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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 854-868, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585109

RESUMO

Cadherins constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. The extracellular domain of cadherins consists of extracellular cadherin (EC) domains, separated by calcium binding sites. The EC interacts with other cadherin molecules in cis and in trans to mechanically hold apposing cell surfaces together. CDH2 encodes N-cadherin, whose essential roles in neural development include neuronal migration and axon pathfinding. However, CDH2 has not yet been linked to a Mendelian neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants (seven missense, two frameshift) in CDH2 in nine individuals with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, variable axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies. All seven missense variants (c.1057G>A [p.Asp353Asn]; c.1789G>A [p.Asp597Asn]; c.1789G>T [p.Asp597Tyr]; c.1802A>C [p.Asn601Thr]; c.1839C>G [p.Cys613Trp]; c.1880A>G [p.Asp627Gly]; c.2027A>G [p.Tyr676Cys]) result in substitution of highly conserved residues, and six of seven cluster within EC domains 4 and 5. Four of the substitutions affect the calcium-binding site in the EC4-EC5 interdomain. We show that cells expressing these variants in the EC4-EC5 domains have a defect in cell-cell adhesion; this defect includes impaired binding in trans with N-cadherin-WT expressed on apposing cells. The two frameshift variants (c.2563_2564delCT [p.Leu855Valfs∗4]; c.2564_2567dupTGTT [p.Leu856Phefs∗5]) are predicted to lead to a truncated cytoplasmic domain. Our study demonstrates that de novo heterozygous variants in CDH2 impair the adhesive activity of N-cadherin, resulting in a multisystemic developmental disorder, that could be named ACOG syndrome (agenesis of corpus callosum, axon pathfinding, cardiac, ocular, and genital defects).

2.
J Child Neurol ; : 883073819878917, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617442

RESUMO

The term spinocerebellar ataxia encompasses a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders due to pathogenic variants in more than 100 genes, underlying 2 major groups of ataxia: autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA, also known as spinocerebellar ataxias [SCAs]) due to heterozygous variants or polyglutamine triplet expansions leading to adult-onset ataxia, and autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxias (ARCAs, also known as SCARs) due to biallelic variants, usually resulting in more severe and earlier-onset cerebellar ataxia. Certain ataxia genes, including SPTBN2 which encodes ß-III spectrin, are responsible for both SCA and SCAR, depending on whether the pathogenic variant occurs in a monoallelic or biallelic state, respectively. Accordingly, 2 major phenotypes have been linked to SPTBN2: pathogenic heterozygous in-frame deletions and missense variants result in an adult-onset, slowly progressive ADCA (SCA5) through a dominant negative effect, whereas biallelic loss-of-function variants cause SCAR14, an allelic disorder characterized by infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia and cognitive impairment. Of note, 2 heterozygous missense variants (c.1438C>T, p.R480 W; c.1309C>G, p.R437G), both lying in the second spectrin repeat of SPTBN2, have been linked to infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia, similar to SCAR14. Here, we report a novel de novo heterozygous pathogenic missense variant (c.1310G>A) in SPTBN2 in a child with infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia and mild cognitive impairment. This variant affects the same R437 residue of the second spectrin repeat but results in a different amino acid change (p.R437Q). We review previously reported cases and discuss possible pathomechanisms responsible for the early-onset cerebellar phenotype due to disease-causing variants in the second spectrin repeat.

