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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544924

RESUMO

Identifying functional variants underlying disease risk and adoption of personalized medicine are currently limited by the challenge of interpreting the functional consequences of genetic variants. Predicting the functional effects of disease-associated protein-coding variants is increasingly routine. Yet, the vast majority of risk variants are non-coding, and predicting the functional consequence and prioritizing variants for functional validation remains a major challenge. Here, we develop a deep learning model to accurately predict locus-specific signals from four epigenetic assays using only DNA sequence as input. Given the predicted epigenetic signal from DNA sequence for the reference and alternative alleles at a given locus, we generate a score of the predicted epigenetic consequences for 438 million variants observed in previous sequencing projects. These impact scores are assay-specific, are predictive of allele-specific transcription factor binding and are enriched for variants associated with gene expression and disease risk. Nucleotide-level functional consequence scores for non-coding variants can refine the mechanism of known functional variants, identify novel risk variants and prioritize downstream experiments.

2.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 180, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551426

RESUMO

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are serious mental illnesses that affect more than 2% of adults. While large-scale genetics studies have identified genomic regions associated with disease risk, less is known about the molecular mechanisms by which risk alleles with small effects lead to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In order to fill this gap between genetics and disease phenotype, we have undertaken a multi-cohort genomics study of postmortem brains from controls, individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here we present a public resource of functional genomic data from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; Brodmann areas 9 and 46) of 986 individuals from 4 separate brain banks, including 353 diagnosed with schizophrenia and 120 with bipolar disorder. The genomic data include RNA-seq and SNP genotypes on 980 individuals, and ATAC-seq on 269 individuals, of which 264 are a subset of individuals with RNA-seq. We have performed extensive preprocessing and quality control on these data so that the research community can take advantage of this public resource available on the Synapse platform at http://CommonMind.org .

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3834, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444360

RESUMO

Transcriptome-wide association studies integrate gene expression data with common risk variation to identify gene-trait associations. By incorporating epigenome data to estimate the functional importance of genetic variation on gene expression, we generate a small but significant improvement in the accuracy of transcriptome prediction and increase the power to detect significant expression-trait associations. Joint analysis of 14 large-scale transcriptome datasets and 58 traits identify 13,724 significant expression-trait associations that converge on biological processes and relevant phenotypes in human and mouse phenotype databases. We perform drug repurposing analysis and identify compounds that mimic, or reverse, trait-specific changes. We identify genes that exhibit agonistic pleiotropy for genetically correlated traits that converge on shared biological pathways and elucidate distinct processes in disease etiopathogenesis. Overall, this comprehensive analysis provides insight into the specificity and convergence of gene expression on susceptibility to complex traits.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396896

RESUMO

Cis-regulatory elements (CREs), including insulators, promoters, and enhancers, play critical roles in the establishment and maintenance of normal cellular function. Within each cell, the 3D structure of chromatin is arranged in specific patterns to expose the CREs required for optimal spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. CREs can act over large distances along the linear genome, facilitated by looping of the intervening chromatin to allow direct interaction between distal regulatory elements and their target genes. A number of pathologies are associated with dysregulation of CRE function, including developmental disorders, cancers, and neuropsychiatric disease. A majority of known neuropsychiatric disease risk loci are noncoding, and increasing evidence suggests that they contribute to disease through disruption of CREs. As such, rather than directly altering the amino acid content of proteins, these variants are instead thought to affect where, when, and to what extent a given gene is expressed. The distances over which CREs can operate often render their target genes difficult to identify. Furthermore, as many risk loci contain multiple variants in high linkage disequilibrium, identification of the causative single nucleotide polymorphism(s) therein is not straightforward. Thus, deciphering the genetic etiology of complex neuropsychiatric disorders presents a significant challenge.

5.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(9): 1402-1412, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455887

RESUMO

RNA editing critically regulates neurodevelopment and normal neuronal function. The global landscape of RNA editing was surveyed across 364 schizophrenia cases and 383 control postmortem brain samples from the CommonMind Consortium, comprising two regions: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. In schizophrenia, RNA editing sites in genes encoding AMPA-type glutamate receptors and postsynaptic density proteins were less edited, whereas those encoding translation initiation machinery were edited more. These sites replicate between brain regions, map to 3'-untranslated regions and intronic regions, share common sequence motifs and overlap with binding sites for RNA-binding proteins crucial for neurodevelopment. These findings cross-validate in hundreds of non-overlapping dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples. Furthermore, ~30% of RNA editing sites associate with cis-regulatory variants (editing quantitative trait loci or edQTLs). Fine-mapping edQTLs with schizophrenia risk loci revealed co-localization of eleven edQTLs with six loci. The findings demonstrate widespread altered RNA editing in schizophrenia and its genetic regulation, and suggest a causal and mechanistic role of RNA editing in schizophrenia neuropathology.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Edição de RNA/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 334-350, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374203

