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1.
Exp Gerontol ; 132: 110851, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987917

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in primordial follicle reserve, DNA damage and macrophage infiltration in the ovaries of young mice. Ovaries from six-month-old GH-deficient Ames Dwarf (df/df) and Normal (N/df) mice were used. The number of primordial follicles was higher in df/df mice (p = 0.0026). Also, df/df mice had a lower number of primary (p = 0.023), secondary (p = 0.0052) and tertiary (p = 0.019) follicles. These findings indicate a slower rate of primordial follicle activation in df/df mice. Female df/df mice had decreased γH2AX foci intensity in oocytes of primordial (p = 0.015) and primary (p = 0.0004) follicles compared to N/df mice. Also, df/df mice had reduced γH2AX intensity in granulosa cells of primordial (p = 0.0002) and primary (p < 0.0001) follicles. Overall, this indicate to us that df/df mice accumulate less DNA damage in the ovarian reserve compared to N/df mice. Additionally, macrophage infiltration was also reduced in ovaries of df/df mice compared to N/df mice (p = 0.033). Interestingly, df/df mice had a reduced number of granulosa cells around primordial (p = 0.0024) and primary (p = 0.007) follicles compared to N/df mice. Also, df/df mice had a small diameter of primordial follicle nuclei (p = 0.0093), secondary follicle oocyte (p = 0.046) and tertiary follicle (p = 0.012). This points to the role of granulosa cell proliferation and oocyte growth for primordial follicle activation. The current study points to the role of the GH/IGF-I axis in extending lifespan of reproductive health, along with maintenance of oocyte DNA integrity and reduced ovarian inflammation.

2.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 44(4): 1253-1264, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777417

RESUMO

In aquaculture, nutrition and supplemented diets have been shown to affect broodstock reproductive performance. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil (CFEO) microcapsules on reproductive-related parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) male broodfish. Adult male broodstocks were separated into three groups according to the concentrations of supplemented CFEO (0.0 = control; 1.0 or 3.0 mL per kg of diet). After 20 days under experimental conditions, the animals were euthanized and the gonads were harvested for gonadosomatic index, sperm analysis, oxidative stress, and histopathology; testosterone levels were measured in the plasma; gene expression of prl, smtl, pomca, and pomcb was assessed in the pituitary gland by real-time PCR. The results showed no alterations on reproductive parameters in R. quelen males treated with Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil compared to the control-diet animals. In conclusion, CFEO microcapsules supplied for 20 days in the concentrations of 1.00 or 3.00 mL per kilogram of diet did not affect the reproduction criteria evaluated in this study in male silver catfish.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Cymbopogon/química , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reprodução , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Zebrafish ; 15(2): 107-111, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304311

RESUMO

Fish cellular models are commonly used to study the toxic potential of environmentally relevant compounds. Several of these pollutants act on DNA and compromise its integrity. Little is known, however, about the DNA repair ability of these cellular models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the DNA base excision repair (BER) of zebrafish Liver (ZF-L) cell line and primary hepatocytes. We performed kinetic studies of the DNA damage levels after exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 20 µM for 10 min) using the Comet Assay. Ten minutes after H2O2 treatment, 16% and 50% of the initial damage, measured as comet tail length, were repaired in ZF-L cell line and primary hepatocytes, respectively. Primary hepatocytes repaired 50% of the damages twice as fast as ZF-L cell line and showed DNA damage levels similar to control 40 min after H2O2 treatment. The total recovery time for ZF-L model was of 180 min, which indicates the culture cells have a less efficient BER. In conclusion, both ZF-L cell line and primary hepatocytes exhibit BER activity; however, these cellular models have different repair capacity. In addition, we demonstrated that ZF-L cell line and primary hepatocytes are useful tools for ecotoxicological studies focusing on DNA single-strand breaks and BER.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio Cometa , Hepatócitos/citologia , Cinética , Fígado/citologia , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
4.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 48(12): e20180336, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1045042

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Previous studies have evaluated the effects of different reproductive procedures on discomfort markers in sheep and cattle. Such studies may help stimulate the adoption of techniques that are more beneficial for animal welfare. However, markers that are commonly used to evaluate discomfort are highly influenced by external factors. To overcome this, several systemic markers can be evaluated to more precisely identify stress, pain, and inflammation. Such markers include cortisol, acute phase proteins, bradykinin, and substance P. We aimed to review the potential markers of stress, pain, and inflammation, and discuss how and when they are regulated after different stimuli related to reproductive procedures in cattle and sheep. Furthermore, we aimed to review how reproductive procedures with different degrees of invasiveness cause stress and provide information that may help develop strategies to limit animal discomfort.