3.
Sleep ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665514

RESUMO

Currently, a total of 19 genetic loci are associated with the risk for developing RLS. This study aimed to assess these RLS predisposing genetic variants, as well as investigate the epidemiological profile and diagnostic features of individuals with RLS in the Québec population, using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 18 RLS-associated variants were genotyped in the Québec population-based CARTaGENE cohort. A case-control series consisting of 1,362 RLS cases and 1,379 age-matched unaffected controls was used to conduct a genetic and epidemiological association study that integrated the first four RLS diagnostic features of affected individuals, as well as additional RLS-related questions (e.g. frequency of the symptoms and number of total pregnancies in female). Five RLS-predisposing variants were significantly associated after Bonferroni correction and an additional five variants were nominally associated with RLS (P < 0.05). BTBD9 was the strongest genetic risk factor in our cohort (rs9296249, OR = 1.71, P = 9.57 x 10-10). The patient group that met all four essential diagnostic criteria of RLS provided the most significant genetic findings. These results suggest that employing the questionnaire which included standard diagnostic criteria of RLS could improve the accuracy of the survey-based studies.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4450, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575856

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several loci associated with ADHD. However, understanding the biological relevance of these genetic loci has proven to be difficult. Here, we conduct an ADHD transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) consisting of 19,099 cases and 34,194 controls and identify 9 transcriptome-wide significant hits, of which 6 genes were not implicated in the original GWAS. We demonstrate that two of the previous GWAS hits can be largely explained by expression regulation. Probabilistic causal fine-mapping of TWAS signals prioritizes KAT2B with a posterior probability of 0.467 in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and TMEM161B with a posterior probability of 0.838 in the amygdala. Furthermore, pathway enrichment identifies dopaminergic and norepinephrine pathways, which are highly relevant for ADHD. Overall, our findings highlight the power of TWAS to identify and prioritize putatively causal genes.

5.
Ann Neurol ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The TMEM175/GAK/DGKQ locus is the 3rd strongest risk locus in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Parkinson disease (PD). We aimed to identify the specific disease-associated variants in this locus, and their potential implications. METHODS: Full sequencing of TMEM175/GAK/DGKQ, followed by genotyping of specific associated variants was performed in PD (n=1,575) and rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients (n=533) and in controls (n=1,583). Adjusted regression models and a meta-analysis were performed. Association between variants and glucocerebrosidase (GCase) activity was analyzed in 715 individuals with available data. Homology modelling, molecular dynamics simulations, and lysosomal localization experiments were performed on TMEM175 variants to determine their potential effects on structure and function. RESULTS: Two coding variants, TMEM175 p.M393T (OR=1.37, p=0.0003) and p.Q65P (OR=0.72, p=0.005) were associated with PD, and p.M393T was also associated with RBD (OR=1.59, p=0.001). TMEM175 p.M393T was associated with reduced GCase activity. Homology modelling and normal mode analysis demonstrated that TMEM175 p.M393T creates a polar side-chain in the hydrophobic core of the transmembrane, which could destabilize the domain and thus impair either its assembly, maturation, or trafficking. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that the p.Q65P variant may increase stability and ion conductance of the transmembrane protein, and lysosomal localization was not affected by these variants. INTERPRETATION: Coding variants in TMEM175 are likely to be responsible for the association in the TMEM175/GAK/DGKQ locus, which could be mediated by affecting GCase activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
J Hum Genet ; 64(11): 1145-1151, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515523

RESUMO

More than 80 known or suspected genes/loci have been reported to be involved in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Genetic and clinical overlap have been reported between HSP and other neurological condition, yet about 50% of HSP patients remain genetically undiagnosed. To identify novel genes involved in HSP, we performed a genetic analysis of 383 HSP patients from 289 families with HSP. Two patients with biallelic SPTAN1 variants were identified; one carried the c.2572G>T p.(Ala858Ser) and c.4283C>G p.(Ala1428Gly) variants, and the second also carried the c.2572G>T p.(Ala858Ser) variant, and an additional variant, c.6990G>C p.(Met2330Ile). In silico predictive and structural analyses suggested that these variants are likely to be deleterious. SPTAN1 was highly intolerant for functional variants (in the top 0.31% of intolerant genes) with much lower observed vs. expected number of loss-of-function variants (8 vs. 142.7, p < 5 × 10-15). Using public databases of animal models and previously published data, we have found previously described zebrafish, mouse, and rat animal models of SPTAN1 deficiency, all consistently showing axonal degeneration, fitting the pathological features of HSP in humans. This study expands the phenotype of SPTAN1 mutations, which at the heterozygous state, when occurred de novo, may cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-5 (EIEE5). Our results further suggest that SPTAN1 may cause autosomal recessive HSP, and that it should be included in genetic screening panels for genetically undiagnosed HSP patients.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(32): 16012-16017, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332017

