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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical features, laboratory data and fetal-maternal outcomes between 1000 women with obstetric APS (OAPS) and 640 with aPL-related obstetric complications not fulfilling Sydney criteria (non-criteria OAPS, NC-OAPS). METHODS: This was a retrospective and prospective multicentre study from the European Registry on Obstetric Antiphospholipid Syndrome. RESULTS: A total of 1650 women with 5251 episodes, 3601 of which were historical and 1650 latest episodes, were included. Altogether, 1000 cases (OAPS group) fulfilled the Sydney classification criteria and 650 (NC-OAPS group) did not. Ten NC-OAPS cases were excluded for presenting thrombosis during follow-up. All cases were classified as category I (triple positivity or double positivity for aPL) or category II (simple positivity). Overall, aPL laboratory categories showed significant differences: 29.20% in OAPS vs 17.96% in NC-OAPS (P < 0.0001) for category I, and 70.8% in OAPS vs 82% in NC-OAPS (P < 0.0001) for category II. Significant differences were observed when current obstetric complications were compared (P < 0.001). However, major differences between groups were not observed in treatment rates, livebirths and thrombotic complications. In the NC-OAPS group, 176/640 (27.5%) did not fulfil Sydney clinical criteria (subgroup A), 175/640 (27.34%) had a low titre and/or non-persistent aPL positivity but did meet the clinical criteria (subgroup B) and 289/640 (45.15%) had a high aPL titre but did not fulfil Sydney clinical criteria (subgroup C). CONCLUSION: Significant clinical and laboratory differences were found between groups. Fetal-maternal outcomes were similar in both groups when treated. These results suggest that we could improve our clinical practice with better understanding of NC-OAPS patients.

3.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 22(9): 1752-1761, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the performance of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) responder index (SRI) and the lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS) in a cohort-based, "real-life" clinical setting. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-one consecutive patients with SLE were subdivided into two groups based on the need or not to escalate their immune suppressive treatment. Clinimetrics including physician global assessment scale (PGA), SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement index (ECLAM) and British Isles Lupus Assessment Group index (BILAG) 2004 version were measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 months, together with laboratory data and treatment changes. LLDAS and SRI were calculated at each time point. RESULTS: Lupus low disease activity state but not SRI-4 correlated with treatment de-escalation. Low disease activity attainment as estimated by LLDAS was more frequent in patients starting with lower SLEDAI-2K, whereas a decrease in SLEDAI score ≥ 4 points with < 0.3 increased PGA and no new grade A or more than one new grade B BILAG domains (SRI-4) was more frequent in patients with higher SLEDAI-2K and/or severe renal activity at baseline. Anti-DNA-positive patients were less likely to be in LLDAS at any time point. Serositis was associated with lack of LLDAS at baseline, but did not affect LLDAS achievement at 12 months. Normalizing complement levels heralded the achievement of LLDAS and SRI-4. CONCLUSION: Lupus low disease activity state is a valuable tool for assessing response to treatment in the daily rheumatology practice. SRI might be less informative, at least in patients with low basal SLEDAI.

4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191526

RESUMO

PTX3 is a prototypic soluble pattern recognition receptor, expressed at sites of inflammation and involved in regulation of the tissue homeostasis. PTX3 systemic levels increase in many (but not all) immune-mediated inflammatory conditions. Research on PTX3 as a biomarker has so far focused on single diseases. Here, we performed a multi-group comparative study with the aim of identifying clinical and pathophysiological phenotypes associated with PTX3 release. PTX3 concentration was measured by ELISA in the plasma of 366 subjects, including 96 patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA), 42 with Takayasu's arteritis (TA), 10 with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), 63 with ANCA-associated systemic small vessel vasculitides (AAV), 55 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 21 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 79 healthy controls (HC). Patients with SLE, AAV, TA and GCA, but not patients with RA and PMR, had higher PTX3 levels than HC. PTX3 concentration correlated with disease activity, acute phase reactants and prednisone dose. It was higher in females, in patients with recent-onset disease and in those with previous or current active vasculitis at univariate analysis. Active small- or large- vessel vasculitis were the main independent variables influencing PTX3 levels at multivariate analysis. High levels of PTX3 in the blood can contribute to identify an increased risk of vascular involvement in patients with systemic immune-mediated diseases.

