Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 33
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667488

RESUMO

Late presentation to care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation with advanced HIV-disease are common in Latin America. We estimated the impact of these conditions on mortality in the region. We included adults enrolled during 2001-2014 at HIV-care clinics. We estimated the adjusted attributable risk (AR) and population attributable fraction (PAF) for all-cause mortality of presentation to care with advanced HIV-disease (advanced-LP), ART initiation with advanced HIV-disease, and not initiating ART. Advanced HIV-disease was defined as CD4<200 cells/µL or AIDS. AR and PAF were derived using marginal structural models. Of 9,229 patients, 56% presented with advanced HIV-disease. ARs of death for advanced-LP were 86%, 71%, and 58%, and PAFs were 78%, 58%, and 43% at 1, 5, and 10 years post-enrollment. Among people without advanced-LP, ARs of death for delaying ART were 39%, 32%, and 37% at 1, 5, and 10 years post-enrollment and PAFs were 20%, 14%, and 15%. Among people with advanced-LP, ART decreased the hazard of death by 63% in the first year post-enrollment, but 93% of these started ART; thus universal ART among them would only reduce mortality by 10%. Earlier presentation to care and earlier ART initiation would prevent most HIV-deaths in Latin America.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1333-1346, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety, efficacy, and appropriate timing of isoniazid therapy to prevent tuberculosis in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are receiving antiretroviral therapy are unknown. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women with HIV infection to receive isoniazid preventive therapy for 28 weeks, initiated either during pregnancy (immediate group) or at week 12 after delivery (deferred group). Mothers and infants were followed through week 48 after delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment-related maternal adverse events of grade 3 or higher or permanent discontinuation of the trial regimen because of toxic effects. The noninferiority margin was an upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference in the rate of the primary outcome of less than 5 events per 100 person-years. RESULTS: A total of 956 women were enrolled. A primary outcome event occurred in 72 of 477 women (15.1%) in the immediate group and in 73 of 479 (15.2%) in the deferred group (incidence rate, 15.03 and 14.93 events per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.77 to 4.98, which met the criterion for noninferiority). Two women in the immediate group and 4 women in the deferred group died (incidence rate, 0.40 and 0.78 per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, -0.39; 95% CI, -1.33 to 0.56); all deaths occurred during the postpartum period, and 4 were from liver failure (2 of the women who died from liver failure had received isoniazid [1 in each group]). Tuberculosis developed in 6 women (3 in each group); the incidence rate was 0.60 per 100 person-years in the immediate group and 0.59 per 100 person-years in the deferred group (rate difference, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.94 to 0.96). There was a higher incidence in the immediate group than in the deferred group of an event included in the composite adverse pregnancy outcome (stillbirth or spontaneous abortion, low birth weight in an infant, preterm delivery, or congenital anomalies in an infant) (23.6% vs. 17.0%; difference, 6.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.8 to 11.9). CONCLUSIONS: The risks associated with initiation of isoniazid preventive therapy during pregnancy appeared to be greater than those associated with initiation of therapy during the postpartum period. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; IMPAACT P1078 TB APPRISE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01494038.).


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Isoniazida/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Hepática , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving knowledge regarding Streptococcus pneumoniae distribution in pneumonia cases is important to better target preventive and curative measures. The objective was to describe S. pneumoniae serotypes in children with or without pneumonia. METHODS: It was a case-control study carried out in 8 developing and emerging countries between 2010 and 2014. Cases were children aged <5 years admitted to the hospital for pneumonia. Controls were children admitted for surgery or routine outpatient care. RESULTS: In nasopharyngeal samples, S. pneumoniae were detected in 68.2% of the cases and 47.5% of the controls (P < .001). Nasopharyngeal carriage was associated with a higher risk of being a case in 6/8 study sites (adjusted odds ratio ranged from 0.71 [95% confidence interval [CI], .39-1.29; P = .26] in India [Pune/Vadu] to 11.86 [95% CI, 5.77-24.41; P < .001] in Mongolia). The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes were more frequently detected in cases with nasopharyngeal carriage (67.1%) than in controls with nasopharyngeal carriage (54.6%), P < .001. Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected in blood by polymerase chain reaction in 8.3% of the cases. Of 34 cases with an S. pneumoniae serotype detected in blood, 27 (79%) had the same serotype in the nasopharyngeal sample. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the assumption that the isolate carrying or causing disease in an individual is of the same serotype. Most serotypes independently associated with nasopharyngeal carriage or pneumonia are covered by PCV13, suggesting that increased PCV coverage would reduce the burden of S. pneumoniae-related pneumonia.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841596