RESUMO

The Canadian Inuit have a distinct population background that may entail particular implications for the health of its individuals. However, the number of genetic studies examining this Inuit population is limited, and much remains to be discovered in regard to its genetic characteristics. In this study, we generated whole-exome sequences and genomewide genotypes for 170 Nunavik Inuit, a small and isolated founder population of Canadian Arctic indigenous people. Our study revealed the genetic background of Nunavik Inuit to be distinct from any known present-day population. The majority of Nunavik Inuit show little evidence of gene flow from European or present-day Native American peoples, and Inuit living around Hudson Bay are genetically distinct from those around Ungava Bay. We also inferred that Nunavik Inuit have a small effective population size of 3,000 and likely split from Greenlandic Inuit ∼10.5 kya. Nunavik Inuit went through a bottleneck at approximately the same time and might have admixed with a population related to the Paleo-Eskimos. Our study highlights population-specific genomic signatures in coding regions that show adaptations unique to Nunavik Inuit, particularly in pathways involving fatty acid metabolism and cellular adhesion (CPNE7, ICAM5, STAT2, and RAF1). Subsequent analyses in selection footprints and the risk of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) in Nunavik Inuit revealed an exonic variant under weak negative selection to be significantly associated with IA (rs77470587; P = 4.6 × 10-8).

8.
Cerebellum ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267374

RESUMO

There is currently no accepted classification of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias, a group of disorders characterized by important genetic heterogeneity and complex phenotypes. The objective of this task force was to build a consensus on the classification of autosomal recessive ataxias in order to develop a general approach to a patient presenting with ataxia, organize disorders according to clinical presentation, and define this field of research by identifying common pathogenic molecular mechanisms in these disorders. The work of this task force was based on a previously published systematic scoping review of the literature that identified autosomal recessive disorders characterized primarily by cerebellar motor dysfunction and cerebellar degeneration. The task force regrouped 12 international ataxia experts who decided on general orientation and specific issues. We identified 59 disorders that are classified as primary autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias. For each of these disorders, we present geographical and ethnical specificities along with distinctive clinical and imagery features. These primary recessive ataxias were organized in a clinical and a pathophysiological classification, and we present a general clinical approach to the patient presenting with ataxia. We also identified a list of 48 complex multisystem disorders that are associated with ataxia and should be included in the differential diagnosis of autosomal recessive ataxias. This classification is the result of a consensus among a panel of international experts, and it promotes a unified understanding of autosomal recessive cerebellar disorders for clinicians and researchers.

9.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

11.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 64: 262-267, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite considerable efforts to identify disease-causing and risk factors contributing to essential tremor (ET), no comprehensive assessment of heritable risk has been performed to date. METHODS: We use GREML-LDMS to estimate narrow-sense heritability due to additive effects (h2) and GREMLd to calculate non-additive heritability due to dominance variance (δ2) using data from 1,751 ET cases and 5,311 controls. We evaluate heritability per 10 Mb segments across the genome and assess the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) misdiagnosis on heritability estimates. We apply genetic risk score (GRS) from PD and restless legs syndrome (RLS) to explore its contribution to ET risk and further assess genetic correlations with 832 traits by Linkage disequilibrium score regression. RESULTS: We estimated ET narrow-sense heritability to be h2 = 75.5% (s.e = ±0.075). In contrast, dominance variance showed insignificant effect on the overall estimates. Heritability split by 10 Mb regions revealed increased estimates at chromosomes 6 and 21. The proportion of genetic variance due to PD misdiagnosed cases was estimated to be 5.33%. PD and RLS GRS were not significantly predictive of ET case-control status. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that ET is a highly heritable condition in which additive common variability plays a prominent role. Chromosomes 6 and 21 may contain causative risk variants influencing susceptibility to ET. Despite overlapping symptomatology, ET does not seem to share genetic etiologies with PD or RLS. Our study suggests that most of ET genetic component is yet to be discovered and future GWAS will reveal additional risk factors contributing to ET.

