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1.
N Engl J Med ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative merits of ticagrelor as compared with prasugrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes for whom invasive evaluation is planned are uncertain. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, open-label trial, we randomly assigned patients who presented with acute coronary syndromes and for whom invasive evaluation was planned to receive either ticagrelor or prasugrel. The primary end point was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year. A major secondary end point (the safety end point) was bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 4018 patients underwent randomization. A primary-end point event occurred in 184 of 2012 patients (9.3%) in the ticagrelor group and in 137 of 2006 patients (6.9%) in the prasugrel group (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.70; P = 0.006). The respective incidences of the individual components of the primary end point in the ticagrelor group and the prasugrel group were as follows: death, 4.5% and 3.7%; myocardial infarction, 4.8% and 3.0%; and stroke, 1.1% and 1.0%. Definite or probable stent thrombosis occurred in 1.3% of patients assigned to ticagrelor and 1.0% of patients assigned to prasugrel, and definite stent thrombosis occurred in 1.1% and 0.6%, respectively. Major bleeding (as defined by the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium scale) was observed in 5.4% of patients in the ticagrelor group and in 4.8% of patients in the prasugrel group (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.51; P = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who presented with acute coronary syndromes with or without ST-segment elevation, the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was significantly lower among those who received prasugrel than among those who received ticagrelor, and the incidence of major bleeding was not significantly different between the two groups. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research and Deutsches Herzzentrum München; ISAR-REACT 5 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01944800.).

2.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2142-2151, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098611

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical features, and prognostic implications of cardiac arrest (CA) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the records of patients with CA and known heart rhythm from the International Takotsubo Registry. The main outcomes were 60-day and 5-year mortality. In addition, predictors of mortality and predictors of CA during the acute TTS phase were assessed. Of 2098 patients, 103 patients with CA and known heart rhythm during CA were included. Compared with patients without CA, CA patients were more likely to be younger, male, and have apical TTS, atrial fibrillation (AF), neurologic comorbidities, physical triggers, and longer corrected QT-interval and lower left ventricular ejection fraction on admission. In all, 57.1% of patients with CA at admission had ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, while 73.7% of patients with CA in the acute phase had asystole/pulseless electrical activity. Patients with CA showed higher 60-day (40.3% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (68.9% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001) than patients without CA. T-wave inversion and intracranial haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 60-day mortality after CA, whereas female gender was associated with lower 60-day mortality. In the acute phase, CA occurred less frequently in females and more frequently in patients with AF, ST-segment elevation, and higher C-reactive protein on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is relatively frequent in TTS and is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters independently predicted mortality after CA.

3.
Ger Med Sci ; 17: Doc02, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996721

RESUMO

The current gold standard for assessment of most sleep disorders is the in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG). This approach produces high costs and inconveniences for the patients. An accessible and simple preliminary screening method to diagnose the most common sleep disorders and to decide whether a PSG is necessary or not is therefore desirable. A minimalistic type-4 monitoring system which utilized tracheal body sound and actigraphy to accurately diagnose the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was previously developed. To further improve the diagnostic ability of said system, this study aims to examine if it is possible to perform automated sleep staging utilizing body sound to extract cardiorespiratory features and actigraphy to extract movement features. A linear discriminant classifier based on those features was used for automated sleep staging using the type-4 sleep monitor. For validation 53 subjects underwent a full-night screening at Ulm University Hospital using the developed sleep monitor in addition to polysomnography. To assess sleep stages from PSG, a trained technician manually evaluated EEG, EOG, and EMG recordings. The classifier reached 86.9% accuracy and a Kappa of 0.69 for sleep/wake classification, 76.3% accuracy and a Kappa of 0.42 for Wake/REM/NREM classification, and 56.5% accuracy and a Kappa of 0.36 for Wake/REM/light sleep/deep sleep classification. For the calculation of sleep efficiency (SE), a coefficient of determination r2 of 0.78 is reached. Additionally, subjects were classified into groups of SEs (SE≥40%, SE≥60% and SE≥80%). A Cohen's Kappa >0.61 was reached for all groups, which is considered as substantial agreement. The presented method provides satisfactory performance in sleep/wake and wake/REM/NREM sleep staging while maintaining a simple setup and offering high comfort. This minimalistic approach may address the need for a simple yet reliable preliminary sleep screening in an ambulatory setting.