6.
J Immunol ; 203(1): 247-258, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127033

RESUMO

The signals that control endothelial plasticity in inflamed tissues have only been partially characterized. For example, it has been shown that inadequate vasculogenesis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) has been associated with an endothelial defect. We used a genetic lineage tracing model to investigate whether endothelial cells die or change phenotypically after fibrosis induction and whether signals released by cells of the innate immune system and in the blood of patients influence their commitment. We observed that in the lineage-tracing transgenic mice Cdh5-CreERT2::R26R-EYFP, endothelial-derived cells (EdCs) underwent fibrosis after treatment with bleomycin, and EdCs retrieved from the lung showed expression of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) markers. Liposome-encapsulated clodronate was used to assess macrophage impact on EdCs. Clodronate treatment affected the number of alternatively activated macrophages in the lung, with upregulated expression of EndoMT markers in lung EdCs. Endothelial fate and function were investigated in vitro upon challenge with serum signals from SSc patients or released by activated macrophages. Sera of SSc patients with anti-Scl70 Abs, at higher risk of visceral organ fibrosis, induced EndoMT and jeopardized endothelial function. In conclusion, EdCs in SSc might be defective because of commitment to a mesenchymal fate, which is sustained by soluble signals in the patient's blood. Macrophages contribute to preserve the endothelial identity of precursor cells. Altered macrophage-dependent plasticity of EdCs could contribute to link vasculopathy with fibrosis.

7.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(4): 406-414, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772493

RESUMO

AIM: To analyse the clinical features, laboratory data and foetal-maternal outcomes, and follow them up on a cohort of 1000 women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (OAPS). METHODS: The European Registry of OAPS became a registry within the framework of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibody projects and was placed on a website in June 2010. Thirty hospitals throughout Europe have collaborated to carry out this registry. Cases with obstetric complaints related to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) who tested positive for aPL at least twice were included prospectively and retrospectively. The seven-year survey results are reported. RESULTS: 1000 women with 3553 episodes were included of which 2553 were historical and 1000 were latest episodes. All cases fulfilled the Sydney classification criteria. According to the laboratory categories, 292 (29.2%) were in category I, 357 (35.7%) in IIa, 224 (22.4%) in IIb and 127 (12.7%) in IIc. Miscarriages were the most prevalent clinical manifestation in 386 cases (38.6%). Moreover, the presence of early preeclampsia (PE) and early foetal growth restriction (FGR) appeared in 181 (18.1%) and 161 (16.1%), respectively. In this series, 448 (44.8%) women received the recommended OAPS treatment. Patients with recommended treatment had a good live-birth rate (85%), but worse results (72.4%) were obtained in patients with any treatment (low-dose aspirin (LDA) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) not on recommended schedule, while patients with no treatment showed a poor birth rate (49.6%). CONCLUSION: In this series, recurrent miscarriage is the most frequent poor outcome. To avoid false-negative diagnoses, all laboratory category subsets were needed. OAPS cases have very good foetal-maternal outcomes when treated. Results suggest that we were able to improve our clinical practice to offer better treatment and outcomes to OAPS patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Habitual/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Habitual/epidemiologia , Aborto Habitual/etiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cell Death Differ ; 26(3): 395-408, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622307

RESUMO

Since the discovery and definition of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) 14 years ago, numerous characteristics and physiological functions of NETs have been uncovered. Nowadays, the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate formation of NETs, their previously unknown properties, and novel implications in disease continue to emerge. The abundance of available data has also led to some confusion in the NET research community due to contradictory results and divergent scientific concepts, such as pro- and anti-inflammatory roles in pathologic conditions, demarcation from other forms of cell death, or the origin of the DNA that forms the NET scaffold. Here, we present prevailing concepts and state of the science in NET-related research and elaborate on open questions and areas of dispute.

