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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(2): e28249, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029172

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Approximately 50% of patients is metastatic at diagnosis and the most common metastatic sites are bone, lungs, brain, adrenal glands, liver, and extra thoracic lymph nodes. The occurrence of gastrointestinal metastasis from lung carcinoma is rare and seems more commonly related to small cell lung cancer compared to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENT INFORMATION AND DIAGNOSIS: A 78-year-old man with completely surgically resected NSCLC and no initial evidence of distant metastases developed colon and gastric metastases 7 months after diagnosis, confirmed by serial radiological examinations and endoscopic biopsies. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was subjected to total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection plus partial colectomy for intraoperative detection of a transverse colon neoformation. Subsequent instrumental imaging showed bilateral lung tumor recurrence, treated with gemcitabine monotherapy for 8 months as first line chemotherapy for lung adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: The patient presented complete response to therapy and was disease-free for 4 years. LESSONS: Colonic and gastric metastasis are very infrequent in NSCLC. The resection of gastrointestinal metastasis may provide benefits in terms of both symptom control and survival in patients properly selected.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055500

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) patients with peritoneal metastasis tend to achieve poor clinical outcomes. Until recently, the treatment options were limited mainly to either palliative chemotherapy or radiation therapy in exceptional cases. Currently, these patients benefit from multimodal treatment, such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Despite good overall results, this treatment modality is still widely debated. The following study is designed to assess the papers about the possible application and utility of HIPEC in GC. A search in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases was performed to assess the papers devoted to the role of HIPEC in GC treatment; a literature search was performed until March 21st; and, finally, 50 studies with a total number of 3946 patients were analyzed. According to the most recent data, it seems to be reasonable to limit the duration of HIPEC to the shortest effective time. Moreover, the drugs used in HIPEC need to have equal concentrations and the same solvent. Perioperative chemotherapy needs to be reported in detail and, furthermore, the term "morbidity" should be defined more clearly by the authors.

3.
Gastric Cancer ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741681

RESUMO

Currently, gastric cancer is one of the leading death-related cancer globally. The etiopathogenesis of gastric cancer is multifactorial and includes among others dysbiotic alterations of gastric microbiota. Molecular techniques revealed that stomach is not a sterile organ and it is resides with ecosystem of microbes. Due to the fact that the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in development of gastric cancer is established and well-studied, this paper is mainly focused on the role of other bacterial as well as viral and fungal gut microbiota imbalance in gastric carcinogenesis. Notably, not only the composition of gastric microbiota may play an important role in development of gastric cancer, but also its activity. Microbial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids, polyamines, N-nitroso compounds, and lactate, may significantly affect gastric carcinogenesis. Therefore, this paper discussed aforementioned aspects with the interdisciplinary insights (regarding also immunological point of view) into the association between gut microbiome and gastric carcinogenesis based on up-to-date studies.

4.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; : 1-7, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib improves survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) after prior antiangiogenics. The best treatment at disease progression (PD) is unknown. Being also a AXL/MET inhibitor, involved in acquired resistance, we hypothesized a prolonged tumor growth control in patients continuing cabozantinib despite PD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study enrolled patients receiving cabozantinib after the first line between 2014 and 2020. We compared patients maintaining cabozantinib after first PD due to clinical benefit and good tolerability with those who changed therapy. The postprogression survival (PPS) of both was our primary endpoint. RESULTS: We analyzed 89 patients: 45 received cabozantinib beyond PD and 44 switched therapy. 40.4%, 31.5%, and 28.1% of patients received 1, 2, or >2 prior treatment, respectively. 84.3% were intermediate-poor International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database risk. Patients continuing cabozantinib showed a higher response rate to cabozantinib before PD (46.7% vs 25%, p = 0.03) and were more heavily pretreated. Continuing cabozantinib showed a significantly longer PPS compared with switching therapy (median PPS 16.9 vs 13.2 months, HR 0.66, 95%CI 0.48-0.92, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: We observed longer PPS in patients continuing cabozantinib beyond PD, suggesting that this could be an effective option.