RESUMO

Diffusion of cholera and other diarrheal diseases in an informal settlement is a product of multiple behavioral, environmental and spatial risk factors. One of the most important components is the spatial interconnections among water points, drainage ditches, toilets and the intervening environment. This risk is also longitudinal and variable as water points fluctuate in relation to bacterial contamination. In this paper we consider part of this micro space complexity for three informal settlements in Port au Prince, Haiti. We expand on more typical epidemiological analysis of fecal coliforms at water points, drainage ditches and ocean sites by considering the importance of single point location fluctuation coupled with recording micro-space environmental conditions around each sample site. Results show that spatial variation in enteric disease risk occurs within neighborhoods, and that while certain trends are evident, the degree of individual site fluctuation should question the utility of both cross-sectional and more aggregate analysis. Various factors increase the counts of fecal coliform present, including the type of water point, how water was stored at that water point, and the proximity of the water point to local drainage. Some locations fluctuated considerably between being safe and unsafe on a monthly basis. Next steps to form a more comprehensive contextualized understanding of enteric disease risk in these environments should include the addition of behavioral factors and local insight.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Cidades , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Haiti , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1749, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls and young women living with HIV in resource-limited settings have the poorest health outcomes of any age group, due in part to poor retention in care. Differentiated models of HIV care that target the specific challenges of young people living with HIV are urgently needed. METHODS: The FANMI study is an unblinded randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of an adolescent-specific model of HIV care in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The FANMI intervention places newly young women living with HIV who are not currently on ART or on ART ≤ 3 months, in cohorts of 5-10 peers to receive monthly group HIV care in a community location. In contrast, participants in the standard care arm receive routine HIV care and individual counseling each month in GHESKIO's Adolescent Clinic. A total of 160 participants ages 16-23 years old are being randomized on a 1:1 basis. The primary outcome is retention in HIV care defined as being alive and in care at 12 months after enrollment. Secondary outcomes include viral suppression at 12 months, sexual risk behaviors, acceptability of the FANMI intervention, and health care utilization and costs. DISCUSSION: The FANMI study evaluates a novel community-based cohort model of HIV care aimed at improving retention in care and reducing risk behaviors for HIV transmission among adolescent girls and young women living with HIV. Specifically, the FANMI model of care addresses social isolation by placing participants in cohorts of 5-10 peers to provide intensified peer support and makes HIV health management a group norm; reduces stigma and improves convenience by providing care in a community setting; and integrates clinical care and social support by the same providers to streamline care and promote long-term patient-provider relationships. If shown to be effective, the FANMI intervention may serve as a model of HIV care for improving retention among hard-to-reach adolescents and young adults in Haiti and could be adapted for other high-risk groups globally. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT03286504, Registered September 18, 2017.

7.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 2(6): nzy017, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955729

RESUMO

Background: The cognitive processes involved in individuals' perceptions and prioritization of information, and how these change with experience or exposure to interventions, are rarely examined in the evaluation of nutrition interventions. Exclusive breastfeeding counseling is a common infant and young-child feeding intervention and is used to promote HIV-free survival in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs. However, it is often designed without adequate attention to the changes in mothers' perceptions over the course of their early breastfeeding experiences. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers' cognitive structure (their organization of messages and ideas) of infant feeding messages and to characterize whether their cognitive organization of infant feeding messages changed from pregnancy through the first 5 mo postpartum. Methods: With the use of semistructured interviews and the cognitive mapping technique of pile sorting, we interviewed 30 HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. We asked them to sort and rate 18 infant feeding messages 3 times (during pregnancy, 0- to 1-mo postpartum, and 3- to 5-mo postpartum). We analyzed their responses by using multidimensional scaling, property fitting, and partition analyses. Results: At all 3 visits, we found consistency in women's cognitive mapping of messages. For example, mothers consistently differentiated messages pertinent for exclusive breastfeeding compared with those that pertained to other practices. However, subtle variations in mothers' cognition over time were also evident, particularly at 0- to 1-mo postpartum, when message proximity was tightly clustered compared with the earlier and later periods. Conclusions: We conclude that mothers share a common cognitive organization of infant feeding messages and that this organization changes over time. Attention to variations in cognition can support context-sensitive, patient-centered counseling by practitioners and improve the effectiveness of nutrition interventions. Pile sorting is an efficient, systematic technique to examine cognitive processes related to health and nutrition.

