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1.
Anal Chem ; 91(8): 5074-5082, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921513

RESUMO

Measurements of the water activity-dependent viscosity of aerosol particles from two techniques are compared, specifically from the coalescence of two droplets in holographic optical tweezers (HOT) and poke-and-flow experiments on particles deposited onto a glass substrate. These new data are also compared with the fitting of dimer coagulation, isolation, and coalescence (DCIC) measurements. The aerosol system considered in this work are ternary mixtures of sucrose-citric acid-water and sucrose-NaNO3-water, at varying solute mass ratios. Results from HOT and poke-and-flow are in excellent agreement over their overlapping range of applicability (∼103-107 Pa s); fitted curves from DCIC data show variable agreement with the other two techniques because of the sensitivity of the applied modeling framework to the representation of water content in the particles. Further, two modeling approaches for the predictions of the water activity-dependent viscosity of these ternary systems are evaluated. We show that it is possible to represent their viscosity with relatively simple mixing rules applied to the subcooled viscosity values of each component or to the viscosity of the corresponding binary mixtures.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(8): 1648-1660, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707027

RESUMO

The validation of approaches to predict the hygroscopicity of complex mixtures of organic components in aerosol is important for understanding the hygroscopic response of organic aerosol in the atmosphere. We report new measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixtures of dicarboxylic acids and amino acids using a comparative kinetic electrodynamic balance (CK-EDB) approach, inferring the equilibrium water content of the aerosol from close to a saturation relative humidity (100%) down to 80%. We show that the solution densities and refractive indices of the mixtures can be estimated with an accuracy of better than ±2% using the molar refractive index mixing rule and densities and refractive indices for the individual binary organic-aqueous solutions. Further, we show that the often-used mass-, volume-, and mole-weighted mixing rules to estimate the hygroscopicity parameter κ can overestimate the hygroscopic parameter by a factor of as much as 3, highlighting the need to understand the specific nonideal interactions that may arise synergistically in mixtures and cannot be represented by simple models. Indeed, in some extreme cases the hygroscopicity of a multicomponent mixture can be very close to that for the least hygroscopic component. For mixtures of similar components for which no additional synergistic interactions need be considered, the hygroscopicity of the mixed component aerosol can be estimated with high accuracy from the hygroscopic response of the binary aqueous-organic aerosol. In conclusion, we suggest that the hygroscopicity of multicomponent organic aerosol can be highly nonadditive and that simple correlations of hygroscopicity with composition may often misrepresent the level of complexity essential to interpreting aerosol hygroscopicity.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(13): 3708-3713, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924626

RESUMO

Responding to changes in the surrounding environment, aerosol particles can grow by water condensation changing rapidly in composition and changing dramatically in viscosity. The timescale for growth is important to establish for particles undergoing hydration processes in the atmosphere or during inhalation. Using an electrodynamic balance, we report direct measurements at -7.5, 0, and 20 °C of timescales for hygroscopic condensational growth on a range of model hygroscopic aerosol systems. These extend from viscous aerosol particles containing a single saccharide solute (sucrose, glucose, raffinose, or trehalose) and a starting viscosity equivalent to a glass of ∼1012 Pa·s, to nonviscous (∼10-2 Pa·s) tetraethylene glycol particles. The condensation timescales observed in this work indicate that water condensation occurs rapidly at all temperatures examined (<10 s) and for particles of all initial viscosities spanning 10-2 to 1012 Pa·s. Only a marginal delay (<1 order of magnitude) is observed for particles starting as a glass.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(22): 15086-15097, 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796502