5.
Biologics ; 15: 451-462, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764633

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease with poor prognosis and limited available treatment options. During recent years, several molecular stratifications have been proposed to optimize the overall treatment strategy for GC patients. Breakthroughs in cancer biology and in molecular profiling through DNA and RNA sequencing are now opening novel landscapes, leading to the personalization of molecular matched therapy. In particular, therapies against HER2, Claudine 18.2, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FGFR), and other molecular alterations could significantly improve survival outcomes in the advance phase of the disease. Furthermore, immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors also represents a promising option in a selected population. Hoping that precision oncology will enter soon in clinical practice, our review describes the state of the art of many novel pathways and the current evidence supporting the use of monoclonal antibodies implicated in GC treatment.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830218

RESUMO

Atypical Spitz tumors (AST) deviate from stereotypical Spitz nevi for one or more atypical features and are now regarded as an intermediate category of melanocytic tumors with uncertain malignant potential. Activating NTRK1/NTRK3 fusions elicit oncogenic events in Spitz lesions and are targetable with kinase inhibitors. However, their prevalence among ASTs and the optimal approach for their detection is yet to be determined. A series of 180 ASTs were screened with pan-TRK immunohistochemistry and the presence of NTRK fusions was confirmed using FISH, two different RNA-based NGS panels for solid tumors, and a specific real time RT-PCR panel. Overall, 26 ASTs showed pan-TRK immunostaining. NTRK1 fusions were detected in 15 of these cases showing cytoplasmic immunoreaction, whereas NTRK3 was detected in one case showing nuclear immunoreaction. Molecular tests resulted all positive in only two ASTs (included the NTRK3 translocated), RNA-based NGS and real time RT-PCR were both positive in three cases, and FISH and real time RT-PCR in another two cases. In seven ASTs NTRK1 fusions were detected only by FISH and in two cases only by real time RT-PCR. The frequency of NTRK fusions in ASTs is 9%, with a clear prevalence of NTRK1 compared to NTRK3 alterations. Pan-TRK immunohistochemistry is an excellent screening test. Confirmation of NTRK fusions may require the use of different molecular techniques.

7.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211053189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733356

RESUMO

Background: In recent years, new therapeutic combinations based on immunotherapy provided significant benefits as a first-line treatment for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Objective: This work aims to address the lack of head-to-head comparisons and the uncertainty of the benefit from immunotherapy-based combinations in all the International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) subgroups. Design setting and participants: A systematic review and a network meta-analysis were performed. Overall survival (OS) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population was the primary endpoint. OS according to IMDC subgroups (favorable, intermediate, poor), PD-L1 expression, and grade ⩾3 adverse events (AEs) were secondary endpoints. A SUCRA analysis was performed. Results and limitations: Six randomized phase III trials with 5121 patients were included. There was a high likelihood (82%) that nivolumab-cabozantinib was the preferred treatment in OS. The benefit of ICI-based combinations over sunitinib was unclear in the favorable-risk subgroup. Nivolumab-ipilimumab had the best risk/benefit ratio among all the ICI-based combinations. The limitations were the lack of individual patient data; the heterogeneity of patients' characteristics, trial designs, and follow-up times; and a limited number of studies for indirect comparisons. Conclusions: A customized approach for the first-line treatment of patients with mRCC should consider the risk/benefit profile of each treatment option, especially considering the likeliness of long-term survival finally reached in this setting.

8.
Oncology ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839299

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cancer aggravates COVID-19 prognosis. Nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is particularly frequent in cancer patients, who need to attend hospitals regularly. Since March, 2020, all cancer patients having access to the Oncology Unit at the "Andrea Tortora" Hospital (Pagani, Salerno - referred to as "the Hospital") as inpatients or outpatients receiving intravenous therapy have been screened for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR nasal swab. The ongoing COICA (COVID-19 Infection in Cancer Patients) study is an ambispective, multicenter, observational study designed to assess the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients. The aim of the study presented here was to explore potential differences in COVID-19 related outcomes among screening-detected vs. non-screening detected SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. METHODS: The COICA study enrolled cancer patients who had received any anti-cancer systemic therapy within 3 months since the day they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR. The target accrual is 128 patients, and the study was approved by the competent Ethics Committee. Only the sub-group of patients enrolled at the Hospital was considered in this unplanned interim analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of screening-based vs. non screening based diagnosis. RESULTS: Since March, 15 2020 until August, 15 2021, a total of 931 outpatients and 230 inpatients were repeatedly screened for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR nasal swab at the Hospital. Among these, 71 asymptomatic patients were positive on routine screening and five patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 outside the institutional screening. Seven patients died because of COVID-19. At univariate analysis, non-screening vs. screening detected SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with significantly higher odds of O2 Therapy (OR= 16.2; 95% CI =2.2 to 117.1; p =0.006),hospital admission (OR=31.5; 95% CI=3.1 to 317.8; p=0.003 ), admission to ICU (OR=23.0; 95% CI = 2.4 to 223.8; p= 0.007) and Death (OR=8.8; 95%CI= 1.2 to 65.5; p =0.034). CONCLUSION: Routine screening with RT-PCR may represent a feasible and effective strategy in reducing viral circulation and possibly COVID-19 mortality in patients with active cancer having repeated access to hospital facilities.