4.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(5): 433-443, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the Acurate neo (NEO) and Evolut PRO (PRO) devices. BACKGROUND: The NEO and PRO bioprostheses are 2 next-generation self-expanding devices developed for TAVR. METHODS: The NEOPRO (A Multicenter Comparison of Acurate NEO Versus Evolut PRO Transcatheter Heart Valves) registry retrospectively included patients who underwent transfemoral TAVR with either NEO or PRO valves at 24 centers between January 2012 and March 2018. One-to-one propensity score matching resulted in 251 pairs. Pre-discharge and 30-day Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 defined outcomes were evaluated. Binary logistic regression was performed to adjust the treatment effect for propensity score quintiles. RESULTS: A total of 1,551 patients (n = 1,263 NEO; n = 288 PRO) were included. The mean age was 82 years, and the mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 5.1%. After propensity score matching (n = 502), VARC-2 device success (90.6% vs. 91.6%; p = 0.751) and pre-discharge moderate to severe (II+) paravalvular aortic regurgitation (7.3% vs. 5.7%; p = 0.584) were comparable between the NEO and PRO groups. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in any 30-day clinical outcome between matched NEO and PRO pairs, including all-cause mortality (3.2% vs. 1.2%; p = 0.221), stroke (2.4% vs. 2.8%; p = 1.000), new permanent pacemaker implantation (11.0% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.565), and VARC-2 early safety endpoint (10.6% vs. 10.4%; p = 1.000). Logistic regression on the unmatched cohort confirmed a similar risk of VARC-2 device success, paravalvular aortic regurgitation II+, and 30-day clinical outcomes after NEO and PRO implantation. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter registry, transfemoral TAVR with the NEO and PRO bioprostheses was associated with high device success, acceptable rates of paravalvular aortic regurgitation II+, and good 30-day clinical outcomes. After adjusting for potential confounders, short-term outcomes were similar between the devices.

6.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 22, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) for the treatment of long lesions are limited. We studied the use of BVS-Absorb in routine clinical practice and compared the outcome of long lesions with short lesions. Implantation of drug-eluting scaffolds without PSP-technique (predilation, proper sizing and postdilation) is associated with an increased thrombotic risk. We compared the long-term outcome up to 36 months of patients with short (< 20 mm) and long (≥20 mm) coronary artery lesions after implantation of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) via PSP-technique. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-six patients with 424 lesions were enrolled in this prospective study and underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with the Absorb BVS. Clinical follow-up was scheduled after 12, 24 and 36 months. In all lesions the PSP-technique was used. The device oriented composite endpoint (DOCE) was defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) not clearly related to a non-target vessel and target lesion revascularization (TLR). RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier estimates for DOCE after 12 months were 2.63% for short lesions and 8.09% for long lesions (p = 0.0131), 5.51% vs. 11.35% (p = 0.0503) after 24 months and 8.00% vs. 18.00% (p = 0.0264) after 36 months of clinical follow-up. Kaplan-Meier estimates for TLR after 12 months were 1.46% for short and 7.69% for long lesions (p = 0.0012), 2.06% vs. 8.75% after 24 months (p = 0.0027) and 4.96% vs. 9.59% after 36 months of follow-up (p = 0.0109). Scaffold thrombosis rates were low. CONCLUSIONS: In long lesions compared to short ones the bioresorbable scaffold Absorb implanted with the proper PSP technique Absorb has significant higher rates of DOCE. THE LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Is 3 (non-random sample).