12.
Cerebellum ; 18(4): 731-737, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049853

RESUMO

SYNE1 gene mutations were identified as a cause of late-onset pure cerebellar syndrome. Non-cerebellar symptoms, including cognitive impairment, were already described in this condition. The aim of this study was to perform a detailed cognitive and psychiatric description of patients with SYNE1 gene mutations. We performed neuropsychological and psychiatric evaluations of six patients with SYNE1 ataxia and compared their performance with 18 normal controls paired for age and education level. SYNE1 ataxia patients present cognitive dysfunction, characterized by impairment in attention and processing speed domains. Otherwise, the psychiatric assessment reported low levels of overall behavioral symptoms with only some minor anxiety-related complaints. Although this is a small sample of patients, these results suggest that SYNE1 ataxia patients may represent a model to investigate effects of cerebellar degeneration in higher hierarchical cognitive functions. For further studies, abstract thinking impairment in schizophrenia may be related to dysfunction in cerebellum pathways.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 767-773, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929741

RESUMO

The diagnostic gap for rare neurodegenerative diseases is still considerable, despite continuous advances in gene identification. Many novel Mendelian genes have only been identified in a few families worldwide. Here we report the identification of an autosomal-dominant gene for hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) in 10 families that are of diverse geographic origin and whose affected members all carry unique truncating changes in a circumscript region of UBAP1 (ubiquitin-associated protein 1). HSP is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive lower-limb spasticity and weakness, as well as frequent bladder dysfunction. At least 40% of affected persons are currently undiagnosed after exome sequencing. We identified pathological truncating variants in UBAP1 in affected persons from Iran, USA, Germany, Canada, Spain, and Bulgarian Roma. The genetic support ranges from linkage in the largest family (LOD = 8.3) to three confirmed de novo mutations. We show that mRNA in the fibroblasts of affected individuals escapes nonsense-mediated decay and thus leads to the expression of truncated proteins; in addition, concentrations of the full-length protein are reduced in comparison to those in controls. This suggests either a dominant-negative effect or haploinsufficiency. UBAP1 links endosomal trafficking to the ubiquitination machinery pathways that have been previously implicated in HSPs, and UBAP1 provides a bridge toward a more unified pathophysiology.

14.
Genome Res ; 29(5): 809-818, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940688

RESUMO

Large-scale sequencing efforts in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have implicated novel genes using gene-based collapsing methods. However, pathogenic mutations may be concentrated in specific genic regions. To address this, we developed two collapsing strategies: One focuses rare variation collapsing on homology-based protein domains as the unit for collapsing, and the other is a gene-level approach that, unlike standard methods, leverages existing evidence of purifying selection against missense variation on said domains. The application of these two collapsing methods to 3093 ALS cases and 8186 controls of European ancestry, and also 3239 cases and 11,808 controls of diversified populations, pinpoints risk regions of ALS genes, including SOD1, NEK1, TARDBP, and FUS While not clearly implicating novel ALS genes, the new analyses not only pinpoint risk regions in known genes but also highlight candidate genes as well.

