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1.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856555

RESUMO

While tumour mutation burden (TMB) is emerging as a possible biomarker for immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), methods for testing have not been standardised as yet. In April 2019, the International Quality Network for Pathology (IQN Path) launched a survey to assess the current practice of TMB testing. Of the 127 laboratories that replied, 69 (54.3%) had already introduced TMB analysis for research purposes and/or clinical applications. Fifty laboratories (72.5%) used targeted sequencing, although a number of different panels were employed. Most laboratories tested formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material (94.2%), while 18/69 (26%) tested also cell-free DNA. Fifty-five laboratories used both single nucleotide variants and indels for TMB calculation; 20 centers included only non-synonymous variants. In conclusion, the data from this survey indicate that multiple global laboratories were capable of rapidly introducing routine clinical TMB testing. However, the variability of testing methods raises concerns about the reproducibility of results among centers.

2.
Nat Med ; 27(2): 250-255, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462450

RESUMO

The impact of single-agent antibodies against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) as maintenance therapy is unknown in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The SAFIR02-BREAST IMMUNO substudy included patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2)-negative metastatic breast cancer whose disease did not progress after six to eight cycles of chemotherapy. Patients (n = 199) were randomized to either durvalumab (10 mg kg-1 every 2 weeks) or maintenance chemotherapy. In the overall population, durvalumab did not improve progression-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.96; P = 0.047) or overall survival (OS; adjusted HR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.54-1.29; P = 0.423). In an exploratory subgroup analysis, durvalumab improved OS in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC; n = 82; HR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30-0.97, P = 0.0377). Exploratory analysis showed that the HR of death was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.12-1.13) for patients with PD-L1+ TNBC (n = 32) and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.18-1.34) for those with PD-L1- TNBC (n = 29). In patients with TNBC, exploratory analyses showed that the HR for durvalumab efficacy (OS) was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.05-0.71; log-rank test, P = 0.0059) in patients with CD274 gain/amplification (n = 23) and 1.12 (95% CI: 0.42-2.99; log-rank test, P = 0.8139) in patients with CD274 normal/loss (n = 32). Tumor infiltration by lymphocytes (CD8, FoxP3 and CD103 expressions) and homologous recombination deficiency did not predict sensitivity to durvalumab in exploratory analyses. This latter finding should be interpreted with caution since only one patient presented a germline BRCA mutation. The present study provides a rationale to evaluate single-agent durvalumab in maintenance therapy in patients with TNBC. Exploratory analyses identified CD274 amplification as a potential biomarker of sensitivity. Maintenance chemotherapy was more effective than durvalumab in patients with hormone receptor-positive and Her2-negative disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PAOLA1 is a phase III study assessing olaparib maintenance therapy in advanced high-grade ovarian carcinoma patients responding to first-line platinum-taxane-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as standard of care. Randomization was stratified by treatment outcome and tumor BRCA1/2 status (tBRCA) at screening. METHODS: tBRCA was tested on FFPE tumor blocks on 5 French platforms using 2 Next-Generation Sequencing methods based either on hybrid capture or amplicon technology. One of the exploratory objectives was to assess the concordance between germline (gBRCA) and tBRCA testing in French patients. gBRCA testing was performed on blood samples on the same platforms. RESULTS: From May 2015 to July 2017, tBRCA tests were performed for 1,176 screened patients. Only 52 (4.4%) tumor samples were non-contributive. The median interval between reception of the tumor sample and availability of the tBRCA status result was 37 days (range =8-260). A pathogenic variant (PV) was reported in 27.1% tumor samples (319 of 1,176 screened patients). tBRCA and gBRCA testing were both performed for 451 French patients with negative results for both tests in 306 patients (67.8%) and positive results for both tests in 85 patients (18.8%). Only one large genomic rearrangement of BRCA1 was detected, exclusively in the blood sample. Interestingly, tBRCA testing revealed 6.4% of PV (29 of 451) not detected by gBRCA testing. CONCLUSIONS: tBRCA testing is an appropriate tool with an acceptable turnaround time for clinical practice and a low failure rate, ensuring reliable identification of patients likely to benefit from PARPi therapy.