7.
Eur Heart J ; 40(17): 1334-1340, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590554

RESUMO

AIMS: The role of cerebral embolic protection (CEP) in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) remains controversial. Randomized trials have not been powered to demonstrate a reduction in stroke rates. The aim of this patient level pooled analysis was to validate the impact of the dual-filter CEP device (Claret Medical Inc., CA, USA) on peri-procedural stroke in a large number of TAVR patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients from the SENTINEL US IDE trial were combined with the CLEAN-TAVI and SENTINEL-Ulm study in a patient level pooled analysis (N = 1306). Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for possible confounders. The primary endpoint was procedural stroke within 72 h post-TAVR according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria. The secondary endpoint was the combination of all-cause mortality or all-stroke within 72 h after TAVR. In the propensity-matched population, 533 patients underwent TAVR without CEP and 533 patients underwent TAVR with CEP. TAVR patients without vs. with CEP were similar with respect to baseline characteristics, procedural approach, or valve type. In patients undergoing TAVR with dual-filter CEP, procedural all-stroke was significantly lower compared with unprotected procedures [1.88% vs. 5.44%, odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17-0.72, relative risk reduction 65%, P = 0.0028]. In addition, all-cause mortality and all-stroke were significantly lower (2.06% vs. 6.00%, odds ratio 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.68, relative risk reduction 66%, P = 0.0013). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that TAVR with the dual-filter CEP device is associated with a significant lower rate of peri-procedural stroke compared with unprotected procedures. However, randomized trials are still needed to clarify this issue.

9.
Biomolecules ; 8(4)2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463247

RESUMO

Background: Atrial fibrillation is common in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) and has a negative impact on the clinical outcome of patients with valvular heart disease. We aimed to evaluate the impact of pre-procedural atrial fibrillation on the long-term clinical outcomes of patients with MR undergoing transcatheter mitral valve repair by MitraClip implantation. Methods: We analysed 355 consecutive patients with and without atrial fibrillation with symptomatic, severe MR and inoperability or high surgical risk undergoing MitraClip implantation in a three-year follow-up. Results: In patients with pre-procedural atrial fibrillation undergoing MitraClip implantation, we found advanced age, higher baseline NT-pro-BNP levels, increased left atrial diameter, and higher rate of severe tricuspid regurgitation, compared to patients with sinus rhythm. In the three-year follow-up after MitraClip implantation, mortality and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCE) occur significantly more often in patients with atrial fibrillation, compared to patients without atrial fibrillation. Multivariate regression analysis confirmed atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio 2.39, 95%-confidence interval 1.06⁻5.41, p = 0.036) as an independent predictor for three-year-mortality after MitraClip implantation. Conclusions: Atrial fibrillation is an independent predictor for long-term mortality after MitraClip implantation. We demonstrate the association of atrial fibrillation with mortality and MACCE in the long-term follow-up of patients undergoing MitraClip implantation.

10.
Biomolecules ; 8(4)2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463267

RESUMO

Patients with inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) often suffer from severe heart failure based on impaired cardiac contractility leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) as a part of the cardiac mechanical stretch sensor was found to be an essential genetic regulator of cardiac contractility. Integrin-linked kinase localizes to z-disks and costameres in vertebrate hearts and regulates the activity of the signaling molecule protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) by controlling its phosphorylation. Despite identification of several potential drug targets in the ILK signaling pathway, pharmacological treatment strategies to restore contractile function in ILK-dependent cardiomyopathies have not been established yet. In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as a valuable experimental system to model human cardiomyopathies as well as a powerful tool for the straightforward high-throughput in vivo small compound screening of therapeutically active substances. Using the ILK deficient zebrafish heart failure mutant main squeeze (msq), which shows reduced PKB phosphorylation and thereby impaired cardiac contractile force, we identified here, in an automated small compound screen, the protein phosphatase inhibitors calyculin A and okadaic acid significantly restoring myocardial contractile function by reconstituting PKB phosphorylation in msq ILK-deficient zebrafish embryos.

11.
Biomolecules ; 8(4)2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunoadsorption and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administration may have beneficial effects in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy with end-stage heart failure. We investigated the effect of immunoadsorption with subsequent IVIG administration on cardiac function and symptoms in patients on optimal medical treatment (OMT) for heart failure (HF) with recent-onset cardiomyopathy during long-term follow-up. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with recent-onset of HF symptoms received intensive guideline-recommended medical HF therapy for 5.2 months. Subsequently, all patients received a single cycle of immunoadsorption for five days followed by IVIG administration. During the 29-month follow-up period, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were evaluated. Changes in quality of life (QoL) were assessed using the Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire. RESULTS: Three months after immunoadsorption, NYHA functional class improved from 2.0 to 1.5 (p < 0.005) and LVEF significantly increased from 27.0% to 39.0% (p < 0.0001). Long-term follow-up of 29 months showed stable NYHA functional class and a further moderate increase in LVEF from 39.0% to 42.0% (p < 0.0001) accompanied by a significant improvement in NT-proBNP and QoL scores. CONCLUSION: Immunoadsorption followed by IVIG administration further enhances LVEF, HF symptoms, QoL and biomarkers in patients with recent-onset HF on OMT.