8.
Trop Med Int Health ; 23(7): 724-737, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mother and infant outcomes in the largest prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) programme in Haiti in order to identify gaps towards elimination of HIV and syphilis. METHODS: Based on retrospective data from HIV+ pregnant women and their infants enrolled in PMTCT care from 1999 to 2014, we assessed maternal enrolment in PMTCT, receipt of antiretrovirals before delivery, maternal retention through delivery as well as infant enrolment in PMTCT, HIV testing and HIV infection. Four PMTCT programme periods were compared: period 1 (1999-2004, mono ARV), period 2 (2005-2009, dual ARV), period 3 (2010-2012, Option B) and period 4 (Oct 2012-2014, Option B+). Kaplan-Meier methods were used to assess retention in PMTCT care. RESULTS: Among 4665 pregnancies, median age was 27 years and median CD4+ was 494 cells/µl (IQR 328-691). A total of 75% of women received antiretrovirals before delivery, and 73% were retained in care through delivery. Twenty-two percent of women were lost before delivery, <1% died and 6% had stillbirths or abortions. Ninety-four percent of infants who were born alive enrolled in PMTCT, of whom 92% had complete HIV testing. One hundred and sixty-one infants were HIV+, giving a 5.4% HIV transmission rate (9.8%, 4.6%, 5.8% and 3.6% in periods 1-4). Retention among women through 12 months after PMTCT enrolment did not significantly differ across periods. However, among women who received antiretrovirals at the time of enrolment, retention 12 months later was lower in the Option B+ period (83%) than in periods 2 and 3 (94% and 93%) (P < 0.001). Syphilis infection among women decreased from 16% in period 1 to 8% in period 4, whereas syphilis testing of infants increased from 17% to 91%. CONCLUSION: Despite dramatic reductions in MTCT in Haiti, interventions are needed to improve retention to achieve MTCT elimination of HIV and syphilis.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/normas , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/mortalidade , Sífilis/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
9.
Matern Child Nutr ; 14(2): e12537, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28976068

RESUMO

Worldwide, mothers with young children receive many messages about infant feeding. Some messages are generated by health providers and others by the households, communities, and social contexts in which women live. We aimed to determine the scope of infant feeding messages in urban Haiti and to examine intracultural differences in salience of these messages and their alignment with international guidelines. We applied the method of free listing with 13 health workers and 15 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 15 HIV-uninfected mothers with infants 0-6 months old at Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants listed all messages women receive about infant feeding and specifically about HIV and infant feeding. Message salience was determined by frequency of mention and recall order; messages were coded for key themes. For all groups, the World Health Organization infant feeding recommendations were salient, especially those related to exclusive breastfeeding. Messages across all groups focused on infant health outcomes, with less emphasis on maternal outcomes. Cultural beliefs were also elicited and showed higher salience for mothers than health workers, particularly for consequences of poor maternal nutrition. Health workers' free lists were poorly correlated to those of mothers, whereas those of mothers were highly correlated, regardless of HIV status. Inasmuch as many salient messages were culturally generated, and differences existed between mothers and health workers, we conclude that it is important for health workers to acknowledge the broader infant feeding message environment, and discrepancies within that environment, to address successes and failures in the messages reaching mothers, given potential consequences for mothers' breastfeeding behaviours.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alimentos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Cultura , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Haiti , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , População Urbana
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 65(4): 604-612, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605562