4.
ESMO Open ; 5(6)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imatinib is the standard first-line therapy in metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST). Investigational multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs) such as nilotinib, dasatinib or masitinib have been tested as first-line therapies in phase II/III studies. This might theoretically result either in increased survival or in early emergence of resistance to approved MKIs. METHODS: To assess whether using MKIs other than imatinib in first line decreases imatinib efficacy in second line for patients with GIST, a retrospective chart review was performed from 2005 to 2011 in two French tertiary centres of patients with GIST who received investigational MKIs (in phase II/III trials) as first-line treatment, followed by imatinib as second line. RESULTS: Of 46 patients, (55% women, median age 55 years (range 24-81)), 22 (47%) had a KIT exon 11 mutation, 1 a KIT exon 9 mutation (2%), 1 a PDGFRA D842V mutation (2%). Out of 46 patients, 21 (46%) received masitinib, 17 (37%) received dasatinib and 8 (17%) received nilotinib as first-line treatment with a median progression-free survival of 18.0 months (95% CI: 8.5 to 25.5). Median time to imatinib failure was 19.7 months (95% CI: 13.5 to 29.0). Median time to second relapse was 48.7 months (95% CI: 31.2 to 72.0). Median overall survival from time of initial metastasis diagnosis was 5.7 years (95% CI: 4.5 to 7.4). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with GIST who received investigational MKIs as first-line treatment and imatinib as second line had a time to second relapse longer than that observed historically with imatinib in first line, suggesting that using MKIs other than imatinib in first line does not decrease the efficacy of subsequent treatment lines.

6.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(12): 1383-1392, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011441

RESUMO

Genomic sequencing is increasingly used in managing patients with cancer. Interpretation of somatic variants and their pathogenicity is often complex. Pathogenicity prediction tools are commonly used as part of the expert interpretation of somatic variants, but most of these tools were initially developed for germline variants. Our aim was to benchmark their performance for somatic variants. A gold standard list was assembled of 4319 somatic single-nucleotide variants, classified as oncogenic (n = 2996) or neutral (n = 1323), based on their presence in curated databases or on their allele frequency in the general population. These variants were annotated with the most commonly used prediction tools [Database for Nonsynonymous SNPs' Functional Predictions (dbNSFP) and Universal Mutation Database Predictor (UMD-Predictor)] and computed performance calculations. Stratification of the prediction tools based on Matthews correlation coefficient and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve allowed the identification of the top-performing ones, namely, Combined Annotation-Dependent Depletion (CADD), Eigen or Eigen Principal Components (Eigen-PC), Polymorphism Phenotyping version 2 (PolyPhen-2), Protein Variation Effect Analyzer (PROVEAN), UMD-Predictor, and Rare Exome Variant Ensemble Learner (REVEL). Interestingly, Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT), which is a commonly used prediction tool for somatic variants, was ranked in the second performance category. Combining tools two by two only marginally improved performances, mainly because of the occurrence of discordant predictions.

7.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910017

RESUMO

FOXL2 somatic mutation occurs in a high percentage of ovarian adult granulosa cell tumors and DICER1 mutations in a high proportion of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. These mutations have only been studied in a limited number of juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs), and their occurrence and frequency in these neoplasms is controversial. We aimed to determine the frequency of FOXL2 and DICER1 mutations in a large cohort of 50 JGCTs, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of these mutations. A FOXL2 hotspot mutation was found in 2/50 JGCTs. Review of these 2 cases reclassified them as adult granulosa cell tumors. Thus, FOXL2 mutation was absent from our large cohort of JGCTs. DICER1 mutations in the RNase IIIb domain were found in 4 cases. After review of the mutated cases, 1 was reclassified as a gynandroblastoma with a prominent JGCT component. Thus, DICER1 mutations were detected in 3/47 (6%) of pathologically confirmed JGCTs. Our results show that FOXL2 mutations are not present in JGCT, whereas a small percentage of these neoplasms exhibit DICER1 mutations.