12.
Biomolecules ; 8(4)2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486323

RESUMO

Genetic model organisms have the potential of removing blind spots from the underlying gene regulatory networks of human diseases. Allowing analyses under experimental conditions they complement the insights gained from observational data. An inevitable requirement for a successful trans-species transfer is an abstract but precise high-level characterization of experimental findings. In this work, we provide a large-scale analysis of seven weak contractility/heart failure genotypes of the model organism zebrafish which all share a weak contractility phenotype. In supervised classification experiments, we screen for discriminative patterns that distinguish between observable phenotypes (homozygous mutant individuals) as well as wild-type (homozygous wild-types) and carriers (heterozygous individuals). As the method of choice we use semantic multi-classifier systems, a knowledge-based approach which constructs hypotheses from a predefined vocabulary of high-level terms (e.g., Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways or Gene Ontology (GO) terms). Evaluating these models leads to a compact description of the underlying processes and guides the screening for new molecular markers of heart failure. Furthermore, we were able to independently corroborate the identified processes in Wistar rats.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The impact of persistent left bundle-branch block (pLBBB) on long-term clinical outcome remains to be determined. BACKGROUND: New-onset of pLBBB occurs frequently after transfemoral aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: Seven hundred and seven consecutive patients who underwent TAVI were analyzed for baseline and procedural characteristics and clinical outcome in an up to 2-year follow-up. Patients were divided into either a group with pLBBB until hospital discharge or a group without LBBB. We performed propensity-score matching and analyzed baseline characteristics, procedural data and clinical outcome of both groups. Patients received balloon-expandable valves in 56.4%, mechanically expandable valves in 37.5%, and self-expandable valves in 6.3%. RESULTS: A new-onset, pLBBB was observed in 47.5% of patients after TAVI. The implantation of a mechanically expandable valve was associated with higher rate of pLBBB (54.2% vs. 20.8%, P < 0.001), whereas implantation of a balloon-expandable valve was associated with lower incidence of pLBBB (39.8% vs. 73.1%, P < 0.001). Deeper ventricular implantation at left-coronary side led to higher rates of pLBBB (7.5 ± 2.5 vs. 6.7 ± 2.6 mm, P < 0.001). The occurrence of pLBBB was associated with higher rates of permanent pacemaker implantation (40.9% vs. 15.9%, P < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, implantation of a mechanically expandable valve (Boston Scientific Lotus valve) was identified as independent predictor of occurrence of pLBBB (odds ratio 4.7, confidence interval 3.2-7.0, P < 0.001). In the 2-year follow-up, there were no significant differences between "pLBBB" and "no LBBB"-groups regarding mortality and rehospitalization due to heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of pLBBB is associated with the choice of valve type and implantation depth and requires significantly higher rates of permanent pacemaker implantations. Importantly, there are no differences in the 2-year follow-up regarding mortality and rehospitalization due to heart failure.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze 30-day and 6-month results after percutaneous mitral valve repair using an IABP as circulatory support. BACKGROUND: The use of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation pump extended the spectrum of cardiovascular interventions. METHODS: Since 2014, 17 patients of 365 patients (4.7%) at our center received an IABP during MitraClip implantation procedure. We compare the periprocedural results to a control group of 17 patients treated with MitraClip without an IABP support. To adjust for differences of baseline characteristics a propensity-score matching for age, baseline blood pressure, preoperative EuroSCORE II and left ventricular ejection fraction was performed. The decision for prophylactic implantation of an IABP was at the discretion of the interventionalist. For both groups, clinical results up to 6 months were evaluated. RESULTS: The IABP group had higher NT-pro BNP levels at baseline and increased left ventricular diameters. The procedure was more often categorized as "urgent" due to refractory heart failure in the IABP group. All procedures were carried out successfully, thereby achieving a sufficient MR reduction in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly longer in the IABP group 11.7 ± 14 days (compared to 6.5 ± 2.9 days in the No IABP group, P < 0.01). All patients in both groups had an event-free 30-day follow-up. MACCE rate was higher in the IABP group compared to the No IABP group (47.1% vs. 23.5%, P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Insertion of an IABP during MitraClip procedure might be a feasible option to achieve comparable results and may provide additional safety and procedural hemodynamic stability in the setting of high-risk percutaneous mitral valve repair.