RESUMO

Susceptibility to schizophrenia is inversely correlated with general cognitive ability at both the phenotypic and the genetic level. Paradoxically, a modest but consistent positive genetic correlation has been reported between schizophrenia and educational attainment, despite the strong positive genetic correlation between cognitive ability and educational attainment. Here we leverage published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia to parse biological mechanisms underlying these results. Association analysis based on subsets (ASSET), a pleiotropic meta-analytic technique, allowed jointly associated loci to be identified and characterized. Specifically, we identified subsets of variants associated in the expected ("concordant") direction across all three phenotypes (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia, lower cognitive ability, and lower educational attainment); these were contrasted with variants that demonstrated the counterintuitive ("discordant") relationship between education and schizophrenia (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia and higher educational attainment). ASSET analysis revealed 235 independent loci associated with cognitive ability, education, and/or schizophrenia at p < 5 × 10-8. Pleiotropic analysis successfully identified more than 100 loci that were not significant in the input GWASs. Many of these have been validated by larger, more recent single-phenotype GWASs. Leveraging the joint genetic correlations of cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia, we were able to dissociate two distinct biological mechanisms-early neurodevelopmental pathways that characterize concordant allelic variation and adulthood synaptic pruning pathways-that were linked to the paradoxical positive genetic association between education and schizophrenia. Furthermore, genetic correlation analyses revealed that these mechanisms contribute not only to the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia but also to the broader biological dimensions implicated in both general health outcomes and psychiatric illness.

8.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 659-674, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911161

RESUMO

Transcriptomic imputation approaches combine eQTL reference panels with large-scale genotype data in order to test associations between disease and gene expression. These genic associations could elucidate signals in complex genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci and may disentangle the role of different tissues in disease development. We used the largest eQTL reference panel for the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to create a set of gene expression predictors and demonstrate their utility. We applied DLPFC and 12 GTEx-brain predictors to 40,299 schizophrenia cases and 65,264 matched controls for a large transcriptomic imputation study of schizophrenia. We identified 413 genic associations across 13 brain regions. Stepwise conditioning identified 67 non-MHC genes, of which 14 did not fall within previous GWAS loci. We identified 36 significantly enriched pathways, including hexosaminidase-A deficiency, and multiple porphyric disorder pathways. We investigated developmental expression patterns among the 67 non-MHC genes and identified specific groups of pre- and postnatal expression.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Risco , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 21, 2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655504

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of schizophrenia (SCZ) includes numerous risk loci across a range of frequencies and sizes, including common and rare single-nucleotide variants and insertions/deletions (indels), as well as rare copy number variants (CNVs). Despite the clear heritability of the disease, monozygotic twins are discordant for SCZ at a significant rate. Somatic variants-genetic changes that arise after fertilization rather than through germline inheritance-are widespread in the human brain and known to contribute to risk for both rare and common neuropsychiatric conditions. The contribution of somatic variants in the brain to risk of SCZ remains to be determined. In this study, we surveyed somatic single-nucleotide variants (sSNVs) in the brains of controls and individuals with SCZ (n = 10 and n = 9, respectively). From each individual, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on DNA from neuronal and non-neuronal nuclei isolated by fluorescence activated nuclear sorting (FANS) from frozen postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) samples, as well as DNA extracted from temporal muscle as a reference. We identified an increased burden of sSNVs in cases compared to controls (SCZ rate = 2.78, control rate = 0.70; P = 0.0092, linear mixed effects model), that included a higher rate of non-synonymous and loss-of-function variants (SCZ rate = 1.33, control rate = 0.50; P = 0.047, linear mixed effects model). Our findings suggest sSNVs in the brain may constitute an additional component of the complex genetic architecture of SCZ. This perspective argues for the need to further investigate somatic variation in the brain as an explanation of the discordance in monozygotic twins and a potential guide to the identification of novel therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
Science ; 362(6420)2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545851

RESUMO

To explore the developmental reorganization of the three-dimensional genome of the brain in the context of neuropsychiatric disease, we monitored chromosomal conformations in differentiating neural progenitor cells. Neuronal and glial differentiation was associated with widespread developmental remodeling of the chromosomal contact map and included interactions anchored in common variant sequences that confer heritable risk for schizophrenia. We describe cell type-specific chromosomal connectomes composed of schizophrenia risk variants and their distal targets, which altogether show enrichment for genes that regulate neuronal connectivity and chromatin remodeling, and evidence for coordinated transcriptional regulation and proteomic interaction of the participating genes. Developmentally regulated chromosomal conformation changes at schizophrenia-relevant sequences disproportionally occurred in neurons, highlighting the existence of cell type-specific disease risk vulnerabilities in spatial genome organization.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos/química , Conectoma , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/química , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neuroglia/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Proteômica , Risco , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma
11.
Science ; 362(6420)2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545857