9.
J Neuroimmunol ; 325: 43-53, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384327

RESUMO

Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) carrying a TT genotype for the rs7925662 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the transient receptor potential canonical channel 6 (TRPC6) gene are more likely to develop neuropsychiatric manifestations (NPSLE). We functionally characterised the effects of TRPC6 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 18 patients with SLE and 8 healthy controls with a known genotype. TRPC6 influenced calcium currents, apoptosis rates and cytokine secretion in a disease- and genotype-dependent manner. Cells from TT patients with NPSLE were more dependent on TRPC6 for the generation of calcium currents.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(40): e12584, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290624

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hypercoagulability and pregnancy morbidity are hallmarks of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is a potentially life-threatening omplication of APS, with widespread acute thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) that can be precipitated by pregnancy and delivery and result in multiorgan damage. Unrestrained activation of the complement cascade is involved, favoring endothelial activation, tissue factor expression by leukocytes, and platelet aggregation. The complement block, which interrupts this amplification cycle, could prevent CAPS in patients with early TMA who face precipitating events. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a nulliparous pregnant woman with APS at the 30 week of gestation who has developed thrombocytopenia, intravascular hemolysis, elevated creatinine, proteinuria, and hematuria. DIAGNOSES: These featurs were compatible with the diagnosis of CAPS. Consensually, serum C3 protein levels were rapidly decreasing, reflecting complement consumption. INTERVENTIONS: She was treated with eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against C5 that prevents the formation of the complement membrane attack complex. OUTCOMES: Laboratory parameters improved and the patient did not develop thrombosis or detectable organ/tissue damage. The patient safely delivered by cesarean section at week 32 of gestation a healthy 1640 g male infant. After 5 days, she received additional eculizumab, with complete resolution of the clinical condition. Low complement activity was detectable in the infant blood for a week after delivery. No infectious complication occurred. LESSONS: Inhibition of the terminal complement activation is safe and might be effective in patients with APS developing early TMA, enabling safe delivery and preventing thrombotic events both in the mother and in the newborn.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Cesárea , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez
12.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 151(6): 215-222, sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-173922

RESUMO

Background and objectives: To compare clinical, laboratory, treatment and live birth rate data between women with aPL-related obstetric complications (OMAPS) not fulfilling the Sydney criteria and women fulfilling them (OAPS). Materials and methods: Retrospective and prospective multicentre study. Data comparison between groups from The European Registry on Antiphospholipid Syndrome included within the framework of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibody projects. Results: 338 women were analysed: 247 fulfilled the Sydney criteria (OAPS group) and 91 did not (OMAPS group). In the OMAPS group, 24/91 (26.37%) fulfilled laboratory Sydney criteria (subgroup A) and 67/91 (74.63%) had a low titre and/or non-persistent aPL-positivity (subgroup B). Overall, aPL laboratory categories in OAPS vs. OMAPS showed significant differences: 34% vs. 11% (p<0.0001) for category I, 66% vs. 89% (p<0.0001) for category II. No differences were observed when current obstetric complications were compared (p=0.481). 86.20% of OAPS women were treated vs. 75.82% of OMAPS (p=0.0224), particularly regarding the LDA+LMWH schedule (p=0.006). No differences between groups were observed in live births, gestational, puerperal arterial and/or venous thrombosis. Conclusions: Significant differences were found among aPL categories between groups. Treatment rates were higher in OAPS. Both OAPS and OMAPS groups had similarly good foetal-maternal outcomes when treated. The proposal to modify OAPS classification criteria, mostly laboratory requirements, is reinforced by these results