16.
Heart Vessels ; 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302548

RESUMO

Observation of the time-to-pulmonary vein isolation (TTI) by a spiral mapping catheter has emerged as a valuable procedural parameter in cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). The 1st generation spiral mapping catheter (Achieve, SMC1) has been available as an 8-polar catheter with a distal loop diameter of 15 or 20 mm. The novel spiral mapping catheter (Achieve Advance, SMC2) was designed as a true guidewire and is available, in addition to the sizes of the SMC1, as a 10-polar mapping catheter with a distal loop diameter of 25 mm. Whether these novel features of SMC2 influence procedural characteristics of Cryo-PVI in comparison to SMC1 has not been reported. In this prospective cohort study 158 patients (age 65.1 ± 12.4 years, female 39%, paroxysmal AF 60%) undergoing PVI with the 2nd generation cryoballoon were included. SMC1 was used in 57 patients (36%), whereas 101 patients (64%) underwent Cryo-PVI with the SMC2. All PVs (623/623, 100%) were isolated successfully. Mean procedure duration was 72.0 ± 18.9 min in the SMC1 group and 74.4 ± 19.1 min in the SMC2 group (p = 0.432). Mean fluoroscopy time was also not different between both study groups (SMC1 15.7 ± 6.6 min, SMC2 15.7 ± 7.3 min, p = 0.593). TTI was observed in 68.6% of pulmonary veins in the SMC1 group, whereas TTI observation rate was 82.6% in the SMC2 group (p < 0.001). Number of freezes (5.5 ± 1.5 vs. 6.5 ± 1.9; p = 0.001) and total freeze duration (14.1 ± 4.5 vs. 17.6 ± 5.6; p < 0.001) were increased in the SMC2 group. SMC2 significantly increases TTI observation rate during Cryo-PVI. Procedure duration and fluoroscopy time are similar and number of freezes and total freeze duration are increased compared to PVI with SMC1 due to decreased stability and maneuverability of SMC2.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients at increased surgical risk, transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair by MitraClip implantation for severe mitral regurgitation (MR) has proven to relieve symptoms of MR, reduce New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class and improve quality of life. Rehospitalization for decompensated heart failure occurs frequently after MitraClip implantation, negatively impacting quality of life. We aimed here to determine predictors of 1-year rehospitalization for decompensated heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 355 consecutive patients who underwent MitraClip implantation at our centre were evaluated for their baseline and procedural characteristics, peri-procedural outcome and clinical endpoints. Rate of rehospitalization for decompensated heart failure was reduced from 52.7% (n = 187) in the year before MitraClip procedure to 18.0% (n = 64) (P < 0.0001) in the first year after MitraClip implantation. The mean duration until rehospitalization was 117 days after MitraClip implantation. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis identified baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (P = 0.020), baseline troponin T (P = 0.003) and pre-procedural NYHA class (P = 0.020) as independent predictors for 1-year rehospitalization after MitraClip implantation. Rehospitalization correlated significantly with all-cause mortality (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3-4.1; P = 0.004) and cardiovascular mortality (odds ratio 3.3, 95% confidence interval 1.7-6.1; P = 0.0003). CONCLUSION: After MitraClip implantation, annual rate of rehospitalization for decompensated heart failure was reduced by 65.8%. Baseline left ventricular ejection fraction, baseline troponin T and pre-procedural NYHA functional class are independent predictors for rehospitalization within the first year after MitraClip implantation. Patients readmitted for decompensated heart failure after MitraClip implantation had a 2.3-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality and a 3.3-fold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to patients not requiring rehospitalization.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(8): 874-882, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognosis of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) remains controversial due to scarcity of available data. Additionally, the effect of the triggering factors remains elusive. OBJECTIVES: This study compared prognosis between TTS and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and investigated short- and long-term outcomes in TTS based on different triggers. METHODS: Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. Long-term mortality of patients with TTS was compared to an age- and sex-matched cohort of patients with ACS. In addition, short- and long-term outcomes were compared between different groups according to triggering conditions. RESULTS: Overall, TTS patients had a comparable long-term mortality risk with ACS patients. Of 1,613 TTS patients, an emotional trigger was detected in 485 patients (30%). Of 630 patients (39%) related to physical triggers, 98 patients (6%) had acute neurologic disorders, while in the other 532 patients (33%), physical activities, medical conditions, or procedures were the triggering conditions. The remaining 498 patients (31%) had no identifiable trigger. TTS patients related to physical stress showed higher mortality rates than ACS patients during long-term follow-up, whereas patients related to emotional stress had better outcomes compared with ACS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, TTS patients had long-term outcomes comparable to age- and sex-matched ACS patients. Also, we demonstrated that TTS can either be benign or a life-threating condition depending on the inciting stress factor. We propose a new classification based on triggers, which can serve as a clinical tool to predict short- and long-term outcomes of TTS. (International Takotsubo Registry [InterTAK Registry]; NCT01947621).