RESUMO: Estudos anteriores avaliaram o efeito de diferentes procedimentos reprodutivos sobre marcadores de desconforto em bovinos e ovinos. Tais estudos podem estimular a adoção de técnicas que preservem o bem-estar animal. Entretanto, os marcadores comumente utilizados apresentam alta influência de fatores externos. Para contornar isso, a avaliação conjunta de diferentes parâmetros sistêmicos pode ser utilizada para determinar com maior precisão a presença de estresse, dor ou inflamação, como cortisol, proteínas de fase aguda, a bradicinina e a substância P. O objetivo desta revisão é relacionar potenciais marcadores de inflamação e estresse, discutindo como e quando são regulados frente aos estímulos em bovinos e ovinos. Ainda, pretende-se revisar de que forma procedimentos reprodutivos com diferentes graus de invasividade acarretam em desconforto, fornecendo informações para a elaboração de estratégias que possibilitem minimizá-lo.

5.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 47(11): e20170380, Nov. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1044907

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Gestation length in swine has a considerable amplitude and both early and delayed parturition are common. This variation increases the occurrence of unassisted farrowing and could lead to a wide-ranging age at weaning for piglets born from one batch. Supervision of sow parturition is crucial to reduce mortality of neonate piglets. To facilitate assistance, induction of farrowing using prostaglandin F2α (PGF) has been widely used in batch farrowing systems, whereby synchronization would concentrate the time of farrowing, allowing for better organization of employees. However, a viable alternative method that can be implemented to manage farrowing is to sustain high progestagen levels in the final days of gestation and, consequently, prevent early parturition. Efficient techniques to delay farrowing such as using oral progestagen supplementation have been previously described, but are only recently being considered for commercial use. The present manuscript reviews publications regarding delaying parturition and discusses the use of intravaginal devices (IVDs) containing progestagen. There is limited data addressing the effect of progestagen treatment during gestation on productive and reproductive performance. Therefore, future studies should focus on improving synchronization protocols following progestagen supplementation and evaluating piglet viability and sow fertility, before widely using progestagen supplementation to manipulate parturition.


RESUMO: Como a duração da gestação de suínos pode ter ampla variação, é comum a ocorrência de partos antecipados ou gestações prolongadas. Isso aumenta as chances de partos sem assistência e leva a uma grande variação de idade dos leitões dentro do lote de produção. Portanto, a supervisão do parto é indispensável para reduzir as perdas neonatais. Para facilitar o auxílio aos leitões, a indução do parto com prostaglandina F2α (PGF) é eficaz e amplamente utilizada, sendo indicada para concentrar os partos em momentos mais adequados, preferencialmente durante o horário com maior disponibilidade de colaboradores. Uma alternativa viável é manipular o momento do parto, através da manutenção de níveis plasmáticos elevados de progestágeno durante o final da gestação, a fim de evitar partos antecipados. Formas eficientes de evitar o parto através de suplementação oral de progestágenos foram descritas há décadas, mas apenas recentemente tem sido cogitada a utilização comercial. A presente revisão aborda estudos disponíveis na literatura relacionados ao protelamento do parto, incluindo a utilização de dispositivos intravaginais (DIVs) impregnados com progestágeno. São poucos os dados disponíveis relacionados ao uso de progestágenos na gestação com índices produtivos e reprodutivos. Portanto, alguns pontos ainda devem ser melhor avaliados, especialmente com relação à determinação da sincronia dos partos após o fim da suplementação com progestágenos, à viabilidade dos neonatos e à fertilidade subsequente das fêmeas antes da ampla adoção desta técnica.

6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 189: 194-199, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651181

RESUMO

Marine ecosystems are subjected to a variety of contaminants. Antifouling paints, for example, have been extensively used to protect ship surfaces from marine biofouling, but their toxicity has generated great concern. Thus, we evaluated the effect of the biocide chlorothalonil on the immune system of Perna perna mussels. The mussels were exposed to 0 (control), 0.1µg/L and 10µg/L of chlorothalonil for up to 96h. After 24h and 96h of exposure, the following immune-related parameters were analyzed in the hemolymph of mussels: total hemocyte count, cell adhesion, phagocytic activity, level of reactive oxygen species, cell viability and comet assay. After 24h and 96h of chlorothalonil exposure, cellular adhesion increased and the hemocyte viability reduced. Moreover, an increase in phagocytic activity was also observed after 96h of exposure to cholorothalonil. The exposure to 10µg/L of chlorothalonil for 96h reduced the air survival capacity of mussels. Total hemocyte count, ROS generation and DNA damage were not affected by the contaminant exposure. Our results indicate that chlorothalonil affected important immune responses of the bivalves, demonstrating that this biocide has effects on non-target species. This modulation of immune system reduced the health status of mussels, which could compromise their ability to survive in the environment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Perna (Organismo)/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/imunologia , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/imunologia , Perna (Organismo)/genética , Perna (Organismo)/imunologia , Fagócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagócitos/imunologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/genética , Fagocitose/imunologia
7.
Ciênc. rural ; 46(2): 362-367, fev. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-767652