Fundamento Y objetivos: Comparar características clínicas, analíticas, tratamiento y tasa de hijos vivos entre gestantes con Síndrome Antifosfolípido Obstétrico (SAFO) y gestantes con morbilidad obstétrica relacionada con el síndrome que no cumplen los criterios de clasificación actuales. Material Y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo y prospectivo multicéntrico: datos de once hospitales terciarios europeos recogidos en el European Registry on Antiphospholipid Syndrome. Resultados: Se analizaron 338 mujeres: 247 cumplían criterios de Sydney para SAFO (grupo OAPS), y 91 no (grupo OMAPS). En el grupo OMAPS, 24/91(26.37%) cumplían criterios analíticos, pero no clínicos para SAFO (subgrupo A) y 67/91(74.63%) presentaban títulos medio-bajos o títulos positivos no persistentes de anticuerpos antifosfolípido, con o sin cumplir criterios clínicos (subgrupo B). Se observaron diferencias significativas entre los 2 grupos en cuanto a las categorías analíticas: 34% vs. 11% (p<0.0001) para la categoría I y 66% vs. 89% (p<0.0001) para la categoría II, OAPS vs OMAPS, respectivamente. No se observaron diferencias significativas en cuanto a las complicaciones obstétricas (p=0.481). El 86.20% del grupo OAPS recibió tratamiento vs.el 75.82% del grupo OMAPS (p=0.0224). No se observaron diferencias en la tasa de hijos vivos, ni en la tasa de trombosis arterial y/o venosa gestacional y/o puerperal. Conclusiones: Ambos grupos fueron muy homogéneos, excepto en cuanto a la distribución de las categorías analíticas y en la tasa de tratamiento. Ambos grupos mostraron buenos resultados al ser tratados. Los resultados respaldan la opinión de muchos expertos de tener que revisar los criterios de clasificación actuales del Síndrome Antifosfolípido Obstétrico


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Morbidade , Complicações na Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(451)2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045975

RESUMO

Endothelial cell damage and platelet activation contribute to sustained vasculopathy, which is a key clinical characteristic of systemic sclerosis (SSc), also known as scleroderma. Microparticles released from activated platelets in the blood of SSc patients (SSc-microparticles) are abundant and express the damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) HMGB1. SSc-microparticles interacted with neutrophils in vitro and in immunocompromised mice and promoted neutrophil autophagy, which was characterized by mobilization of their granule content, enhanced proteolytic activity, prolonged survival, and generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils migrated within the mouse lung, with collagen accumulation in the interstitial space and the release of soluble E-selectin by the vascular endothelium. Microparticle-neutrophil interaction, neutrophil autophagy and survival, and generation of NETs abated in the presence of BoxA, a competitive inhibitor of HMGB1. Consistent with these results, neutrophils in the blood of SSc patients were autophagic and NET by-products were abundant. Our findings implicate neutrophils in SSc vasculopathy and suggest that platelet-derived, microparticle-associated HMGB1 may be a potential indicator of disease and target for novel therapeutics.

14.
J Rheumatol ; 45(9): 1263-1272, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antibodies that recognize the phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex (antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies; aPS/PT) might reveal enhanced thrombotic risk in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Little is known about their association with pregnancy complications in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS: We enrolled 55 patients with APS who were seeking pregnancy in 2 Italian hospitals. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), including anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-ß2-glycoprotein I antibodies, lupus-like anticoagulant, and aPS/PT antibodies were assessed, and the patients were prospectively followed for 24 months. RESULTS: There were 65% (36/55) of the APS patients who had aPS/PT antibodies. Forty-seven pregnancies were followed, including 33 of aPS/PT+ patients. Forty-one of the 47 patients (87%) who initiated a pregnancy eventually gave birth to a child. The pregnancy duration and the mean newborn weight at delivery were significantly lower in aPS/PT+ than in aPS/PT- patients (33.1 ± 4.7 vs 36.2 ± 3.4 wks of gestation, respectively, and 2058 ± 964 g vs 2784 ± 746 g, respectively, p < 0.05). Late pregnancy complications, including intrauterine fetal death, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), were more frequent in aPS/PT+ patients, independent of the therapy. Titers of aPS/PT IgG were significantly inversely correlated with the neonatal weight at delivery. Vascular injury, as reflected by thrombosis, fibrinoid necrosis, ischemic and hemorrhagic areas, and presence of chorangiomas characterized the IUGR placentas in the presence of aPS/PT. CONCLUSION: The aPS/PT antibodies might represent markers of aPL-related pregnancy complications, IUGR/preeclampsia in particular, and could help identify beforehand patients who may require additional treatment.