9.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684792

RESUMO

Importance: The protein p53 is an unequivocal tumor suppressor that is altered in half of all cancers. The immune system produces systemic p53 autoantibodies (p53 Abs) in many cancer patients. Objective: This systemic review and meta-analysis focuses on the prognostic value of p53 Abs expressed in the serum of patients with solid tumors. Data Sources: All the clinical investigations were searched on PubMed from the first study dated 1993 until May 2021 (date of submission of the manuscript). Study Selection: Studies were included that met the following criteria: (1) participants with cancer; (2) outcome results expressed in relation to the presence of a p53 antibody; (3) a primary outcome (disease-free survival, overall survival or progression-free survival) expressed as hazard ratio (HR). The following exclusion criteria were used: (1) insufficient data available to evaluate outcomes; (2) animal studies; (3) studies with less than 10 participants. As a result, 12 studies were included in the analysis. Data Extraction and Synthesis: PRISMA guidelines were used for abstracting and assessing data quality and validity by three independent observers. The summary estimates were generated using a fixed-effect model (Mantel-Haenszel method) or a random-effect model (DerSimonian-Laird method), depending on the absence or presence of heterogeneity (I2). Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): The primary study outcome was to determine the prognostic value of p53 Abs from a large population of patients with solid tumors, as determined before data collection. Results: In total, 12 clinical studies involving 2094 patients were included in the meta-analysis, and it was determined that p53 Abs expression in the serum significantly correlated with poorer survival outcomes of cancer patients (95% CI 1.48 [1.24, 1.77]; p < 0.00001). Conclusions and Relevance: This is the first meta-analysis proving the diagnostic utility of p53-Abs for cancer patients in predicting poorer outcomes. The serum-p53 value (s-p53-value) may be useful for future theranostics.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503220

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Until recently, the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic urothelial BC was based on the use of chemotherapy alone. Since 2016, five immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in different settings, i.e., first-line, maintenance and second-line treatment, while several trials are still ongoing in the perioperative context. Lately, pembrolizumab, a programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor, has been approved for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-unresponsive high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), using immunotherapy at an early stage of the disease. This review investigates the current state and future perspectives of immunotherapy in BC, focusing on the rationale and results of combining immunotherapy with other therapeutic strategies.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572894

RESUMO

Nowadays, allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a curative therapy that is mainly recommended for hematologic malignancies. However, complications (such as graft-versus-host disease, mucositis, disease relapse, and infections) associated with the HSCT procedure contribute to the development of gut microbiota imbalance, gut-barrier disruption, and increased intestinal permeability. In the present narrative review, the crosstalk between gut microbiota products and intestinal homeostasis is discussed. Notably, gut-microbiota-related aspects have an impact on patients' clinical outcomes and overall survival. In accordance with the most recent published data, gut microbiota is crucial for the treatment effectiveness of many diseases, not only gastrointestinal cancers but also hematologic malignancies. Therefore, it is necessary to indicate a therapeutic method allowing to modulate gut microbiota in HSCT recipients. Currently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the most innovative method used to alter/restore gut microbiota composition, as well as modulate its activity. Despite the fact that some previous data have shown promising results, the knowledge regarding FMT in HSCT is still strongly limited, except for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Additionally, administration of prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and postbiotics can also modify gut microbiota; however, this strategy should be considered carefully due to the high risk of fungemia/septicemia (especially in case of fungal probiotics).