RESUMO

Background: Pneumonia, the leading infectious cause of child mortality globally, mainly afflicts developing countries. This prospective observational study aimed to assess the microorganisms associated with pneumonia in children aged <5 years in developing and emerging countries. Methods: A multicenter, case-control study by the GABRIEL (Global Approach to Biological Research, Infectious diseases and Epidemics in Low-income countries) network was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Cambodia, China, Haiti, India (2 sites), Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, and Paraguay. Cases were hospitalized children with radiologically confirmed pneumonia; controls were children from the same setting without any features suggestive of pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from all subjects; 19 viruses and 5 bacteria were identified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Associations between microorganisms and pneumonia were quantified by calculating the adjusted population attributable fraction (aPAF) after multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex, age, time period, other pathogens, and site. Results: Overall, 888 cases and 870 controls were analyzed; ≥1 microorganism was detected in respiratory samples in 93.0% of cases and 74.4% of controls (P < .001). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus 1, 3, and 4, and influenza virus A and B were independently associated with pneumonia; aPAF was 42.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35.5%-48.2%) for S. pneumoniae, 18.2% (95% CI, 17.4%-19.0%) for RSV, and 11.2% (95% CI, 7.5%-14.7%) for rhinovirus. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumoniae, RSV, and rhinovirus may be the major microorganisms associated with pneumonia infections in children <5 years of age from developing and emerging countries. Increasing S. pneumoniae vaccination coverage may substantially reduce the burden of pneumonia among children in developing countries.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 31(3): 145-151, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28282245

RESUMO

In 2003, the Haitian Study Group on Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO), a nonprofit organization, began administering antiretroviral therapy (ART) to its patients. This practice transformed HIV from a fatal disease to a more manageable chronic condition. However, relatively few studies focus on the experiences of survivors. This study provided a unique opportunity to interview patients who survived at least 10 years after being treated with ART at GHESKIO. The goal of the study was to elicit from patients their perspectives on what enabled them to survive with AIDS. Grounded Theory, a qualitative research method was used to guide data collection, coding, and analysis. Individual interviews were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed in Creole, and translated into English. Data saturation was reached at 25 participants. Of which, 64% were women, the mean age was 49, range of 43-55 years, 24% were married, 44% had not completed elementary school, and 72% had no income, the remaining participants had incomes ranging from $1000 to $5000 annually. Qualitative analysis resulted in 681 codes, which were grouped into six categories: being spiritually grounded, having supportive interactions with providers, caring for children, setting personal goals, persevering and living life as usual, and maintaining strict medication adherence practices. The overarching theory was that having a reason to live despite one's circumstances and living life as usual enabled one to survive. Having a strong spiritual foundation coupled with supportive family and providers motivated participants to live and adhere to their ART. As the number of patients who are living longer with HIV in Haiti increases, results from this study will be important in helping tailor interventions that enhance their overall quality of life.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adesão à Medicação , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Criança , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Haiti , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Espiritualidade
12.
J Pediatr ; 182: 245-252.e1, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28081884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the risks of and factors associated with mortality, loss to follow-up, and changing regimens after children with HIV infected perinatally initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Latin America and the Caribbean. STUDY DESIGN: This 1997-2013 retrospective cohort study included 1174 antiretroviral therapy-naïve, perinatally infected children who started cART age when they were younger than 18 years of age (median 4.7 years; IQR 1.7-8.8) at 1 of 6 cohorts from Argentina, Brazil, Haiti, and Honduras, within the Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV Epidemiology. Median follow-up was 5.6 years (IQR 2.3-9.3). Study outcomes were all-cause mortality, loss to follow-up, and major changes in cART. We used Cox proportional hazards models stratified by site to examine the association between predictors and times to death or changing regimens. RESULTS: Only 52% started cART at younger than 5 years of age; 19% began a protease inhibitor. At cART initiation, median CD4 count was 472 cells/mm3 (IQR 201-902); median CD4% was 16% (IQR 10-23). Probability of death was high in the first year of cART: 0.06 (95% CI 0.04-0.07). Five years after cART initiation, the cumulative mortality incidence was 0.12 (95% CI 0.10-0.14). Cumulative incidences for loss to follow-up and regimen change after 5 years were 0.16 (95% 0.14-0.18) and 0.30 (95% 0.26-0.34), respectively. Younger children had the greatest risk of mortality, whereas older children had the greatest risk of being lost to follow-up or changing regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative clinical and community approaches are needed for quality improvement in the pediatric care of HIV in the Americas.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Causas de Morte , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(46): 1285-1290, 2016 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27880749

