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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3931, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477722

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are critical to both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the development and heterogeneity of human NK cells are yet to be fully defined. Using single-cell RNA-sequencing technology, here we identify distinct NK populations in human bone marrow and blood, including one population expressing higher levels of immediate early genes indicative of a homeostatic activation. Functionally matured NK cells with high expression of CX3CR1, HAVCR2 (TIM-3), and ZEB2 represents terminally differentiated status with the unique transcriptional profile. Transcriptomic and pseudotime analyses identify a transitional population between CD56bright and CD56dim NK cells. Finally, a donor with GATA2T354M mutation exhibits reduced percentage of CD56bright NK cells with altered transcriptome and elevated cell death. These data expand our understanding of the heterogeneity and development of human NK cells.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 998, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156616

RESUMO

CTLA-4 is essential for immune tolerance. Heterozygous CTLA4 mutations cause immune dysregulation evident in defective regulatory T cells with low levels of CTLA-4 expression. Biallelic mutations in LRBA also result in immune dysregulation with low levels of CTLA-4 and clinical presentation indistinguishable from CTLA-4 haploinsufficiency. CTLA-4 has become an immunotherapy target whereby its blockade with a monoclonal antibody has resulted in improved survival in advanced melanoma patients, amongst other malignancies. However, this therapeutic manipulation can result in autoimmune/inflammatory complications reminiscent of those seen in genetic defects affecting the CTLA-4 pathway. Despite efforts made to understand and establish disease genotype/phenotype correlations in CTLA-4-haploinsufficiency and LRBA-deficiency, such relationships remain elusive. There is currently no specific immunological marker to assess the degree of CTLA-4 pathway disruption or its relationship with clinical manifestations. Here we compare three different patient groups with disturbances in the CTLA-4 pathway-CTLA-4-haploinsufficiency, LRBA-deficiency, and ipilimumab-treated melanoma patients. Assessment of CTLA4 mRNA expression in these patient groups demonstrated an inverse correlation between the CTLA4 message and degree of CTLA-4 pathway disruption. CTLA4 mRNA levels from melanoma patients under therapeutic CTLA-4 blockade (ipilimumab) were increased compared to patients with either CTLA4 or LRBA mutations that were clinically stable with abatacept treatment. In summary, we show that increased CTLA4 mRNA levels correlate with the degree of CTLA-4 pathway disruption, suggesting that CTLA4 mRNA levels may be a quantifiable surrogate for altered CTLA-4 expression.

4.
Cell Death Discov ; 4: 35, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245858

RESUMO

Expression of the adenovirus E1A oncogene sensitizes tumor cells to innate immune rejection by apoptosis induced by macrophage-produced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO). E1A sensitizes cells to TNF-α and NO through two distinct mechanisms, by repressing NF-κB-dependent antiapoptotic responses and enhancing caspase-2 activation and mitochondrial injury, respectively. The mechanisms through which E1A enhances caspase-2 activation in response to NO were unknown. Here, we report that E1A-induced sensitization to NO-induced apoptosis is dependent on expression of PIDD (p53-inducible protein with a death domain) and enhancement of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) processing for formation of the PIDDosome, the core component of the caspase-2 activation complex. NO-induced apoptosis in E1A-expressing cells did not require expression Bak or Bax, indicating that NO-induced caspase-2-mediated mitochondrial injury does not proceed through the activities of typical, proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members that induce mitochondrial cytochrome C release. These results define a PIDD-dependent pathway, through which E1A enhances casapse-2-mediated mitochondrial injury, resulting in increased sensitivity of mammalian cells to macrophage-induced, NO-mediated apoptosis.

5.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1837, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147696

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IGRT) has contributed critically to the management of primary antibody deficiencies (PAD) and the decrease in pneumonia rate. However, despite adequate IGRT and improved prognosis, patients with PAD continue to experience recurrent respiratory tract infections, leading to bronchiectasis and continuing decline in lung function with a severe impact on their quality of life. Moreover, non-infectious inflammatory and interstitial lung complications, such as granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, contribute substantially to the overall morbidity of PAD. These conditions develop much more often than appreciated and represent a major therapeutic challenge. Therefore, a regular assessment of the structural and functional condition of the lung and the upper airways with appropriate treatment is required to minimize the deterioration of lung function. This work summarizes the knowledge on lung complications in PAD and discusses the currently available diagnostic tools and treatment options.

6.
Genes Immun ; 2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599514

RESUMO

Human IL12RB1 is an autosomal gene that is essential for mycobacterial disease resistance and T cell differentiation. Using primary human tissue and PBMCs, we demonstrate that lung and T cell IL12RB1 expression is allele-biased, and the extent to which cells express one IL12RB1 allele is unaffected by activation. Furthermore following its expression the IL12RB1 pre-mRNA is processed into either IL12RB1 Isoform 1 (IL12Rß1, a positive regulator of IL12 responsiveness) or IL12RB1 Isoform 2 (a protein of heretofore unknown function). T cells choice to process pre-mRNA into Isoform 1 or Isoform 2 is controlled by intragenic competition of IL12RB1 exon 9-10 splicing with IL12RB1 exon 9b splicing, as well as an IL12RB1 exon 9b-associated polyadenylation site. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H (hnRNP H) binds near the regulated polyadenylation site, but is not required for exon 9b polyadenylation. Finally, microRNA-mediated knockdown experiments demonstrated that IL12RB1 Isoform 2 promotes T cell IL12 responses. Collectively, our data support a model wherein tissue expression of human IL12RB1 is allele-biased and produces an hnRNP H-bound pre-mRNA, the processing of which generates a novel IL12 response regulator.

7.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(3): 225-233, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453744

RESUMO

Although small prior studies have suggested that IgE can be low in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the workup for patients with recurrent infections and suspected hypogammaglobulinemia does not include the routine measurement of serum IgE. We sought to test the hypothesis that low/undetectable serum IgE is characteristic of CVID by comparing the frequency of low/undetectable serum IgE in healthy controls and patients with CVID. We measured total serum IgE in a large multi-center cohort of patients with CVID (n = 354) and compared this to large population-based cohorts of children and adults. We further compared IgE levels in patients with CVID to those with other forms of humoral immunodeficiency, and in a subset, measured levels of allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG subclasses. Lastly, we evaluated for the presence of IgE in commercially available immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) products. An undetectable serum IgE (< 2 IU/ml) occurs in only 3.3% (95% CI, 1.9-5.7%) of the general population. In contrast, an undetectable IgE occurs in 75.6% (95% CI, 65.6-85.7%) of patients with CVID. Conversely, a high IgE (> 180 IU/ml) is very uncommon in CVID (0.3% of patients). IgE is > 2 IU/ml in 91.2% of patients with secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, and thus, an IgE < LLOD is suggestive of a primary humoral immunodeficiency. Allergen-specific IgE is not detectable in 96.5% of patients with CVID. Sufficient quantities of IgE to change the total serum IgE are not contained in IgRT. The IgG1/IgG4 ratio is increased in subjects with low IgE, regardless of whether they are controls or have CVID. These findings support the routine measurement of serum IgE in the workup of patients with hypogammaglobulinemia.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(1): 315-316, 2018 Jan - Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310762
10.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1470, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167668

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a life-threatening condition of newborns and infants caused by defects in genes involved in T cell development. Newborn screening (NBS) for SCID using the T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay began in Wisconsin in 2008 and has been adopted or is being implemented by all states in 2017. It has been established that NBS using the TREC assay is extremely sensitive to detect SCID in the newborn period. Some controversies remain regarding how screening positives are handled by individual states, including when to perform confirmatory flow cytometry, what is the necessary diagnostic workup of patients, what infection prophylaxis measures should be taken, and when hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should occur. In addition, the TREC can also assay detect infants with T cell lymphopenia who are not severe enough to be considered SCID; management of these infants is also evolving.

11.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(5): 427-433, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28589420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The specific antibody response to the unconjugated 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is one of the most common tests used to assess for possible humoral immunodeficiency. The results can be difficult to interpret because most people have been immunized with one or more of the pneumococcal vaccines and there is controversy regarding what constitutes a normal response. To circumvent this problem, we developed an ELISA to measure IgG-specific antibodies to the Salmonella Vi Typhim (S. Typhim) vaccine, a pure polysaccharide vaccine, which is a neoantigen for the vast majority of people in the USA. METHODS: We compared the pre- and post-vaccination serum titers to the Vi Typhim vaccine in healthy controls (n = 22), patients previously diagnosed with a primary immunodeficiency (n = 30), and patients referred for possible humoral immune deficiency (n = 29). We also determined if the S. Typhim vaccine could be used to assess specific antibody responses in people on antibody replacement therapy. RESULTS: Following immunization with the S. Typhim vaccine, we found that a 2-fold increase in titers is 100% sensitive and specific in detecting known humoral immune deficiencies as determined by ROC curve analysis. This cut-off value was successfully applied to possible immune deficiency patients (n = 29), resulting in the diagnosis of seven subjects with humoral immunodeficiency. The use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy did not affect the median response ratios compared to subjects not receiving gammaglobulin. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that measurement of the specific antibody response to the S. Typhim vaccine may have advantages over pneumococcal vaccination in the evaluation of the humoral immune response.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agamaglobulinemia/sangue , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/imunologia , Curva ROC , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1282-1292, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is a primary immunodeficiency with high morbidity and mortality compared with those seen in healthy subjects. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been considered a curative therapy, but the procedure has inherent complications and might not be available for all patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to collect data on the clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of a large sample of patients with XHIGM to (1) compare long-term overall survival and general well-being of patients treated with or without HCT along with clinical factors associated with mortality and (2) summarize clinical practice and risk factors in the subgroup of patients treated with HCT. METHODS: Physicians caring for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases were identified through the Jeffrey Modell Foundation, United States Immunodeficiency Network, Latin American Society for Immunodeficiency, and Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium. Data were collected with a Research Electronic Data Capture Web application. Survival from time of diagnosis or transplantation was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method compared with log-rank tests and modeled by using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Twenty-eight clinical sites provided data on 189 patients given a diagnosis of XHIGM between 1964 and 2013; 176 had valid follow-up and vital status information. Sixty-seven (38%) patients received HCT. The average follow-up time was 8.5 ± 7.2 years (range, 0.1-36.2 years). No difference in overall survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT (P = .671). However, risk associated with HCT decreased for diagnosis years 1987-1995; the hazard ratio was significantly less than 1 for diagnosis years 1995-1999. Liver disease was a significant predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence limits, 2.2-10.8; P < .001). Among survivors, those treated with HCT had higher median Karnofsky/Lansky scores than those treated without HCT (P < .001). Among patients receiving HCT, 27 (40%) had graft-versus-host disease, and most deaths occurred within 1 year of transplantation. CONCLUSION: No difference in survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT across all diagnosis years (1964-2013). However, survivors treated with HCT experienced somewhat greater well-being, and hazards associated with HCT decreased, reaching levels of significantly less risk in the late 1990s. Among patients treated with HCT, treatment at an early age is associated with improved survival. Optimism remains guarded as additional evidence accumulates.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 64(1): 27-37, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27894450

RESUMO

Although primary immunodeficiencies typically present with recurrent, chronic, or severe infections, autoimmune manifestations frequently accompany these disorders and may be the initial clinical manifestations. The presence of 2 or more autoimmune disorders, unusual severe atopic disease, or a combination of these disorders should lead a clinician to consider primary immunodeficiency disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Criança , Diagnóstico Tardio , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erros de Diagnóstico , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Doenças Raras/imunologia
15.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 9(6): 579-84, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27139719

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Newborn screening (NBS) for Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)/severe T cell lymphopenia (sTCL) is being increasingly used worldwide. AREAS COVERED: In this manuscript we will discuss the following: 1) The rationale for screening newborns for SCID/sTCL; 2) The scientific basis for the use of the T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay in screening newborns for SCID/sTCL; 3) The published outcomes of current NBS programs. Expert commentary: 4) Some of the ethical dilemmas that occur when screening newborns for SCID. Finally, we will discuss the future directions for expanding NBS to include other primary immunodeficiencies.


Assuntos
Triagem Neonatal , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Testes Genéticos/ética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Programas de Rastreamento , Triagem Neonatal/ética , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/epidemiologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/etiologia
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(50): 15414-9, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26621740

RESUMO

Human interleukin 12 and interleukin 23 (IL12/23) influence susceptibility or resistance to multiple diseases. However, the reasons underlying individual differences in IL12/23 sensitivity remain poorly understood. Here we report that in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and inflamed lungs, the majority of interleukin-12 receptor ß1 (IL12RB1) mRNAs contain a number of RNA-DNA differences (RDDs) that concentrate in sequences essential to IL12Rß1's binding of IL12p40, the protein subunit common to both IL-12 and IL-23. IL12RB1 RDDs comprise multiple RDD types and are detectable by next-generation sequencing and classic Sanger sequencing. As a consequence of these RDDs, the resulting IL12Rß1 proteins have an altered amino acid sequence that could not be predicted on the basis of genomic DNA sequencing alone. Importantly, the introduction of RDDs into IL12RB1 mRNAs negatively regulates IL12Rß1's binding of IL12p40 and is sensitive to activation. Collectively, these results suggest that the introduction of RDDs into an individual's IL12RB1 mRNA repertoire is a novel determinant of IL12/23 sensitivity.


Assuntos
DNA/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fito-Hemaglutininas/farmacologia , Pneumonia/genética , Pneumonia/patologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-12/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(5): 1186-205.e1-78, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26371839

RESUMO

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) and the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI) have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing the "Practice parameter for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing environment, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single individual, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Comitês Consultivos , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
20.
Hum Pathol ; 46(9): 1306-14, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26138782

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency is a primary immunodeficiency of unknown etiology characterized by low serum immunoglobulin G, a decreased ability to make specific antibodies, and variable T-cell defects. Approximately 10-30% of patients with common variable immunodeficiency develop clinical evidence of a diffuse parenchymal lung disease with a constellation of histopathologic findings termed granulomatous and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease. In this study, we characterized the histologic and immunohistochemical features in a series of 16 cases diagnosed by open lung biopsy. Peribronchiolar and interstitial lymphocytic infiltration, granulomatous inflammation, and organizing pneumonia were consistent features; interstitial fibrosis with architectural remodeling was also found in a subgroup of patients. By immunohistochemistry, a predominance of CD4+ T lymphocytes with variable numbers of CD8+ T cells and B cells was present, with a striking absence of FOXP3-positive T-regulatory cells. This heretofore unrecognized immunohistochemical finding needs further investigation for a potential role in the pathogenesis of the condition. The presence of interstitial fibrosis with or without architectural remodeling in a subset of patients also needs additional study, for effect on prognosis.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Granuloma do Sistema Respiratório/diagnóstico , Imuno-Histoquímica , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Biópsia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/patologia , Feminino , Granuloma do Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Granuloma do Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/imunologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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