15.
Cells ; 7(7)2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973568

RESUMO

Allergy and autoimmune diseases are characterised by a multifactorial pathogenic background. Several genes involved in the control of innate and adaptive immunity have been associated with diseases and variably combine with each other as well as with environmental factors and epigenetic processes to shape the characteristics of individual manifestations. Systemic or local perturbations in salt/water balance and in ion exchanges between the intra- and extracellular spaces or among tissues play a role. In this field, usually referred to as elementary immunology, novel evidence has been recently acquired on the role of members of the transient potential receptor (TRP) channel family in several cellular mechanisms of potential significance for the pathophysiology of the immune response. TRP canonical channel 6 (TRPC6) is emerging as a functional element for the control of calcium currents in immune-committed cells and target tissues. In fact, TRPC6 influences leukocytes’ tasks such as transendothelial migration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and cytokine release. TRPC6 also modulates the sensitivity of immune cells to apoptosis and influences tissue susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury and excitotoxicity. Here, we provide a view of the interactions between ion exchanges and inflammation with a focus on the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases and potential future therapeutic implications.

16.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1186, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896202

RESUMO

Tumor microenvironment is fundamental for cancer progression and chemoresistance. Among stromal cells tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent the largest population of infiltrating inflammatory cells in malignant tumors, promoting their growth, invasion, and immune evasion. M2-polarized TAMs are endowed with the nitric oxide (NO)-generating enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). NO has divergent effects on tumors, since it can either stimulate tumor cells growth or promote their death depending on the source of it; likewise the role of iNOS in cancer differs depending on the cell type. The role of NO generated by TAMs has not been investigated. Using different tumor models in vitro and in vivo we found that NO generated by iNOS of M2-polarized TAMs is able to protect tumor cells from apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin (CDDP). Here, we demonstrate that the protective effect of NO depends on the inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (A-SMase), which is activated by CDDP in a pathway involving the death receptor CD95. Mechanistic insights indicate that NO actions occur via generation of cyclic GMP and activation of protein kinase G (PKG), inducing phosphorylation of syntaxin 4 (synt4), a SNARE protein responsible for A-SMase trafficking and activation. Noteworthy, phosphorylation of synt4 at serine 78 by PKG is responsible for the proteasome-dependent degradation of synt4, which limits the CDDP-induced exposure of A-SMase to the plasma membrane of tumor cells. This inhibits the cytotoxic mechanism of CDDP reducing A-SMase-triggered apoptosis. This is the first demonstration that endogenous NO system is a key mechanism through which TAMs protect tumor cells from chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis. The identification of the pathway responsible for A-SMase activity downregulation in tumors leading to chemoresistance warrants further investigations as a means to identify new anti-cancer molecules capable of specifically inhibiting synt4 degradation.

17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(8): 1276-1287, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7), TLR-8, and interferon (IFN)-induced genes are expressed in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis. This study was undertaken to investigate whether their activation influences the natural history of the disease. METHODS: Experimental autoimmune myositis was induced in mice by injection of the amino-terminal portion of the murine histidyl-transfer RNA synthetase (HisRS). Disease was compared in the presence or the absence of the TLR-7/8 agonist R-848 in wild-type mice and in mice that fail to express the IFNα/ß receptor (IFNα/ßR-null mice). RESULTS: Experimental autoimmune myositis induced by a single intramuscular immunization with HisRS spontaneously abated after 7-8 weeks. In contrast, levels of anti-HisRS autoantibodies, endomysial/perimysial leukocyte infiltration, and myofiber regeneration persisted at the end of the follow-up period (22 weeks after immunization) in mice immunized with HisRS in the presence of R-848. Myofiber major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules were detectable only in mice immunized with both HisRS and R-848. MHC up-regulation occurred early and in muscles that were not directly injected with HisRS. Muscle MHC expression paralleled with leukocyte infiltration. MHC class I molecules were selectively up-regulated in myotubes challenged with R-848 in vitro. Type I IFN was necessary for the prolonged autoantibody response and for the spreading of the autoimmune response, as demonstrated using IFNα/ßR-null mice. Muscle infiltration was maintained in the injected muscle up to the end of the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: TLR-7/8 activation is necessary to induce and maintain a systemic autoimmune response targeting the skeletal muscle. This experimental autoimmune myositis model reproduces many characteristics of human idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and may represent a tool for preclinical studies.