19.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(17): 1683-1693, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the debris captured by the Claret Sentinel cerebral embolic dual-filter protection device during transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with different valve types. BACKGROUND: Risk for embolization of debris during TAVR may vary by TAVR device. METHODS: The filters of 100 consecutive patients were collected and captured debris was analyzed by histopathology and histomorphometry. Three valve types were implanted: the balloon-expandable Edwards SAPIEN 3 (n = 42), the self-expandable Medtronic Evolut R (n = 35), and the mechanically implantable Boston Scientific Lotus (n = 23). RESULTS: Among the 3 groups there was no difference in baseline data, including Society of Thoracic Surgeons score for mortality, calcification, or pre-dilation. The type of captured debris did not differ among the 3 valve types in the proximal or distal filter. With the balloon-expandable valve, there were significantly more patients with large debris measuring ≥1,000 µm. The number of particles in the proximal filter was significantly lower with the Lotus (89.8 ± 106.3) compared with the Evolut R (187.3 ± 176.9) and Edwards SAPIEN 3 (172.3 ± 133.5) valves (p = 0.035). Total tissue area in the proximal filter was significantly smaller for the Lotus compared with the other 2 valve types (7.1 ± 6.3, 20.1 ± 19.0, and 21.3 ± 15.1 mm2; p = 0.0014). In contrast, for the distal filter, there were no differences with respect to valve type for total tissue area, particle size, and number of particles. CONCLUSIONS: A significant difference was observed in the size and number of captured tissue particles with the double-filter embolic protection device among different valve types in patients undergoing TAVR. The largest particles were observed in patients treated with a balloon-expandable valve.

20.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 138: 20-31, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30036562

RESUMO

The molecular mechanism essential for the formation of heart valves involves complex interactions of signaling molecules and transcription factors. The Mediator Complex (MC) functions as multi-subunit machinery to orchestrate gene transcription, especially for tissue-specific fine-tuning of transcriptional processes during development, also in the heart. Here, we analyzed the role of the MC subunit Med12 during atrioventricular canal (AVC) development and endocardial cushion formation, using the Med12-deficient zebrafish mutant trapped (tpd). Whereas primary heart formation was only slightly affected in tpd, we identified defects in AVC development and cardiac jelly formation. We found that although misexpression of bmp4 and versican in tpd hearts can be restored by overexpression of a modified version of the Sox9b transcription factor (harboring VP16 transactivation domain) that functions independent of its co-activator Med12, endocardial cushion development in tpd was not reconstituted. Interestingly, expression of tbx2b and its target hyaluronan synthase 2 (has2) - the synthase of hyaluronan (HA) in the heart - was absent in both uninjected and Sox9b-VP16 overexpressing tpd hearts. HA is a major ECM component of the cardiac jelly and required for endocardial cushion formation. Furthermore, we found secreted phosphoprotein 1 (spp1), an endocardial marker of activated AV endocardial cells, completely absent in tpd hearts, suggesting that crucial steps of the transformation of AV endocardial cells into endocardial cushions is blocked. We demonstrate that Med12 controls cardiac jelly formation Sox9-independently by regulating tbx2b and has2 expression and therefore the production of the glycosaminoglycan HA at the AVC to guarantee proper endocardial cushion development.

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