8.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(9): 601-610, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885912

RESUMO

The advent of molecular targets for novel therapeutics in oncology, notably for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), led the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) to establish a national network of 28 hospital Molecular Genetics Centers for Cancer (MGCC) in 2007. In each University in France, laboratories were established to develop molecular biology testing to evaluate a few genomic alterations, initially a selection of genes, by using specific targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. In a second phase, the number of studied genes was increased. In 2015, the MGCC benefited from an additional dedicated budget from the INCa to develop next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. In the meantime, a new financial regulation for innovative testing has been established for the acts out of nomenclature. Consequently, all private and public laboratories in France have access to funding for molecular biology testing in oncology. The gene-based PCR assays or NGS tests have benefitted from reimbursement of cost testing by the INCa. Today, the laboratories consider this reimbursement to be only partial, and its use to be complex. In 2018, a strategic plan for medical genomic analyses (France Médecine Génomique 2025) was implemented to introduce more systematic sequencing into the health care pathway and oncology practice. The large panel of molecular tests should be centralized to a limited number of molecular genetic centers. This review describes the evolution of the different stages of implementation of molecular pathology testing for NSCLC patients over the last few years in France.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923908

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Liquid biopsy specimen genomic profiling is integrated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) guidelines; however, data on the clinical relevance for ALK /ROS1 alterations are scarce. We evaluated the clinical utility of a targeted amplicon-based assay in a large prospective cohort of patients with ALK/ROS1-positive NSCLC and its impact on outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced ALK/ROS1-positive NSCLC were prospectively enrolled in the study by researchers at eight French institutions. Plasma samples were analyzed using InVisionFirst-Lung and correlated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 128 patients included in the study, 101 were positive for ALK and 27 for ROS1 alterations. Blood samples (N = 405) were collected from 29 patients naïve for treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) or from 375 patients under treatment, including 105 samples collected at disease progression (PD). Sensitivity was 67% (n = 18 of 27) for ALK/ROS1 fusion detection. Higher detection was observed for ALK fusions at TKI failure (n = 33 of 74; 46%) versus in patients with therapeutic response (n = 12 of 109; 11%). ALK-resistance mutations were detected in 22% patients (n = 16 of 74) overall; 43% of the total ALK-resistance mutations identified occurred after next-generation TKI therapy. ALK G1202R was the most common mutation detected (n = 7 of 16). Heterogeneity of resistance was observed. ROS1 G2032R resistance was detected in 30% (n = 3 of 10). The absence of circulating tumor DNA mutations at TKI failure was associated with prolonged median overall survival (105.7 months). Complex ALK-resistance mutations correlated with poor overall survival (median, 26.9 months v NR for single mutation; P = .003) and progression-free survival to subsequent therapy (median 1.7 v 6.3 months; P = .003). CONCLUSION: Next-generation, targeted, amplicon-based sequencing for liquid biopsy specimen profiling provides clinically relevant detection of ALK/ROS1 fusions in TKI-naïve patients and allows for the identification of resistance mutations in patients treated with TKIs. Liquid biopsy specimens from patients treated with TKIs may affect clinical outcomes and capture heterogeneity of TKI resistance, supporting their role in selecting sequential therapy.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(23): 6277-6283, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) are locally aggressive neoplasms, with a need for effective systemic treatment in case of progression to avoid the short- and long-term complications of local treatments. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of adult patients with DF treated with oral vinorelbine (90 mg once weekly) at Gustave Roussy Cancer Institute (Villejuif, Paris, France). Only patients with documented progressive disease according to RECIST v1.1 for more than 3 months (±2 weeks) before treatment initiation were included. RESULTS: From 2009 to 2019, 90 out of 438 patients with DF were eligible for this analysis. Vinorelbine was given alone in 56 patients (62%), or concomitantly with endocrine therapy in 34 patients, for a median duration of 6.7 months. A partial response was observed in 29% and stable disease in another 57%. With a median follow-up of 52.4 months, the median time to treatment failure (TTF) was not reached. Progression-free rates at 6 and 12 months were 88.7% and 77.5%, respectively. Concomitant endocrine therapy was associated with longer TTF in women [HR, 2.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-4.37; P = 0.03). Among 64 patients with documented CTNNB1 mutational status, p.S45F or p.S45P mutations were associated with longer TTF compared with p.T41A or wild-type tumors (HR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.23-6.27; P = 0.04). Toxicity profile was favorable, without grade 3-4 toxicity, except for one grade 3 neutropenia. CONCLUSIONS: Oral vinorelbine is an effective, affordable, and well-tolerated regimen in patients with advanced, progressive DF. Prolonged activity was observed in patients with tumors harboring CTNNB1 p.S45F or p.S45P mutations.