12.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 165: 103434, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) rechallenge in cancer patients is not defined. When ICIs are discontinued due to treatment completion or toxicity, another course of ICIs is feasible in clinical practice, but the amount of data is still quite limited to draw definitive conclusions. Here we report the results of a meta-analysis evaluating efficacy and safety of ICI rechallenge. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library were searched for studies reporting efficacy and safety of ICI rechallenge. Pooled analysis of response rate (ORR), median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 49 studies were included in qualitative and quantitative pooled analysis Overall response rate, mPFS and mOS were 21.8 % (range 0-70 %), 4.9 months (range 0-19.1 months) and 15.6 months (range 5.1-39 months), respectively. Incidence of any grade and grade 3-4 adverse events were 52.2 % (range 4-100 %) and 21.5 % (range 0-97.8 %), respectively. In the subgroup of patients who had previously discontinued ICI because of disease progression ORR, mPFS and mOS were 15.2 %, 2.9 and 7.9 months. Patients who had previously discontinued ICI because of toxicity achieved an ORR of 44 % and a mPFS of 13.2 months with the rechallenge. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that rechallenge ICI is an active and feasible strategy, and it could be considered on an individual basis. However, this analysis is based on non-randomized studies. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of rechallenge after disease progression or adverse events.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 328, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe immune-related Adverse Events (irAEs) develop in 10-27% of patients treated with Immune-Oncology (IO) [Powles (Lancet 391:748-757, 2018); Galsky (Lancet 395:1547-1557, 2020); Haanen (Ann Oncol 28:119-142, 2017)]. The aim of our study was to evaluate efficacy and clinical outcome of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients who stopped Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) due to early Grade (G) 3-G4 irAEs. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 204 mRCC patients treated with ICIs in 6 Italian referral centers adhering to the Meet-Uro group, between February 2017 and January 2020. To properly weight the results, patients who did not report early G3-G4 toxicities have been included as control group. Primary endpoint was to evaluate 6 months Progression Free Survival (PFS) after early treatment interruption for Grade (G) 3-4 toxicities compared to the control group. Secondary endpoints were to evaluate Time to treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS) in both groups. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 19.00, SPSS, Chicago). RESULTS: 18/204 (8.8%) patients had early treatment interruption for serious (G3-G4) irAEs. Early was defined as interruption of IO after only one or two administrations. Immune related nephritis and pancreatitis were the most common irAE that lead to treatment interruption. 6/18 patients received IO-IO combination whereas 12/18 patients antiPD1. In the study group, 12/18 (66.6%) were free from progression at 6 months since IO interruption, TTF was 1.6 months (95% CI 1.6-2.1), mPFS was 7.4 months (95% CI 3.16-11.6) and mOS was 15.5 months (5.1-25.8). In the control group 111/184 (60.3%) patients were free from progression at 6 months, TTF was 4.6 months (95% CI 3.5-5.6), mPFS was 4.6 months (95% CI 3.5-5.6) and mOS was 19.6 months (95% CI 15.1-24.0). In the overall population, mPFS was 5.0 months (95% CI 4.0-5.9) and mOS was 19.6 months (95% CI 15.1-24.0). CONCLUSIONS: ICIs seem to maintain efficacy even after early interruption due to severe irAE.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359764

RESUMO

The addition of aflibercept to FOLFIRI has been demonstrated to improve survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who progressed after receiving a standard oxaliplatin-based regimen. In this retrospective, single-institution, observational study we collected clinical data from mCRC patients who received aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI in routine clinical practice from October 2012 to March 2021 to describe feasibility and efficacy of this regimen in a real-world population. Forty-nine patients receiving aflibercept-FOLFIRI as second-line treatment were identified, 40.8% of whom were aged over 65 years. The majority of patients had multi-organ metastases (73.5%), and had previously received bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy (CT) as first-line treatment (79.6%). Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 13 and 6 months, respectively; overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were 12.3% and 49.1%, respectively. Several factors were associated with survival in univariate analysis, including PFS in first-line therapy, number of metastatic sites, bone metastases and others. However, in multivariate analysis, only PFS in first-line CT over 12 months was significantly associated with better OS (HR 0.32; 95% CI 0.13-0.79; p = 0.01). Hypertension was the most commonly reported grade (G) 3-4 adverse event (AE), affecting 18.4% of the overall population. Thromboembolic events were observed in 16.3% of patients, hemorrhagic events in 10.2%, and proteinuria in 8.2%. Neutropenia was the most frequently observed hematological G3-4 AE with an incidence of 10.2%. Aflibercept-FOLFIRI has been confirmed as a feasible second-line treatment for mCRC in a re-al-life setting, and PFS in first-line therapy >12 months resulted as the only predictive marker of better survival.

15.
Front Surg ; 8: 716861, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395512

RESUMO

Objectives: The incidence of prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) is increasing, but few data are available in the literature. In this study, we reviewed the 25-year experience in the management of prostate cancer after kidney transplantation at the Florence Transplant Centre. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data from 617 RTR male patients who underwent renal transplantation at our institute between July 1996 and September 2016. Data regarding demographics, renal transplantation, prostate cancer and immunosuppressive treatment were analyzed. The probability of death was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences between patients' groups were assessed by the log-rank test. Results: From July 1991 to September 2016, 617 kidney transplantations of male patients were performed at our institute. Among these, 20 patients were subsequently diagnosed with prostate cancer accounting for a cumulative incidence of 3.24%. After a median follow-up of 59 months, 10 patients underwent radical prostatectomy whereas 10 patients underwent primary radiotherapy. A biochemical recurrence was identified in five (25%) patients while a fatal event occurred in 11 (55%) patients. Univariate Cox regression showed that the basal value of PSA >10 ng/ml was the only significant factor negatively affecting the survival of patients. Conclusions: Standard treatments can be proposed to RTR with satisfactory results on both post-operative and oncological outcomes. Further studies are needed to address the issue of prostate cancer screening based on PSA levels and the optimal management of prostate cancer in RTRs.