RESUMO

A Dimer Coagulation, Isolation and Coalescence (DCIC) technique is used to probe the phase behaviour and glass transition temperatures of ternary aerosol mixtures. The DCIC technique is used to perform temperature and relative humidity dependent viscosity measurements at viscosities near 5 × 106 Pa s. Measurements include organic-organic and organic-inorganic mixtures composed of sucrose-citric acid and sucrose-sodium nitrate. The data reported here add additional insight into the wide discrepancies in glass transition temperatures reported for pure sodium nitrate. The phase diagram model used in the work of Rothfuss and Petters (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2017, 19, 6532-6545) is expanded to include multiple solute components. Data and model predictions of the mixtures are in good agreement with the modified model. These measurements are compared with values from Holographic Optical Tweezer (HOT) measurements taken at room temperature. Overall, the viscosities determined from the DCIC and HOT techniques are in good agreement.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 956, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511168

RESUMO

The importance of organic aerosol particles in the environment has been long established, influencing cloud formation and lifetime, absorbing and scattering sunlight, affecting atmospheric composition and impacting on human health. Conventionally, ambient organic particles were considered to exist as liquids. Recent observations in field measurements and studies in the laboratory suggest that they may instead exist as highly viscous semi-solids or amorphous glassy solids under certain conditions, with important implications for atmospheric chemistry, climate and air quality. This review explores our understanding of aerosol particle phase, particularly as identified by measurements of the viscosity of organic particles, and the atmospheric implications of phase state.

6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(10): 9402-9415, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29349743

RESUMO

The collection of atmospheric particles on not-filtering substrates via dry deposition, and the subsequent study of the particle-induced material decay, is trivial due to the high number of variables simultaneously acting on the investigated surface. This work reports seasonally resolved data of chemical composition and size distribution of particulate matter deposed on stone and surrogate surfaces obtained using a new method, especially developed at this purpose. A "Deposition Box" was designed allowing the particulate matter dry deposition to occur selectively removing, at the same time, variables that can mask the effect of airborne particles on material decay. A pitched roof avoided rainfall and wind variability; a standardised gentle air exchange rate ensured a continuous "sampling" of ambient air leaving unchanged the sampled particle size distribution and, at the same time, leaving quite calm condition inside the box, allowing the deposition to occur. Thus, the "Deposition Box" represents an affordable tool that can be used complementary to traditional exposure systems. With this system, several exposure campaigns, involving investigated stone materials (ISMs) (Carrara Marble, Botticino limestone, Noto calcarenite and Granite) and surrogate (Quartz, PTFE, and Aluminium) substrates, have been performed in two different sites placed in Milan (Italy) inside and outside the low emission zone. Deposition rates (30-90 µg cm-2 month-1) showed significant differences between sites and seasons, becoming less evident considering long-period exposures due to a positive feedback on the deposition induced by the deposited particles. Similarly, different stone substrates influenced the deposition rates too. The collected deposits have been observed with optical and scanning electron microscopes and analysed by ion chromatography. Ion deposition rates were similar in the two sites during winter, whereas it was greater outside the low emission zone during summer and considering the long-period exposure. The dimensional distribution of the collected deposits showed a significant presence of fine particles in agreement with deposition rate of the ionic fraction. The obtained results allowed to point out the role of the fine particles fraction and the importance of making seasonal studies.


Assuntos
Material Particulado/análise , Itália , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Estações do Ano
9.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 639-661, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574570

RESUMO

Laboratory studies can provide important insights into the processes that occur at the scale of individual particles in ambient aerosol. We examine the accuracies of measurements of core physicochemical properties of aerosols that can be made in single particle studies and explore the impact of these properties on the microscopic processes that occur in ambient aerosol. Presenting new measurements, we examine here the refinements in our understanding of aerosol hygroscopicity, surface tension, viscosity and optical properties that can be gained from detailed laboratory measurements for complex mixtures through to surrogates for secondary organic atmospheric aerosols.