11.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576655

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We report a very rare case of familial breast cancer and diffuse gastric cancer, with germline pathogenic variants in both BRCA1 and CDH1 genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such an association.Family description: The proband is a woman diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 52 years. She requested genetic counselling in 2012, at the age of 91 years, because of a history of breast cancer in her daughter, her sister, her niece and her paternal grandmother and was therefore concerned about her relatives. Her sister and maternal aunt also had gastric cancer. She was tested for several genes associated with hereditary breast cancer. RESULTS: A large deletion of BRCA1 from exons 1 to 7 and two CDH1 pathogenic cis variants were identified. CONCLUSION: This complex situation is challenging for genetic counselling and management of at-risk individuals.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525942

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA)-based molecular profiling is rapidly gaining traction in clinical practice of advanced cancer patients with multi-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panels. However, clinical outcomes remain poorly described and deserve further validation with personalized treatment of patients with genomic alterations detected in plasma ctDNA. Here, we describe the outcomes, disease control rate (DCR) at 3 months and progression-free survival (PFS) in oncogenic-addicted advanced NSCLC patients with actionable alterations identified in plasma by ctDNA liquid biopsy assay, InVisionFirst®-Lung. A pooled retrospective analysis was completed of 81 advanced NSCLC patients with all classes of alterations predicting response to current FDA approved drugs: sensitizing common EGFR mutations (78%, n = 63) with T790M (73%, 46/63), ALK / ROS1 gene fusions (17%, n = 14) and BRAF V600E mutations (5%, n = 4). Actionable driver alterations detected in liquid biopsy were confirmed by prior tissue genomic profiling in all patients, and all patients received personalized treatment. Of 82 patients treated with matched targeted therapies, 10% were at first-line, 41% at second-line, and 49% beyond second-line. Acquired T790M at TKI relapse was detected in 73% (46/63) of patients, and all prospective patients (34/46) initiated osimertinib treatment based on ctDNA results. The 3-month DCR was 86% in 81 evaluable patients. The median PFS was of 14.8 months (12.1-22.9m). Baseline ctDNA allelic fraction of genomic driver did not correlate with the response rate of personalized treatment (p = 0.29). ctDNA molecular profiling is an accurate and reliable tool for the detection of clinically relevant molecular alterations in advanced NSCLC patients. Clinical outcomes with targeted therapies endorse the use of liquid biopsy by amplicon-based NGS ctDNA analysis in first line and relapse testing for advanced NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Biópsia Líquida , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481735

RESUMO

Ovarian and breast cancers are currently defined by the main pathways involved in the tumorigenesis. The majority are carcinomas, originating from epithelial cells that are in constant division and subjected to cyclical variations of the estrogen stimulus during the female hormonal cycle, therefore being vulnerable to DNA damage. A portion of breast and ovarian carcinomas arises in the context of DNA repair defects, in which genetic instability is the backdrop for cancer initiation and progression. For these tumors, DNA repair deficiency is now increasingly recognized as a target for therapeutics. In hereditary breast/ovarian cancers (HBOC), tumors with BRCA1/2 mutations present an impairment of DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR). For many years, BRCA1/2 mutations were only screened on germline DNA, but now they are also searched at the tumor level to personalize treatment. The reason of the inactivation of this pathway remains uncertain for most cases, even in the presence of a HR-deficient signature. Evidence indicates that identifying the mechanism of HR inactivation should improve both genetic counseling and therapeutic response, since they can be useful as new biomarkers of response.