15.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 19, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [1] is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by late-onset degeneration of motor neurons leading to progressive limb and bulbar weakness, as well as of the respiratory muscles, which is the primary cause of disease fatality. To date, over 25 genes have been implicated as causative in ALS with C9orf72, SOD1, FUS, and TARDBP accounting for the majority of genetically positive cases. RESULTS: We identified two patients of Italian and French ancestry with a clinical diagnosis of juvenile-onset ALS who were mutation-negative in any of the known ALS causative genes. Starting with the index case, a consanguineous family of Italian origin, we performed whole-exome sequencing and identified candidate pathogenic mutations in 35 genes, 27 of which were homozygous. We next parsed all candidates against a cohort of 3641 ALS cases; only ATP13A2 was found to harbor recessive changes, in a patient with juvenile-onset ALS, similar to the index case. In vivo complementation of ATP13A2 using a zebrafish surrogate model that focused on the assessment of motor neuron morphology and cerebellar integrity confirmed the role of this gene in central and peripheral nervous system maintenance and corroborated the damaging direction of effect of the change detected in the index case of this study. CONCLUSIONS: We here expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with genetic variants in ATP13A2 that previously comprised Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, spastic paraplegia 78, and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 12 (CLN12), to also include juvenile-onset ALS, as supported by both genetic and functional data. Our findings highlight the importance of establishing a complete genetic profile towards obtaining an accurate clinical diagnosis.

16.
Neurogenetics ; 20(2): 103-108, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924036

RESUMO

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1) is a non-catalytic component of the multi-tRNA synthetase complex which catalyzes the ligation of amino acids to the correct tRNAs. Pathogenic variants in several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases genes have been linked to various neurological disorders, including leukodystrophies and pontocerebellar hypoplasias (PCH). To date, loss-of-function variants in AIMP1 have been associated with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-3 (MIM 260600). Here, we report a novel frameshift AIMP1 homozygous variant (c.160delA,p.Lys54Asnfs) in a child with pontocerebellar hypoplasia and simplified gyral pattern, a phenotype not been previously described with AIMP1 variants, thus expanding the phenotypic spectrum. AIMP1 should be included in diagnostic PCH gene panels.

17.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 15: 12-25, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831428

RESUMO

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is caused by a small expansion of a short polyalanine (polyAla) tract in the poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 protein (PABPN1). Despite the monogenic nature of OPMD, no treatment is currently available. Here we report an RNA replacement strategy that has therapeutic potential in cell and C. elegans OPMD models. We develop selective microRNAs (miRNAs) against PABPN1, and we report that miRNAs and our previously developed hammerhead ribozymes (hhRzs) are capable of reducing the expression of both the mRNA and protein levels of PABPN1 by as much as 90%. Since OPMD derives from a very small expansion of GCG within the polyAla tract, our hhRz and miRNA molecules cannot distinguish between the wild-type and mutant mRNAs of PABPN1. Therefore, we designed an optimized-codon wild-type PABPN1 (opt-PABPN1) that is resistant to cleavage by hhRzs and miRNAs. Co-expression of opt-PABPN1 with either our hhRzs or miRNAs restored the level of PABPN1, concomitantly with a reduction in expanded PABPN1-associated cell death in a stable C2C12 OPMD model. Interestingly, knockdown of the PABPN1 by selective hhRzs in the C. elegans OPMD model significantly improved the motility of the PABPN1-13Ala worms. Taken together, RNA replacement therapy represents an exciting approach for OPMD treatment.