RESUMO

Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health issue in resource-limited settings. In 2015, 1.4 million children aged <15 years were estimated to be living with HIV (including 170,000 infants born in 2015), with the vast majority living in sub-Saharan Africa (1). In 2014, 150,000 children died from HIV-related causes worldwide (2). Access to timely HIV diagnosis and treatment for HIV-infected infants reduces HIV-associated mortality, which is approximately 50% by age 2 years without treatment (3). Since 2011, the annual number of HIV-infected children has declined by 50%. Despite this gain, in 2014, only 42% of HIV-exposed infants received a diagnostic test for HIV (2), and in 2015, only 51% of children living with HIV received antiretroviral therapy (1). Access to services for early infant diagnosis of HIV (which includes access to testing for HIV-exposed infants and clinical diagnosis of HIV-infected infants) is critical for reducing HIV-associated mortality in children aged <15 years. Using data collected from seven countries supported by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), progress in the provision of HIV testing services for early infant diagnosis was assessed. During 2011-2015, the total number of HIV diagnostic tests performed among HIV-exposed infants within 6 weeks after birth (tests for early infant diagnosis of HIV), as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) increased in all seven countries (Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia); however, in 2015, the rate of testing for early infant diagnosis among HIV-exposed infants was <50% in five countries. HIV positivity among those tested declined in all seven countries, with three countries (Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda) reporting >50% decline. The most common challenges for access to testing for early infant diagnosis included difficulties in specimen transport, long turnaround time between specimen collection and receipt of results, and limitations in supply chain management. Further reductions in HIV mortality in children can be achieved through continued expansion and improvement of services for early infant diagnosis in PEPFAR-supported countries, including initiatives targeted to reach HIV-exposed infants, ensure access to programs for early infant diagnosis of HIV, and facilitate prompt linkage to treatment for children diagnosed with HIV infection.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , África ao Sul do Saara , Região do Caribe , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Gravidez
14.
AIDS Res Treat ; 2016: 6284290, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27651953

RESUMO

Background. Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV relies on engagement in care during the prenatal, peripartum, and postpartum periods. Under PMTCT Option B, pregnant women with elevated CD4 counts are provided with antiretroviral prophylaxis until cessation of breastfeeding. Methods. Retrospective analysis of retention in care among HIV-infected pregnant women in Haiti was performed. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with loss to follow-up (LFU) defined as no medical visit for at least 6 months and Kaplan-Meier curves were created to show LFU timing. Results. Women in the cohort had 463 pregnancies between 2009 and 2012 with retention rates of 80% at delivery, 67% at one year, and 59% at 2 years. Among those who were LFU, the highest risk period was during pregnancy (60%) or shortly afterwards (24.4% by 12 months). Never starting on antiretroviral therapy (aRR 2.29, 95% CI 1.4-3.8) was associated with loss to follow-up. Conclusions. Loss to follow-up during and after pregnancy was common in HIV-infected women in Haiti under PMTCT Option B. Since sociodemographic factors and distance from home to facility did not predict LFU, future work should elicit and address barriers to retention at the initial prenatal care visit in all women. Better tracking systems to capture engagement in care in the wider network are needed.

16.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 19(1): 20859, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27389256