14.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 366, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Correct identification of the EGFR c.2369C>T p.(Thr790Met) variant is key to decide on a targeted therapeutic strategy for patients with acquired EGFR TKI resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correct detection of this variant in 12 tumor tissue specimens tested by 324 laboratories participating in External Quality Assessment (EQA) schemes. METHODS: Data from EQA schemes were evaluated between 2013 and 2018 from cell lines (6) and resections (6) containing the EGFR c.2369C>T p.(Thr790Met) mutation. Adequate performance was defined as the percentage of tests for which an outcome was available and correct. Additional data on the used test method were collected from the participants. Chi-squared tests on contingency tables and a biserial rank correlation were applied by IBM SPSS Statistics version 25 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS: In 26 of the 1190 tests (2.2%) a technical failure occurred. For the remaining 1164 results, 1008 (86.6%) were correct, 151 (12.9%) were false-negative and 5 (0.4%) included incorrect mutations. Correct p.(Thr790Met) detection improved over time and for repeated scheme participations. In-house non-next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques performed worse (81.1%, n = 293) compared to non-NGS commercial kits (85.2%, n = 656) and NGS (97.0%, n = 239). Over time there was an increase in the users of NGS. Resection specimens performed worse (82.6%, n = 610 tests) compared to cell line material (90.9%, n = 578 tests), except for NGS (96.3%, n = 344 for resections and 98.6%, n = 312 for cell lines). Samples with multiple mutations were more difficult compared to samples with the single p.(Thr790Met) variant. A change of the test method was shown beneficial to reduce errors but introduced additional analysis failures. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of laboratories that offer p.(Thr790Met) testing did not detect this relevant mutation compared to the other EQA participants. However, correct identification of this variant is improving over time and was higher for NGS users. Revising the methodology might be useful to resolve errors, especially for resection specimens with low frequency or multiple variants. EQA providers should include challenging resections in the scheme.

15.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 46: 151522, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442860

RESUMO

Beta-catenin, encoded by the CTNNB1 gene, plays an important role in cell proliferation. Mutations of CTNNB1 are oncogenic in several tumor types and are often associated with a nuclear abnormal expression. However, such mutations have only rarely been reported in non-small cell lung carcinomas and their clinical signification is not well described. Our study was conducted on 26 CTNNB1-mutated non-small cell lung carcinomas. Tumors were routinely tested by next generation sequencing for mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1 gene. Twenty three cases were from a series of 925 tumors (2.48%). The hospital files and pathological data, from surgical samples (n = 16), small biopsies (n = 5) and trans-bronchial fine needle aspirations (n = 5), were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry was performed with an anti-beta-catenin antibody. There were 10 female and 16 male patients aged 52 to 83. Eleven of 25 patients were no-smoking or light smokers. Three cases were diagnosed while under treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. There were 25 adenocarcinomas and 1 squamous cell carcinoma. Most adenocarcinomas had a papillary component and were TTF1-positive. One case was a well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma. Eleven cases (42%) with CTNNB1 mutations showed associated EGFR mutations. The frequency of CTNNB1 mutations was higher among EGFR mutated carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry showed heterogeneous nuclear or cytoplasmic abnormal expression. Our study shows that CTNNB1 mutations mostly occur in TTF1-positive adenocarcinomas with a papillary pattern. These mutations are often associated with EGFR mutations and possibly interfer in the mechanism of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Our experience suggests that immuno-histochemistry cannot be used for screening.

16.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 211-223, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388065

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: BRAF is a confirmed therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib, in combination with the MEK inhibitor trametinib, is approved for the treatment of NSCLC harbouring BRAF V600E mutation. Scant evidence is available concerning the mechanisms of resistance to BRAF/MEK inhibitors in BRAFV600E NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with BRAFV600E NSCLC with acquired resistance to BRAF/MEK inhibitors were included in the institutional, prospective MATCH-R (from "Matching Resistance") trial and underwent tumour and liquid biopsies at the moment of radiological progression. Extensive molecular analyses were performed, including targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS), whole-exome sequencing (WES), RNA sequencing and comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) array. RESULTS: Of the 11 patients included, eight had progressed on dabrafenib-trametinib combination, two on dabrafenib monotherapy and one on vemurafenib (BRAF inhibitor). Complete molecular analyses were available for seven patients, whereas an additional case had only targeted NGS and CGH array data. Among these eight patients, acquired molecular events potentially responsible for resistance were detected in three who progressed on dabrafenib-trametinib combination, that is, MEK1 K57N, RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS) Q61R and rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) Q61R mutations. One patient progressing on dabrafenib monotherapy developed a PTEN frameshift mutation. No molecular hints addressing resistance emerged in the remaining four patients with analyses performed. Tumour mutational burden, evaluated by WES in seven patients, was low (median = 2.06 mutations/megabase, range = 1.57-3.75 mut/Mb). CONCLUSIONS: Novel resistance mechanisms to BRAF/MEK inhibitors in BRAFV600E NSCLC were identified, pointing out the recurring involvement of the MAPK pathway and guiding the development of new treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Eur Radiol ; 30(9): 5021-5028, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate the association between driver oncogene alterations and metastatic patterns on imaging assessment, in a large cohort of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma patients. METHODS: From January 2010 to May 2017, 550 patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with molecular analysis were studied retrospectively including 135 EGFR-mutated, 81 ALK-rearrangement, 47 BRAF-mutated, 141 KRAS-mutated, and 146 negative tumors for these 4 mutations (4N). After review of the complete imaging report by two radiologists (junior and senior) to identify metastatic sites, univariate correlation analyzes were performed. RESULTS: We found differences in metastatic tropism depending on the molecular alteration type when compared with the non-mutated 4N group: in the EGFR group, pleural metastases were more frequent (32% versus 20%; p = 0.021), and adrenal and node metastases less common (6% versus 23%; p < 0.001 and 11% versus 23%; p = 0.011). In the ALK group, there were more brain and lung metastases (respectively 42% versus 29%; p = 0.043 and 37% versus 24%; p = 0.037). In the BRAF group, pleural and pericardial metastases were more common (respectively 47% versus 20%; p < 0.001 and 11% versus 3%; p = 0.04) and bone metastases were rarer (21% versus 42%; p = 0.011). Lymphangitis was more frequent in EGFR, ALK, and BRAF groups (respectively 6%, 7%, and 15% versus 1%); p = 0.016; p = 0.009; and p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The application of these correlations between molecular status and metastatic tropism in clinical practice may lead to earlier and more accurate identification of patients for targeted therapy. KEY POINTS: • Bone and brain metastasis are the most common organs involved in lung adenocarcinoma but the relative incidence of each metastatic site depends on the molecular alteration. • EGFR-mutated tumors preferentially spread to the pleura and less commonly to adrenals, ALK-rearrangement tumors usually spread to the brain and the lungs, whereas BRAF-mutated tumors are unlikely to spread to bones and have a serous (pericardial ad pleural) tropism. • These correlations could help in the clinical management of patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma.

18.
Pulm Med ; 2020: 7649038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257438

RESUMO

Lung cancer remains the most common cancer in the world. The genetic polymorphisms (rs2853669 in TERT, rs1052133 in OGG1, and rs16969968 in CHRNA5 genes) were shown to be strongly associated with the risk of lung cancer. Our study's aim is to elucidate whether these polymorphisms predispose Eastern Algerian population to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To date, no study has considered this association in the Algerian population. This study included 211 healthy individuals and 144 NSCLC cases. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan probes and Sanger sequencing, and the data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression adjusted for covariates. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs) of TERT rs2853669, CHRNA5 rs16969968, and OGG1 rs1052133 polymorphisms in controls were C: 20%, A: 31%, and G: 29%, respectively. Of the three polymorphisms, none shows a significant association, but stratified analysis rs16969968 showed that persons carrying the AA genotype are significantly associated with adenocarcinoma risk (pAdj = 0.03, ORAdj = 2.55). Smokers with an AA allele have a larger risk of lung cancer than smokers with GG or GA genotype (pAdj = 0.03, ORAdj = 3.91), which is not the case of nonsmokers. Our study suggests that CHRNA5 rs16969968 polymorphism is associated with a significant increase of lung adenocarcinoma risk and with a nicotinic addiction.