18.
Mov Disord ; 34(4): 526-535, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SMPD1 (acid-sphingomyelinase) variants have been associated with Parkinson's disease in recent studies. The objective of this study was to further investigate the role of SMPD1 mutations in PD. METHODS: SMPD1 was sequenced in 3 cohorts (Israel Ashkenazi Jewish cohort, Montreal/Montpellier, and New York), including 1592 PD patients and 975 controls. Additional data were available for 10,709 Ashkenazi Jewish controls. Acid-sphingomyelinase activity was measured by a mass spectrometry-based assay in the New York cohort. α-Synuclein levels were measured in vitro following CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout and siRNA knockdown of SMPD1 in HeLa and BE(2)-M17 cells. Lysosomal localization of acid-sphingomyelinase with different mutations was studied, and in silico analysis of their effect on acid-sphingomyelinase structure was performed. RESULTS: SMPD1 mutations were associated with PD in the Ashkenazi Jewish cohort, as 1.4% of PD patients carried the p.L302P or p.fsP330 mutation, compared with 0.37% in 10,709 Ashkenazi Jewish controls (OR, 3.7; 95%CI, 1.6-8.2; P = 0.0025). In the Montreal/Montpellier cohort, the p.A487V variant was nominally associated with PD (1.5% versus 0.14%; P = 0.0065, not significant after correction for multiple comparisons). Among PD patients, reduced acid-sphingomyelinase activity was associated with a 3.5- to 5.8-year earlier onset of PD in the lowest quartile versus the highest quartile of acid-sphingomyelinase activity (P = 0.01-0.001). We further demonstrated that SMPD1 knockout and knockdown resulted in increased α-synuclein levels in HeLa and BE(2)-M17 dopaminergic cells and that the p.L302P and p.fsP330 mutations impair the traffic of acid-sphingomyelinase to the lysosome. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support an association between SMPD1 variants, acid-sphingomyelinase activity, and PD. Furthermore, they suggest that reduced acid-sphingomyelinase activity may lead to α-synuclein accumulation. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

19.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572172

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To characterize the phenotype of CAPN1 (SPG76) mutations in patients diagnosed with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). BACKGROUND: The CAPN1 gene, located on chromosome 11q13.1, is a protein-coding gene involved in neuronal plasticity, migration, microtubular regulation and cerebellar development. Several families with CAPN1 mutations have recently been reported to present with autosomal recessive (AR) HSP and/or ataxia. METHOD: Patients with HSP were identified through neurological and genetic clinics with detailed phenotyping. Whole exome sequencing revealed novel pathogenic CAPN1 mutations in four patients from 3 families. RESULTS: Affected families were of Turkish, Japanese, and Punjabi descent and all were consanguineous. Onset of spastic paraplegia in the four patients was between 20 and 37 years. Two also had mild ataxia. Three different novel, homozygous mutations in CAPN1 were found: c.2118+1G > T, c.397C > T, c.843+1G > C. The patient with the earliest onset also manifested profound muscle weakness, likely related to a second homozygous mutation in DYSF (dysferlinopathy). CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype of AR CAPN1 mutations appears to be spastic paraplegia with or without ataxia; onset is most commonly in adulthood. Eye movement abnormalities, skeletal defects, peripheral neuropathy and amyotrophy can sometimes be seen. Occasionally, patients can present with ataxia, illustrating the genotypic and phenotypic overlap between HSP and spastic ataxia. With the advent of exome sequencing, mutations in more than one gene can be identified, which may contribute to the phenotypic variation, even within a family.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378261

RESUMO

Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare and severe form of schizophrenia, defined as having an onset before the age of 13. The male COS cases have a slightly younger age of onset than female cases. They also present with a higher rate of comorbid developmental disorders. These sex differences are not explained by the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities, and the contribution of other forms of genetic variations remains unestablished. Using a whole-exome sequencing approach, we examined 12 COS trios where the unaffected parents had an affected male child. The sequencing data enabled us to test if the hemizygous variants, transmitted from the unaffected carrying mother, could mediate the phenotype (X-linked recessive inheritance model). Our results revealed that affected children have a significantly greater number of X-linked rare variants than their unaffected fathers. The variants identified in the male probands were mostly found in genes previously linked to other neuropsychiatric diseases like autism, intellectual disability, and epilepsy, including LUZP4, PCDH19, RPS6KA3, and OPHN1. The level of expression of the genes was assessed at different developmental periods in normal brain using the BrainSpan database. This approach revealed that some of them were expressed earlier in males than in females, consistent with the younger age of onset in male COS. In conclusion, this article suggests that X-linked genes might play a role in the pathophysiology of COS. Candidate genes detailed here could explain the higher level of comorbidities and the earlier age of onset observed in a subset of the male COS cases.

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