18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 288, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515586

RESUMO

Neutrophils recognize particulate substrates of microbial or endogenous origin and react by sequestering the cargo via phagocytosis or by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) outside the cell, thus modifying and alerting the environment and bystander leukocytes. The signals that determine the choice between phagocytosis and the generation of NETs are still poorly characterized. Neutrophils that had phagocytosed bulky particulate substrates, such as apoptotic cells and activated platelets, appear to be "poised" in an unresponsive state. Environmental conditions, the metabolic, adhesive and activation state of the phagocyte, and the size of and signals associated with the tethered phagocytic cargo influence the choice of the neutrophils, prompting either phagocytic clearance or the generation of NETs. The choice is dichotomic and apparently irreversible. Defects in phagocytosis may foster the intravascular generation of NETs, thus promoting vascular inflammation and morbidities associated with diseases characterized by defective phagocytic clearance, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. There is a strong potential for novel treatments based on new knowledge of the events determining the inflammatory and pro-thrombotic function of inflammatory leukocytes.

19.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 151(6): 215-222, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical, laboratory, treatment and live birth rate data between women with aPL-related obstetric complications (OMAPS) not fulfilling the Sydney criteria and women fulfilling them (OAPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective and prospective multicentre study. Data comparison between groups from The European Registry on Antiphospholipid Syndrome included within the framework of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibody projects. RESULTS: 338 women were analysed: 247 fulfilled the Sydney criteria (OAPS group) and 91 did not (OMAPS group). In the OMAPS group, 24/91 (26.37%) fulfilled laboratory Sydney criteria (subgroup A) and 67/91 (74.63%) had a low titre and/or non-persistent aPL-positivity (subgroup B). Overall, aPL laboratory categories in OAPS vs. OMAPS showed significant differences: 34% vs. 11% (p<0.0001) for category I, 66% vs. 89% (p<0.0001) for category II. No differences were observed when current obstetric complications were compared (p=0.481). 86.20% of OAPS women were treated vs. 75.82% of OMAPS (p=0.0224), particularly regarding the LDA+LMWH schedule (p=0.006). No differences between groups were observed in live births, gestational, puerperal arterial and/or venous thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences were found among aPL categories between groups. Treatment rates were higher in OAPS. Both OAPS and OMAPS groups had similarly good foetal-maternal outcomes when treated. The proposal to modify OAPS classification criteria, mostly laboratory requirements, is reinforced by these results.

20.
Immunol Rev ; 280(1): 112-125, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027216

RESUMO

Tissue damage frequently occurs. The immune system senses it and enforces homeostatic responses that lead to regeneration and repair. The synthesis of acute phase molecules is emerging as a crucial event in this program. The prototypic long pentraxin PTX3 orchestrates the recruitment of leukocytes, stabilizes the provisional matrix in order to facilitate leukocyte and stem progenitor cells trafficking, promotes swift and safe clearance of dying cells and of autoantigens, limiting autoimmunity and protecting the vasculature. These non-redundant actions of PTX3 are necessary for the resolution of inflammation. Recent studies have highlighted the mechanisms by which PTX3 adapts the functions of innate immune cells, orchestrates tissue repair and contributes to select the appropriate acquired immune response in various tissues. Conversely, PTX3 continues to be produced in diseases where the inflammatory response does not resolve. It is therefore a valuable biomarker for more precise and personalized stratification of patients, often independently predicting clinical evolution and outcome. There is strong promise for novel therapies based on understanding the mechanisms with which PTX3 plays its homeostatic role, especially in regulating leukocyte migration and the resolution of inflammatory processes.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Movimento Celular , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Fagocitose
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