10.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(33): 6604-17, 2016 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27500411

RESUMO

Representing the physicochemical properties of aerosol particles of complex composition is of crucial importance for understanding and predicting aerosol thermodynamic, kinetic, and optical properties and processes and for interpreting and comparing analysis methods. Here, we consider the representations of the density and refractive index of aqueous-organic aerosol with a particular focus on the dependence of these properties on relative humidity and water content, including an examination of the properties of solution aerosol droplets existing at supersaturated solute concentrations. Using bulk phase measurements of density and refractive index for typical organic aerosol components, we provide robust approaches for the estimation of these properties for aerosol at any intermediate composition between pure water and pure solute. Approximately 70 compounds are considered, including mono-, di- and tricarboxylic acids, alcohols, diols, nitriles, sulfoxides, amides, ethers, sugars, amino acids, aminium sulfates, and polyols. We conclude that the molar refraction mixing rule should be used to predict the refractive index of the solution using a density treatment that assumes ideal mixing or, preferably, a polynomial dependence on the square root of the mass fraction of solute, depending on the solubility limit of the organic component. Although the uncertainties in the density and refractive index predictions depend on the range of subsaturated compositional data available for each compound, typical errors for estimating the solution density and refractive index are less than ±0.1% and ±0.05%, respectively. Owing to the direct connection between molar refraction and the molecular polarizability, along with the availability of group contribution models for predicting molecular polarizability for organic species, our rigorous testing of the molar refraction mixing rule provides a route to predicting refractive indices for aqueous solutions containing organic molecules of arbitrary structure.

11.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(25): 4376-88, 2016 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27285052

RESUMO

Using a comparative evaporation kinetics approach, we describe a new and accurate method for determining the equilibrium hygroscopic growth of aerosol droplets. The time-evolving size of an aqueous droplet, as it evaporates to a steady size and composition that is in equilibrium with the gas phase relative humidity, is used to determine the time-dependent mass flux of water, yielding information on the vapor pressure of water above the droplet surface at every instant in time. Accurate characterization of the gas phase relative humidity is provided from a control measurement of the evaporation profile of a droplet of know equilibrium properties, either a pure water droplet or a sodium chloride droplet. In combination, and by comparison with simulations that account for both the heat and mass transport governing the droplet evaporation kinetics, these measurements allow accurate retrieval of the equilibrium properties of the solution droplet (i.e., the variations with water activity in the mass fraction of solute, diameter growth factor, osmotic coefficient or number of water molecules per solute molecule). Hygroscopicity measurements can be made over a wide range in water activity (from >0.99 to, in principle, <0.05) on time scales of <10 s for droplets containing involatile or volatile solutes. The approach is benchmarked for binary and ternary inorganic solution aerosols with typical uncertainties in water activity of <±0.2% at water activities >0.9 and ∼±1% below 80% RH, and maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factor of ±0.7%. For all of the inorganic systems examined, the time-dependent data are consistent with large values of the mass accommodation (or evaporation) coefficient (>0.1).

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(8): 3856-64, 2013 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23495934

RESUMO

The energy demands of data centers (DCs) worldwide are rapidly increasing, as are their environmental and economic costs. This paper presents a study conducted at Sannazzaro de' Burgondi (Po Valley), Italy, specifically aimed at optimizing the operating conditions of a DC designed for the Italian Oil and Gas Company (Eni) (5200 m(2) of Information Technology installed, 30 MW) and based on a direct free cooling (DFC) system. The aim of the study was to save the largest possible quantity of energy, while at the same time preventing aerosol corrosion. The aerosol properties (number size distribution, chemical composition, deliquescence relative humidity (DRH), acidity) and meteorological parameters were monitored and utilized to determine the potential levels of aerosol entering the DC (equivalent ISO class), together with its DRH. These data enabled us both to select the DC's filtering system (MERV13 filters) and to optimize the cooling cycle through calculation of the most reliable humidity cycle (60% of maximum allowed RH) applicable to the DFC. A potential energy saving of 81%, compared to a traditional air conditioning cooling system, was estimated: in one year, for 1 kW of installed information technology, the estimated energy saving is 7.4 MWh, resulting in 2.7 fewer tons of CO2 being emitted, and a financial saving of € 1100.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Corrosão , Eletricidade , Umidade , Itália , Material Particulado/química , Termodinâmica
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