-associated loci in an independent African American population. Identification of several asthma-associated SNPs in the upstream of the IL33, a gene previously implicated in allergic inflammation of asthmatic airway, supports the generalizability of this finding.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Curr Opin Genet Dev ; 41: 77-84, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27644073

RESUMO

The trans-Atlantic slave trade brought millions of Africans to the New World. Advances in genomics are providing novel insights into the history and health of Africans and the diasporan populations. Recent examples reviewed here include the unraveling of substantial hunter-gatherer and 'Eurasian' admixtures across sub-Saharan Africa, expanding our understanding of ancestral African genetics; the global ubiquity of mixed ancestry; the revealing of African ancestry in Latin Americans that likely derived from the slave trade; and understanding of the ancestral backgrounds of APOL1 and LPL found to influence kidney disease and lipid levels, respectively, providing specific insights into disease etiology and health disparities.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Genética Populacional/história , Genoma Humano/genética , Apolipoproteína L1/genética , Escravização/história , Variação Genética , Genômica/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27303364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a leading risk factor for impaired kidney function, an indicator of chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and impaired kidney function among adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: Participants were enrolled from Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria. Impaired kidney function was based on an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Using logistic regression models, we conducted case-control analyses to estimate the multivariate-adjusted association of T2D and kidney function. RESULTS: We used data from 4815 participants for whom the mean (SD) age was 48 (15) years, 41% were male and 46% had T2D. Those with T2D were more likely to have impaired kidney function [13.4% (95% CI: 11.9-14.7)] compared to those without T2D [4.8% (95% CI: 4.0-5.6)], p-value <0.001. The multivariate odds ratio of impaired kidney function among those with type 2 diabetes was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.17-1.91) p-value = 0.001, compared to those without T2D. Also, individuals with T2D who were at least 60 years old, obese, hypertensive or dyslipidemic were more likely to have impaired kidney function compared to those without T2D. CONCLUSION: T2D was associated with 50% increased risk of impaired kidney function in this sample of adults from SSA. Interventions targeted at prevention, early diagnosis, and management of T2D are likely to reduce the burden of kidney disease in SSA.

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