16.
Pharmacol Ther ; : 107973, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453999

RESUMO

Cancer treatment has been deeply changed by immunotherapy, achieving unprecedented improvement in overall and progression-free survival in several advanced and metastatic cancers. Currently, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4) and programmed death/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) are being tested and approved for different tumors, ranging from melanoma to lung carcinoma. However, only a subgroup of patients can reach treatment benefits and long-term responses, and reliable biomarkers that can accurately predict clinical responses to immunotherapy are still unidentified. In the last decade, accumulating evidence seems to suggest the gut microbiota as one of the modulators that can alter the efficacy and toxicity of immunotherapy drugs (as well as chemotherapeutics), mainly acting through the local and systemic immune system. Herein, we reviewed the highly dynamic and complex microbiome-immune system interface, its bidirectional relationship with cancer immunotherapies, and explored the future possibilities and risks in manipulating the gut microbiome.

17.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440246

RESUMO

In this systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA), we aimed to assess the benefits and harms of third-line (L3) treatments in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Two reviewers searched for publications from 1 January 2006 to 30 June 2021. The review analyzed seven RCTs that included 3958 patients and eight treatments. Treatment with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-based radioligand therapy (PRLT) resulted in a 1.3-times-higher rate of median PSA decline ≥50% than treatment with abiraterone, enzalutamide, mitoxantrone, or cabazitaxel (p = 0.00001). The likelihood was 97.6% for PRLT to bring about the best PSA response, out of the examined treatments. PRLT resulted in a 1.1-times-higher six-month rate of median radiographic progression-free survival. Treatment with PRLT in the VISION trial resulted in 1.05-times-higher twelve-month median overall survival than L3 treatment with cabazitaxel in other RCTs. PRLT more often resulted in severe thrombocytopenia and less often in severe leukopenia than did cabazitaxel. In conclusion, for patients with mCRPC, L3 treatment with PRLT is highly effective and safe.

18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444834

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence has revealed the critical roles of commensal microbes in cancer progression and recently several investigators have evaluated the therapeutic effectiveness of targeting the microbiota. This gut microbiota-related approach is especially attractive in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. Probiotics supplementation is a microbiota-targeted strategy that appears to improve treatment efficacy; Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. are among the most commonly used probiotic agents. These bacteria seem to exert immunomodulatory effects, impacting on the immune system both locally and systemically. The gut microbiota are able to affect the efficiency of immunotherapy, mainly acting as inhibitors at immune checkpoints. The effects of immunotherapy may be modulated using traditional probiotic strains and/or next generation probiotics, such as Akkermansia municiphila. It is possible that probiotics might enhance the efficiency of immunotherapy based on PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 but more data are needed to confirm this speculation. Indeed, although there is experimental evidence for the efficacy of several strains, the health-promoting effects of numerous probiotics have not been demonstrated in human patients and furthermore the potential risks of these products, particularly in oncologic patients, are rarely mentioned.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/imunologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/microbiologia , Lactobacillus , Akkermansia , Animais , Bactérias , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Imunomodulação , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
19.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 14(11): 1353-1365, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289756

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: : The evolving therapeutic landscape of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) includes the increasing implementation of target-therapy and immunotherapy. Lenvatinib, a multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is an emerging first-line therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Its approval has changed the scenario of first-line therapies for advanced HCC, where just sorafenib proved clinical efficacy for over a decade. AREAS COVERED: : The current evidence on the role of lenvatinib for patients with advanced HCC is reviewed in this article. Particularly, therapeutic mechanisms and clinical efficacy of lenvatinib are summarized and the management of adverse events is discussed. In addition, future perspectives on the emerging role of combine therapy for HCC are highlighted. EXPERT OPINION: In the first line, lenvatinib was found to be non-inferior to sorafenib for overall survival, with significantly better progression-free survival and objective response rate. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now part of HCC treatment, and recently the combination of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab has become the recommended standard of care first-line therapy for selected patients. The antitumor and immunomodulatory activities that lenvatinib shows in preclinical studies, and the positive outcomes achieved using a combination of lenvatinib plus ICIs, open new perspectives for advanced HCC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
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