RESUMO

Despite progress in defining genetic risk for psychiatric disorders, their molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Addressing this, the PsychENCODE Consortium has generated a comprehensive online resource for the adult brain across 1866 individuals. The PsychENCODE resource contains ~79,000 brain-active enhancers, sets of Hi-C linkages, and topologically associating domains; single-cell expression profiles for many cell types; expression quantitative-trait loci (QTLs); and further QTLs associated with chromatin, splicing, and cell-type proportions. Integration shows that varying cell-type proportions largely account for the cross-population variation in expression (with >88% reconstruction accuracy). It also allows building of a gene regulatory network, linking genome-wide association study variants to genes (e.g., 321 for schizophrenia). We embed this network into an interpretable deep-learning model, which improves disease prediction by ~6-fold versus polygenic risk scores and identifies key genes and pathways in psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Aprendizado Profundo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
12.
World Neurosurg ; 2018 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of brain parenchyma biopsy during minimally invasive (MIS) intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) clot evacuation has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to establish the safety and diagnostic efficacy of brain biopsy during MIS ICH clot evacuation and to validate the modified Boston criteria as a predictor of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in this cohort. METHODS: From October 2016 to March 2018, superficial and perihematomal biopsies were collected for 40 patients undergoing MIS ICH clot evacuation and analyzed by the pathology department to assess for various ICH etiologies. Additionally, the admission magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scan of each patient was analyzed and evaluated for the likelihood of a CAA etiology based on the modified Boston criteria. Student t test was used to analyze intergroup differences in continuous variables, and a 2-tailed Fisher exact test was used to determine intergroup differences of categorical variables, with significance set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Two of the 40 patients (5%) experienced postoperative rebleed. Four of the 40 patients (10%) had evidence of CAA on biopsy. Patients with CAA on biopsy were older (P = 0.005) and had a higher prevalence of parietal lobe (P = 0.02) and occipital lobe (P = 0.001) hemorrhage. The modified Boston criteria had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.6%-100%) and a specificity of 72.2% (95% CI, 54.6%-84.2%) for predicting CAA on biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Brain biopsy in MIS ICH clot evacuation is safe and allows for the diagnosis of various ICH etiologies.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283037

RESUMO

Neuronal circuits within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediate higher cognitive functions and emotional regulation that are disrupted in psychiatric disorders. The PFC undergoes significant maturation during adolescence, a period when cannabis use in humans has been linked to subsequent vulnerability to psychiatric disorders such as addiction and schizophrenia. Here, we investigated in a rat model the effects of adolescent exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a psychoactive component of cannabis, on the morphological architecture and transcriptional profile of layer III pyramidal neurons-using cell type- and layer-specific high-resolution microscopy, laser capture microdissection and next-generation RNA-sequencing. The results confirmed known normal expansions in basal dendritic arborization and dendritic spine pruning during the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood that were accompanied by differential expression of gene networks associated with neurodevelopment in control animals. In contrast, THC exposure disrupted the normal developmental process by inducing premature pruning of dendritic spines and allostatic atrophy of dendritic arborization in early adulthood. Surprisingly, there was minimal overlap of the developmental transcriptomes between THC- and vehicle-exposed rats. THC altered functional gene networks related to cell morphogenesis, dendritic development, and cytoskeleton organization. Marked developmental network disturbances were evident for epigenetic regulators with enhanced co-expression of chromatin- and dendrite-related genes in THC-treated animals. Dysregulated PFC co-expression networks common to both the THC-treated animals and patients with schizophrenia were enriched for cytoskeletal and neurite development. Overall, adolescent THC exposure altered the morphological and transcriptional trajectory of PFC pyramidal neurons, which could enhance vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.

14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214040

RESUMO

Multiple lines of evidence point to glutamatergic signaling in the postsynaptic density (PSD) as a pathophysiologic mechanism in schizophrenia. Integral to PSD glutamatergic signaling is reciprocal interplay between GluN and mGluR5 signaling. We examined agonist-induced mGluR5 signaling in the postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) derived from 17 patients and age-matched and sex-matched controls. The patient group showed a striking reduction in mGluR5 signaling, manifested by decreases in Gq/11 coupling and association with PI3K and Homer compared to controls (p < 0.01 for all). This was accompanied by increases in serine and tyrosine phosphorylation of mGluR5, which can decrease mGluR5 activity via desensitization (p < 0.01). In addition, we find altered protein-protein interaction (PPI) of mGluR5 with RGS4, norbin, Preso 1 and tamalin, which can also attenuate mGluR5 activity. We previously reported molecular underpinnings of GluN hypofunction (decreased GluN2 phosphorylation) and here we show those of reduced mGluR5 signaling in schizophrenia. We find that reduced GluN2 phosphorylation can be precipitated by attenuated mGluR5 activity and that increased mGluR5 phosphorylation can result from decreased GluN function, suggesting a reciprocal interplay between the two pathways in schizophrenia. Interestingly, the patient group showed decreased mGluR5-GluN association (p < 0.01), a mechanistic basis for the reciprocal facilitation. In sum, we present the first direct evidence for mGluR5 hypoactivity, propose a reciprocal interplay between GluN and mGluR5 pathways as integral to glutamatergic dysregulation and suggest protein-protein interactions in mGluR5-GluN complexes as potential targets for intervention in schizophrenia.