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Pregnancy diagnosis is an important tool for farm management. Ultrasonography is the main technique used for pregnancy diagnosis in ewes. As an alternative, radioimmunoassay (RIA) allows accurate and early detection of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) in sheep blood. However, radioactive-based techniques, as RIA, have been increasingly inadvisable due to environmental risk. Homology between ovine and bovine PAGs is high, and ELISA kits used for PAGs detection in cattle are safer than RIA. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of PAGs detection for pregnancy diagnosis in sheep serum samples using an ELISA kit produced for cattle. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA kit were 93.5% and 98.9%, respectively, whereas positive and negative predictive values were 99.0% and 93.1%, respectively, in comparison to ultrasonography diagnostic (control). PAGs reached consistently detectable concentrations in ovine serum around 33 days after mating. Accuracy of the ELISA test was 96.1% from 33 days of pregnancy until lambing. After parturition, PAGs were still detectable seven days post-lambing. However, from 21 days post-parturition, PAGs from the previous pregnancy were no longer detected in serum samples. In conclusion, the bovine ELISA kit can accurately detect pregnancy in sheep 33 days following mating, while PAGs levels from the previous gestation are no longer detected from 21 days post-partum. The evaluated ELISA test is a reliable tool for pregnancy diagnosis in sheep at random stages and as a complementary exam at early gestation.


RESUMO: O diagnóstico de gestação é uma ferramenta importante no manejo da propriedade. A ultrassonografia é a principal técnica utilizada no diagnóstico de prenhez em ovelhas. Como alternativa, o radiomunoensaio (RIA) permite acurácia e a detecção precoce de proteínas associadas à prenhez (PAGs) no sangue. No entanto, as técnicas radioativas, como o RIA, têm sido cada vez mais desaconselháveis, devido ao risco ambiental. A homologia entre PAGs de ovinos e bovinos é alta, e os kits de ELISA utilizados para a detecção de PAGs em bovinos são mais seguros do que RIA. Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a viabilidade de detecção de PAGs no soro ovino para diagnóstico de gestação em soro ovino, utilizando um kit de ELISA produzido para bovinos. A sensibilidade e a especificidade do kit de ELISA foram de 93,5% e 98,9%, respectivamente, enquanto que os valores preditivos positivo e negativo foram de 99,0% e 93,1%, respectivamente, em comparação com a ultrassonografia (utilizada como referência). As PAGs atingiram concentrações consistentemente detectáveis no soro ovino em torno de 33 dias após o acasalamento. A acurácia do teste de ELISA foi de 96,1% a partir de 33 dias de gestação até o parto. As PAGs ainda eram detectáveis sete dias pós-parto. No entanto, a partir de 21 dias após o parto, as PAGs da prenhez anterior já não eram detectadas no soro. Em conclusão, o kit de ELISA bovino pode detectar a prenhez com precisão em ovelhas a partir de 33 dias após o acasalamento, e os níveis de PAGs da gestação anterior não são detectados a partir de 21 dias pós-parto. O teste de ELISA avaliado é uma ferramenta confiável para o diagnóstico de gestação em ovelhas em estágios aleatórios e como exame complementar no início da gestação.

8.
Ciênc. rural ; 45(6): 1107-1112, 06/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-747091

RESUMO

O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade crioprotetora das lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL) presentes no plasma de gema de ovo, adicionado ao trihidroxiaminometano (TRIS) para congelar sêmen ovino. Trinta e seis ejaculados foram coletados para formar 12 "pool". Cada alíquota de sêmen foi diluída em TRIS-gema de ovo (TRISG) ou TRIS- plasma de gema de ovo (TRISP) antes de congelar o sêmen. Para a obtenção do plasma da gema de ovo, foi utilizado o método de ultracentrifugação. Após o descongelamento, não houve diferença entre os dois extensores em relação aos parâmetros seminais (motilidade, viabilidade, membrana acrossômica e plasma). No entanto, no Teste de Termo Resistência Lenta (TTRL - 4h/38°C), o sêmen congelado com TRISP resultou no aumento do número de espermatozoides com acrossoma intacto (P<0,032). Conclui-se que o diluente TRISP é uma alternativa para criopreservação do sêmen de carneiros, pois permite uma melhora da característica seminal em relação ao diluente TRIS gema, mas sem a necessidade do processo de purificação das LDL.