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents account for over 40% of new HIV infections in Haiti. This analysis compares outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents before and after implementation of an adolescent HIV clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using programmatic data among HIV-positive adolescents aged 13 to 19. Data from 41,218 adolescents who were HIV tested from January 2003 to December 2012 were included. Outcomes across the HIV care cascade were assessed before and after implementation of an adolescent clinic (2009), including HIV testing, enrolment in care, assessment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility, ART initiation and 12-month retention. Pre-ART outcomes were assessed 12 months after HIV testing. Factors associated with pre-ART and ART attrition were identified through multivariable competing risk and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling. RESULTS: Cumulatively, 1672 (4.1%) adolescents tested HIV positive (80% female, median age 16 years). Retention by cascade step comparing pre- and post-clinic included the following: 86% versus 87% of patients enrolled in care, 61% versus 79% were assessed for ART eligibility, 85% versus 92% initiated ART and 68% versus 66% were retained 12 months after ART initiation. Pre-ART attrition decreased from 61% pre-clinic to 50% post-clinic (p<0.001). Pre-ART attrition was associated with being female (sub-distributional hazard ratio (sHR): 1.59; CI: 1.31-1.93), syphilis diagnosis (sHR: 1.47; CI: 1.16-1.85) and slum residence (sHR: 0.84; CI: 0.72-0.97). ART attrition was associated with syphilis diagnosis (hazard ratio (HR): 2.23; CI: 1.35-3.68) and CD4 <50 cells/µL (HR: 1.88; CI: 1.15-3.06). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a youth-friendly adolescent clinic improved retention in HIV care among adolescents, particularly in the assessment of ART eligibility and ART initiation. Additional interventions are needed to improve retention among pre-ART patients and support long-term retention among ART patients.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Adolescente , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Definição da Elegibilidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Haiti , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sífilis , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Transl Med ; 8(349): 349ra100, 2016 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27464748

RESUMO

More than 1 million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infant's microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Microbiota/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Leite Humano/química , Mães , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 94(5): 1136-42, 2016 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26928838

RESUMO

The first oral cholera vaccine (OCV) campaign, since its prequalification by the World Health Organization, in response to an ongoing cholera epidemic (reactive vaccination) was successfully conducted in a poor urban slum of approximately 70,000 inhabitants in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in 2012. Vaccine coverage was 75% of the target population. This report documents the impact of OCV in reducing the number of culture-confirmed cases of cholera admitted to the Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) cholera treatment center from that community in the 37 months postvaccination (April 2012-April 30, 2015). Of 1,788 patients with culture-confirmed cholera, 1,770 (99%) were either from outside the vaccine area (1,400 cases) or from the vaccinated community who had not received OCV (370 cases). Of the 388 people from the catchment area who developed culture-confirmed cholera, 370 occurred among the 17,643 people who had not been vaccinated (2.1%) and the remaining 18 occurred among the 52,357 people (0.034%) who had been vaccinated (P < 0.001), for an efficacy that approximates 97.5%. Despite not being designed as a randomized control trial, the very high efficacy is a strong evidence for the effectiveness of OCV as part of an integrated package for the control of cholera in outbreak settings.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Cólera/imunologia , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Vacinas contra Cólera/administração & dosagem , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Bull World Health Organ ; 93(7): 498-502, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26170508

RESUMO

PROBLEM: In 2010, Haiti sustained a devastating earthquake that crippled the health-care infrastructure in the capital city, Port-au-Prince, and left 1.5 million people homeless. Subsequently, there was an increase in reported tuberculosis in the affected population. APPROACH: We conducted active tuberculosis case finding in a camp for internally displaced persons and a nearby slum. Community health workers screened for tuberculosis at the household level. People with persistent cough were referred to a physician. The National Tuberculosis Program continued its national tuberculosis reporting system. LOCAL SETTING: Even before the earthquake, Haiti had the highest tuberculosis incidence in the Americas. About half of the tuberculosis cases occur in the Port-au-Prince region. RELEVANT CHANGES: The number of reported tuberculosis cases in Haiti has increased after the earthquake, but data are too limited to determine if this is due to an increase in tuberculosis burden or to improved case detection. Compared to previous national estimates (230 per 100,000 population), undiagnosed tuberculosis was threefold higher in a camp for internally displaced persons (693 per 100,000) and fivefold higher in an urban slum (1165 per 100,000). With funding from the World Health Organization (WHO), active case finding is now being done systematically in slums and camps. LESSONS LEARNT: Household-level screening for prolonged cough was effective in identifying patients with active tuberculosis in this study. Without accurate data, early detection of rising tuberculosis rates is challenging; data collection should be incorporated into pragmatic disease response programmes.


Assuntos
Desastres , Terremotos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA