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2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 621039, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659005

RESUMO

The mechanisms that promote local inflammatory injury during lupus nephritis (LN) flare are largely unknown. Understanding the key immune cells that drive intrarenal inflammation will advance our knowledge of disease pathogenesis and inform the development of new therapeutics for LN management. In this study, we analyzed kidney biopsies from patients with proliferative LN and identified a novel inflammatory dendritic cell (infDC) population that is highly expressed in the LN kidney, but minimally present in healthy human kidneys. During an agnostic evaluation of immune transcript expression in the kidneys of patients with proliferative LN, the most abundantly overexpressed transcript from isolated glomeruli was FCER1G, which encodes the Fc receptor gamma chain (FcRγ). To identify the cell types expressing FcRγ that infiltrate the kidney in LN, studies were done on kidney biopsies from patients with active LN using confocal immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. This showed that FcRγ is abundantly present in the periglomerular (PG) region of the kidney and to a lesser extent in the tubulointerstitium (TI). Further investigation of the surface markers of these cells showed that they were FcRγ+, MHC II+, CD11c+, CD163+, CD5-, DC-SIGN+, CD64+, CD14+, CD16+, SIRPα+, CD206-, CD68-, CD123-, CD3-, and CD11b-, suggesting the cells were infDCs. Quantification of the infDCs showed an average 10-fold higher level of infDCs in the LN kidney compared to the healthy kidneys. Importantly, IF identified CD3+ T cells to be adjacent to these infDCs in the PG space of the LN kidney, whereas both cell types are minimally present in the healthy kidney. Thus, we have identified a previously undescribed DC in lupus kidneys that may interact with intrarenal T cells and play a role in the pathogenesis of kidney injury during LN flare.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669337

RESUMO

Kidney involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-termed lupus nephritis (LN)-is a severe manifestation of SLE that can lead to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). LN is characterized by immune complex deposition and inflammation in the glomerulus. We tested the hypothesis that autoantibodies targeting podocyte and glomerular cell proteins contribute to the development of immune complex formation in LN. We used Western blotting with SLE sera from patients with and without LN to identify target antigens in human glomerular and cultured human-derived podocyte membrane proteins. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified the proteins in the gel regions corresponding to reactive bands observed with sera from LN patients. We identified 102 proteins that were present in both the podocyte and glomerular samples. We identified 10 high-probability candidates, including moesin, using bioinformatic analysis. Confirmation of moesin as a target antigen was conducted using immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) of kidney biopsy tissue and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect circulating antibodies. By IHC, biopsies from patients with proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN, class III/IV) demonstrated significantly increased glomerular expression of moesin (p < 0.01). By ELISA, patients with proliferative LN demonstrated significantly increased antibodies against moesin (p < 0.01). This suggests that moesin is a target glomerular antigen in lupus nephritis.

5.
Kidney Int ; 99(4): 811-813, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745547

RESUMO

The STARMEN trial postulated that in primary membranous nephropathy (pMN) treatment with tacrolimus plus rituximab would be superior to a traditional Ponticelli regimen of alternating cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids. This was not the case. Significantly more remissions were achieved in cyclophosphamide-treated patients, and more of these were complete remissions. Considering these results with those of the Mentor trial, which compared rituximab with cyclosporine in pMN, we offer an evidence-based perspective on the role of calcineurin inhibition for pMN treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Calcineurina , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa , Corticosteroides , Inibidores de Calcineurina/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos
6.
Thromb Res ; 201: 50-59, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636573

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is associated with an acquired hypercoagulopathy that drives its strong predilection for life-threatening thrombosis. We previously demonstrated that hypercoagulopathy is proportional to NS disease severity in animal models. Therefore, hypercoagulopathy and disease severity may inform thrombosis risk and better guide therapeutic decision making. The objective of this study was thus to establish the relationship between disease severity and hypercoagulopathy in human NS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thrombin generation assays (TGA) were performed on biorepository plasma samples from a prospective longitudinal NS cohort study. TGA was also determined on a separate cohort of incident NS patients. Multivariable regression was used to build NS-hypercoagulopathy relationship models. RESULTS: Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was the TGA parameter most strongly correlated with NS severity and was proportional to conventional measures of NS disease activity including proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, and hypoalbuminemia. The overall disease activity model was well correlated with ETP (R2 = 0.38). The relationship with disease activity was confirmed in the second cohort. These models further revealed that ETP is related to disease activity in a manner dependent on remission status. CONCLUSION: Consistent with our previously reported animal model observations, we found that the combination of proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, and hypoalbuminemia correlated with ETP-defined hypercoagulopathy. Hypercoagulopathy improved significantly with partial or complete NS remission. These data are expected to inform studies designed to stratify thrombotic risk for patients with NS.

7.
Sci Adv ; 7(7)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568476

RESUMO

The gene expression signature of the human kidney interstitium is incompletely understood. The cortical interstitium (excluding tubules, glomeruli, and vessels) in reference nephrectomies (N = 9) and diabetic kidney biopsy specimens (N = 6) was laser microdissected (LMD) and sequenced. Samples underwent RNA sequencing. Gene signatures were deconvolved using single nuclear RNA sequencing (snRNAseq) data derived from overlapping specimens. Interstitial LMD transcriptomics uncovered previously unidentified markers including KISS1, validated with in situ hybridization. LMD transcriptomics and snRNAseq revealed strong correlation of gene expression within corresponding kidney regions. Relevant enriched interstitial pathways included G-protein coupled receptor. binding and collagen biosynthesis. The diabetic interstitium was enriched for extracellular matrix organization and small-molecule catabolism. Cell type markers with unchanged expression (NOTCH3, EGFR, and HEG1) and those down-regulated in diabetic nephropathy (MYH11, LUM, and CCDC3) were identified. LMD transcriptomics complements snRNAseq; together, they facilitate mapping of interstitial marker genes to aid interpretation of pathophysiology in precision medicine studies.

9.
Lupus Sci Med ; 8(1)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563729

RESUMO

The Addressing Lupus Pillars for Health Advancement (ALPHA) Project is a global consensus effort to identify, prioritise and address top barriers in lupus impacting diagnosis, care, treatment and research. To conduct this process, the ALPHA Project convened a multistakeholder Global Advisory Committee (GAC) of lupus experts and collected input from global audiences, including patients. In phase I, the ALPHA Project used expert interviews and a global survey of lupus experts to identify and categorise barriers into three overarching pillars: drug development, clinical care and access to care. In phase II, reported here, the GAC developed recommended actionable solutions to address these previously identified barriers through an in-person stakeholder meeting, followed by a two-round scoring process. Recommendations were assessed for feasibility, impact and timeline for implementation (FIT), where potential FIT component values were between 1 and 3 and total scores were between 3 and 9. Higher scores represented higher achievability based on the composite of the three criteria. Simplifying and standardising outcomes measures, including steroid sparing as an outcome (drug development) and defining the lupus spectrum (clinical care) ranked as the highest two priority solutions during the GAC meeting and received high FIT scores (7.67 and 7.44, respectively). Leveraging social media (access to care) received the highest FIT score across all pillars (7.86). Cross-cutting themes of many solutions include leveraging digital technology and applying specific considerations for special populations, including paediatrics. Implementing the recommendations to address key barriers to drug development, clinical care and access to care is essential to improving the quality of life of adults and children with lupus. Multistakeholder collaboration and guidance across existing efforts globally is warranted.

10.
12.
Physiol Rep ; 9(1): e14697, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427414

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anticoagulant-related nephropathy (ARN), that was described in humans first as warfarin-related nephropathy, is characterized by acute kidney injury and red blood cell (RBC) tubular casts in the kidney. 5/6 nephrectomy (5/7NE) rats treated with warfarin or dabigatran show changes in kidney function and morphology that are similar to human disease. The role of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the pathogenesis of ARN is not clear. The aim of these studies was to elucidate the role of GFR in the pathogenesis of dabigatran-induced ARN in 5/6NE rats. METHODS: 5/6NE rats were treated per os with 150 mg/kg/day dabigatran alone or with drugs that lower (enalapril, 1.5 mg/kg/day) or increase (albuterol, 4.0 mg/kg/day) GFR for 7 days. Changes in coagulation and kidney function were recorded daily. Kidney morphology was evaluated on day 7 after the treatment. RESULTS: Dabigatran resulted in activated partial thromboplastin time increase that was not affected by GFR-modifying drugs. Blood pressure was significantly lower in 5/6NE rats treated with enalapril and dabigatran as compared to dabigatran alone. The GFR was decreased by 35% in enalapril/dabigatran- and increased by 26% in albuterol/dabigatran-treated animals. There were no changes in serum creatinine, hematuria or urinary kidney injury molecule (KIM-1) levels when GFR-modifying drugs were added to dabigatran. All dabigatran-treated animals had RBC casts in the kidney regardless of the GFR modification. CONCLUSIONS: GFR does not play a significant role in the dabigatran-induced acute kidney injury in 5/6 nephrectomy model in rats. Based in these data, modification of GFR in patients with ARN is not warranted.

13.
Kidney Int ; 98(6): 1361, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276858
14.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(11): 2032-2041, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163724

RESUMO

Introduction: Narsoplimab is a human monoclonal antibody against mannan-associated lectin-binding serine protease-2 (MASP-2). Now in a phase 3 study, narsoplimab was evaluated in a staged phase 2 study assessing safety and effectiveness in high-risk patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Methods: Substudy 1 was a single-arm open-label study of 12 weekly infusions and tapered corticosteroids, with 6 weeks of follow-up. In substudy 2, patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a course of treatment consisting of once-weekly narsoplimab or vehicle infusions for 12 weeks. After 6 weeks of follow-up, both substudy 2 groups could continue in an open-label extension, receiving 1 or more narsoplimab courses at the investigator's discretion. Results: The most commonly reported adverse events (AEs) included headache, upper respiratory infection, and fatigue. Most AEs were mild or moderate and transient. No treatment-related serious AEs were reported. All 4 patients who were enrolled in substudy 1 had reductions in 24-hour urine protein excretion (UPE) at week 18, ranging from 54% to 95% compared with baseline. In substudy 2, the vehicle and narsoplimab groups had similar proteinuria reductions at week 18. Eight patients (3 vehicle, 5 narsoplimab) continued in the dosing extension; all received narsoplimab. Median reduction in 24-hour UPE in these 8 patients was 61.4% at 31 to 54 weeks postbaseline. Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) remained stable in both substudies. Conclusion: This interim analysis suggests that narsoplimab treatment is safe, is well tolerated, and may result in clinically meaningful reductions in proteinuria and stability of eGFR in high-risk patients with advanced IgAN.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20202, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214633

RESUMO

Alterations in hemodialysis patients' serum trace metals have been documented. Early studies addressing associations levels of serum trace metals with erythropoietic responses and/or hematocrit generated mixed results. These studies were conducted prior to current approaches for erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) drug dosing guidelines or without consideration of inflammation markers (e.g. hepcidin) important for regulation of iron availability. This study sought to determine if the serum trace metal concentrations of incident or chronic hemodialysis patients associated with the observed ESA response variability and with consideration to ESA dose response, hepcidin, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. Inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to measure 14 serum trace metals in 29 incident and 79 prevalent dialysis patients recruited prospectively. We compared these data to three measures of ESA dose response, sex, and dialysis incidence versus dialysis prevalence. Hemoglobin was negatively associated with ESA dose and cadmium while positively associated with antimony, arsenic and lead. ESA dose was negatively associated with achieved hemoglobin and vanadium while positively associated with arsenic. ESA response was positively associated with arsenic. Vanadium, nickel, cadmium, and tin were increased in prevalent patients. Manganese was increased in incident patients. Vanadium, nickel, and arsenic increased with time on dialysis while manganese decreased. Changes in vanadium and manganese were largest and appeared to have some effect on anemia. Incident and prevalent patients' chromium and antimony levels exceeded established accepted upper limits of normal.

16.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(11): 2121, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186416
18.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(11): 1595-1602, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Native kidney biopsies are commonly performed in the diagnosis of acute kidney diseases and CKD. Because of the invasive nature of the procedure, bleeding-related complications are not uncommon. The National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-sponsored Kidney Precision Medicine Project requires that all participants undergo a kidney biopsy; therefore, the objective of this analysis was to study complication rates of native kidney biopsies performed using automated devices under kidney imaging. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature published from January 1983 to March 2018. The initial PubMed search yielded 1139 manuscripts. Using predetermined selection criteria, 87 manuscripts were included in the final analysis. A random effects meta-analysis for proportions was used to obtain combined estimates of complication rates. Freeman-Tukey double-arcsine transformations were used to stabilize variance as complications were rare. RESULTS: A total of 118,064 biopsies were included in this study. Patient age ranged from 30 to 79 years, and 45% of patients were women. On the basis of our meta-analysis, pain at the site of biopsy is estimated to occur in 4.3% of biopsied patients, hematomas are estimated to occur in 11%, macroscopic hematuria is estimated to occur in 3.5%, bleeding requiring blood transfusions is estimated to occur in 1.6%, and interventions to stop bleeding are estimated to occur in only 0.3%. Death attributed to native kidney biopsy was a rare event, occurring only in an estimated 0.06% of all biopsies but only 0.03% of outpatient biopsies. Complication rates were higher in hospitalized patients and in those with acute kidney disease. The reported complications varied on the basis of study type and geographic location. CONCLUSIONS: Although the native kidney biopsy is an invasive diagnostic procedure, the rates of bleeding complications are low. Albeit rare, death can occur postbiopsy. Complications are more frequently seen after kidney biopsies of hospitalized patients with AKI.

19.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 2(11): 662-671, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the safety of avacopan, an orally administered C5a receptor inhibitor, for the treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis in addition to standard-of-care (SOC) treatment with glucocorticoids with cyclophosphamide or rituximab. METHODS: In this randomized 12-week study, twice daily avacopan (10 mg or 30 mg) plus SOC was assessed versus SOC only in patients with newly diagnosed/relapsing ANCA-associated vasculitis. Efficacy measurements included 50% or greater reduction in Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) at day 85, rapid reduction (day 29) of BVAS to a score of 0 that was sustained through day 85, change in Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI), renal response (improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], hematuria, and albuminuria), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). RESULTS: Forty-two patients were randomized (n = 13 SOC, n = 13 avacopan 10 mg, and n = 16 avacopan 30 mg). Serious adverse events occurred in 15% and 17% of patients receiving SOC only and patients receiving avacopan with SOC, respectively. In the intent-to-treat population, BVAS response was high across arms (11 of 13 SOC, 11 of 12 avacopan 10 mg, and 12 of 15 avacopan 30 mg); increases in mean VDI were greater with SOC only than with avacopan plus SOC (0.3 versus 0.1). Avacopan 30 mg was numerically superior to placebo and avacopan 10 mg in early remission (15%, 8%, and 20% for SOC only, avacopan 10 mg, and avacopan 30 mg, respectively), improved eGFR (+2.0 ml/min/1.73m2 , +1.3 ml/min/1.73m2 , and +6.2 ml/min/1.73m2 , respectively), renal response (17%, 40%, and 63%, respectively), and measures of HRQoL. CONCLUSION: Avacopan in addition to SOC for ANCA-associated vasculitis was well tolerated, and at the higher study dose, it appeared to improve time to remission (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02222155).

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17179, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057112

RESUMO

Staphylococcus infection-associated glomerulonephritis (SAGN) and primary IgA nephropathy (IgAN) are separate disease entities requiring different treatment approaches. However, overlapping histologic features may cause a diagnostic dilemma. An exploratory proteomic study to identify potential distinguishing biomarkers was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded kidney biopsy tissue, using mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) (n = 27) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) (n = 64), on four main diagnostic groups-SAGN, primary IgAN, acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and normal kidney (baseline transplant biopsies). Spectral counts modeled as a negative binomial distribution were used for statistical comparisons and in silico pathway analysis. Analysis of variance techniques were used to compare groups and the ROC curve to evaluate classification algorithms. The glomerular proteomes of SAGN and IgAN showed remarkable similarities, except for significantly higher levels of monocyte/macrophage proteins in SAGN-mainly lysozyme and S100A9. This finding was confirmed by IHC. In contrast, the tubulointerstitial proteomes were markedly different in IgAN and SAGN, with a lower abundance of metabolic pathway proteins and a higher abundance of extracellular matrix proteins in SAGN. The stress protein transglutaminase-2 (TGM2) was also significantly higher in SAGN. IHC of differentially-expressed glomerular and tubulointerstitial proteins can be used to help discriminate between SAGN and IgAN in ambiguous cases.

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