The present study aimed to evaluate the cryoprotectant low-density lipoprotein (LDL) present in the plasma of egg yolk added to the extender trihidroxiaminometano (TRIS) for freezing ram semen. Thirty-six ejaculates were collected to form 12 pool. Each aliquot of semen was diluted in TRIS-egg yolk (TRISG) or TRIS-egg yolk plasma (TRISP) before freezing the semen. The plasma of egg yolk was obtained by ultracentrifugation. After thawing, no difference was detected between the two extenders in relation to seminal parameters (motility, viability, plasma membrane and acrosome). However, in the thermal resistance slow test (4h in a water bath at 38°C), the semen frozen with TRISP resulted in higher number of sperm with intact acrosome than those with TRISG (P<0.032). It was concluded that the TRISP extender is an alternative for cryopreservation of ram semen, once it improves the semen characteristics in comparison to TRISG, avoiding the purification process of LDL.

9.
Toxicol Rep ; 2: 1357-1366, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28962478

RESUMO

Ginger [Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)] and turmeric [Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae)] rhizomes have been reportedly used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension. However, the prevention of its complication such as male infertility remains unexplored. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of ginger and turmeric rhizomes on some biomarkers of male reproductive function in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10): normotensive control rats; induced (L-NAME hypertensive) rats; hypertensive rats treated with atenolol (10 mg/kg/day); normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4% supplementation of turmeric or ginger, respectively. After 14 days of pre-treatment, the animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day). The results revealed significant decrease in serum total testosterone and epididymal sperm progressive motility without affecting sperm viability in hypertensive rats. Moreover, increased oxidative stress in the testes and epididymides of hypertensive rats was evidenced by significant decrease in total and non-protein thiol levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity with concomitant increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DFCH) oxidation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production. Similarly, decreased testicular and epididymal NO level with concomitant elevation in arginase activity was observed in hypertensive rats. However, dietary supplementation with turmeric or ginger efficiently prevented these alterations in biomarkers of reproductive function in hypertensive rats. The inhibition of arginase activity and increase in NO and testosterone levels by both rhizomes could suggest possible mechanism of action for the prevention of male infertility in hypertension. Therefore, both rhizomes could be harnessed as functional foods to prevent hypertension-mediated male reproductive dysfunction.

10.
J Ovarian Res ; 7: 96, 2014 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25339519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estradiol (E2) receptors mediate E2 effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis under normal and pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms involved in E2 signaling are not completely understood. The objectives in this study were to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptors (ESRs) during follicular selection in cattle, and the effect of intrafollicular injection of fulvestrant (an antagonist of ESRs) on follicular development and transcript abundance in granulosa cells. METHODS: Granulosa cells were obtained from the two largest follicles around follicular deviation, after FSH treatment and after intrafollicular injection of fulvestrant. Ovarian follicular dynamics monitored by ultrasonography and quantitative real time PCR were used to validate the in vivo model and investigate the effects of FSH supplementation or ESR blockade on mRNA expression of estradiol-related genes. RESULTS: ESR1 and ESR2 were expressed in granulosa cells of both dominant (F1) and subordinate (F2) follicles, but their transcripts levels were higher in F1 than F2 after follicular deviation. FSH treatment maintained mRNA levels of both ESR1 and ESR2 in F2 follicles at similar levels observed in F1 follicles. Intrafollicular injection of 100 µM fulvestrant inhibited follicular growth and decreased CYP19A1 mRNA levels. Transcript levels for both ESR1 and ESR2 were not affected by fulvestrant injection. Analyses of FSH-regulated genes revealed that ESRs inhibition in the dominant follicle decreased the transcript levels of the GJA1 but not those of PRKAR2B, MRO or LRP11 genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that: both ESR1 and ESR2 are regulated during follicular deviation and dominance in cattle and in response to FSH treatment, and ESRs are required for normal gene expression and development of the dominant follicle. Furthermore, we have validated an in vivo model to study estrogen signaling during follicular development that allows paracrine signaling between different follicular cells in a physiological endocrine environment.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Estradiol/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor de Estrogênio/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor de Estrogênio/farmacologia , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/farmacologia , Fulvestranto , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Estrogênicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
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