19.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(7): 1232-1239, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179180

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Actionable somatic molecular alterations are found in 15% to 20% of NSCLC in Europe. NSCLC is a tumor observed in patients with germline TP53 variants causing Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), but its somatic molecular profile is unknown. METHODS: Retrospective study of clinical and molecular profiles of patients with NSCLC and germline TP53 variants. RESULTS: Among 22 patients with NSCLC and LFS (n = 23 lung tumors), 64% were women, median age was 51 years, 84% were nonsmokers, 73% had adenocarcinoma histological subtype, and 84% were diagnosed with advanced-stage disease. These patients harbored 16 distinct germline TP53 variants; the most common was p.R158H (5/22; three in the same family). Personal and family histories of cancer were reported in 71% and 90% of patients, respectively. In most cases (87%, 13/15), lung cancer was diagnosed with a late onset. Of the 21 tumors analyzed, somatic oncogenic driver mutations were found in 19 of 21 (90%), EGFR mutations in 18 (exon 19 deletion in 12 cases, L858R in three cases, and G719A, exon 20 insertion, and missing mutation subtype, each with one case), and ROS1 fusion in one case. A PI3KCA mutation was concurrently detected at diagnosis in three EGFR exon 19-deleted tumors (3/12). The median overall survival was 37.3 months in 14 patients treated with EGFR inhibitors; seven developed resistance, five (71%) acquired EGFR-T790M mutation, and one had SCLC transformation. CONCLUSIONS: Driver oncogenic alterations were observed in 90% of the LFS tumors, mainly EGFR mutations; one ROS1 fusion was also observed. The germline TP53 variants and lung cancer carcinogenesis driven by oncogenic processes need further evaluation.

20.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(3): 383-391, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843682

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with oncogene-addicted NSCLC and isolated central nervous system progression (iCNS), tissue biopsy is challenging, and the clinical utility of plasma liquid biopsy (i.e., circulating tumor DNA [ctDNA]) is unknown. METHODS: Patients with advanced NSCLC with known baseline genomic alteration (GA) (EGFR, ALK, BRAF, KRAS, HER2, ROS1, MET, PIK3CA, STK11, TP53) on tissue were divided into three groups on the basis of their disease progression pattern: iCNS, extra-CNS only (noCNS), or both (cCNS). All patients with available plasma ctDNA were included and were analyzed by next-generation sequencing InVisionFirst-Lung. ctDNA was considered positive if at least one GA was detected. Cell-free tumor DNA was analyzed in cerebrospinal fluid when available. RESULTS: Out of 517 patients screened, 247 were included: 54 had iCNS, 99 had noCNS, and 94 had cCNS progressive disease (64, 128, and 110 ctDNA samples, respectively). CtDNA was positive in 52% iCNS versus 84% in noCNS and 92% in cCNS (p < 0.00001), with lower detection of driver (37% versus 77% and 73%, respectively) and resistance alterations (6% versus 45% and 44%). Patients with iCNS and positive ctDNA were more at risk of extra-CNS progression (32% versus 7%, p = 0.026). In 12 patients with iCNS, ctDNA was positive in six (50%) plasma and in 10 (83%) paired cerebrospinal fluid (p = 0.193). CONCLUSIONS: Although tagged amplicon-based next-generation sequencing has high detection rates of GA in plasma ctDNA in patients with NSCLC with extra-CNS disease, detection rate of GAs (52%) is lower in the subset of patients with iCNS disease. Complementary tests such as cerebrospinal fluid cell-free DNA may be useful. Further evidence would be beneficial to understand the genomic landscape in patients with NSCLC and iCNS.

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