15.
Sci Data ; 5: 180185, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204156

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects half the US population over the age of 85 and is universally fatal following an average course of 10 years of progressive cognitive disability. Genetic and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified about 33 risk factor genes for common, late-onset AD (LOAD), but these risk loci fail to account for the majority of affected cases and can neither provide clinically meaningful prediction of development of AD nor offer actionable mechanisms. This cohort study generated large-scale matched multi-Omics data in AD and control brains for exploring novel molecular underpinnings of AD. Specifically, we generated whole genome sequencing, whole exome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing and proteome profiling data from multiple regions of 364 postmortem control, mild cognitive impaired (MCI) and AD brains with rich clinical and pathophysiological data. All the data went through rigorous quality control. Both the raw and processed data are publicly available through the Synapse software platform.

16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3121, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087329

RESUMO

Schizophrenia genome-wide association studies have identified >150 regions of the genome associated with disease risk, yet there is little evidence that coding mutations contribute to this disorder. To explore the mechanism of non-coding regulatory elements in schizophrenia, we performed ATAC-seq on adult prefrontal cortex brain samples from 135 individuals with schizophrenia and 137 controls, and identified 118,152 ATAC-seq peaks. These accessible chromatin regions in the brain are highly enriched for schizophrenia SNP heritability. Accessible chromatin regions that overlap evolutionarily conserved regions exhibit an even higher heritability enrichment, indicating that sequence conservation can further refine functional risk variants. We identify few differences in chromatin accessibility between cases and controls, in contrast to thousands of age-related differential accessible chromatin regions. Altogether, we characterize chromatin accessibility in the human prefrontal cortex, the effect of schizophrenia and age on chromatin accessibility, and provide evidence that our dataset will allow for fine mapping of risk variants.

17.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(8): 1126-1136, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038276

RESUMO

Risk variants for schizophrenia affect more than 100 genomic loci, yet cell- and tissue-specific roles underlying disease liability remain poorly characterized. We have generated for two cortical areas implicated in psychosis, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, 157 reference maps from neuronal, neuron-depleted and bulk tissue chromatin for two histone marks associated with active promoters and enhancers, H3-trimethyl-Lys4 (H3K4me3) and H3-acetyl-Lys27 (H3K27ac). Differences between neuronal and neuron-depleted chromatin states were the major axis of variation in histone modification profiles, followed by substantial variability across subjects and cortical areas. Thousands of significant histone quantitative trait loci were identified in neuronal and neuron-depleted samples. Risk variants for schizophrenia, depressive symptoms and neuroticism were significantly over-represented in neuronal H3K4me3 and H3K27ac landscapes. Our Resource, sponsored by PsychENCODE and CommonMind, highlights the critical role of cell-type-specific signatures at regulatory and disease-associated noncoding sequences in the human frontal lobe.

18.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(5): 394-397, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001766

RESUMO

Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84-88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled 'Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets' (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597-2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229-237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from 'inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]', as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84-88), and are not 'more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence'.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8868, 2018 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892006

RESUMO

Elucidating brain cell type specific gene expression patterns is critical towards a better understanding of how cell-cell communications may influence brain functions and dysfunctions. We set out to compare and contrast five human and murine cell type-specific transcriptome-wide RNA expression data sets that were generated within the past several years. We defined three measures of brain cell type-relative expression including specificity, enrichment, and absolute expression and identified corresponding consensus brain cell "signatures," which were well conserved across data sets. We validated that the relative expression of top cell type markers are associated with proxies for cell type proportions in bulk RNA expression data from postmortem human brain samples. We further validated novel marker genes using an orthogonal ATAC-seq dataset. We performed multiscale coexpression network analysis of the single cell data sets and identified robust cell-specific gene modules. To facilitate the use of the cell type-specific genes for cell type proportion estimation and deconvolution from bulk brain gene expression data, we developed an R package, BRETIGEA. In summary, we identified a set of novel brain cell consensus signatures and robust networks from the integration of multiple datasets and therefore transcend limitations related to technical issues characteristic of each individual study.

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