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1.
Adv Mater ; 32(19): e2000740, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239571

RESUMO

As Moore's law is running to its physical limit, tomorrow's electronic systems can be leveraged to a higher value by integrating "More than Moore" technologies into CMOS digital circuits. The hybrid heterostructure composed of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors and molecular materials represents a powerful strategy to confer new properties to the former components, realize stimuli-responsive functional devices, and enable diversification in "More than Moore" technologies. Here, an ionic liquid (IL) gated 2D MoS2 field-effect transistor (FET) with molecular functionalization is fabricated. The suitably designed ferrocene-substituted alkanethiol molecules not only improve the FET performance, but also show reversible electrochemical switching on the surface of MoS2 . Field-effect mobility of monolayer MoS2 reaches values as high as ≈116 cm2 V-1 s-1 with Ion /Ioff ratio exceeding 105 . Molecules in their neutral or charged state impose distinct doping effect, efficiently tuning the electron density in monolayer MoS2 . It is noteworthy that the joint doping effect from IL and switchable molecules results in the steep subthreshold swing of MoS2 FET in the backward sweep. These results demonstrate that the device architecture represents an unprecedented and powerful strategy to fabricate switchable 2D FET with a chemically programmed electrochemical signal as a remote control, paving the road toward novel functional devices.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 3897-3904, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343903

RESUMO

Organic radical monolayers (r-MLs) bonded to metal surfaces are potential materials for the development of molecular (spin)electronics. Typically, stable radicals bearing surface anchoring groups are used to generate r-MLs. Following a recent theoretical proposal based on a model system, we report the first experimental realization of a metal surface-induced r-ML, where a rationally chosen closed-shell precursor 3,5-dichloro-4-[bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)methylen]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one (1) transforms into a stable neutral open-shell species (1•) via chemisorption on the Ag(111) surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the >C═O group of 1 reacts with the surface, forming a C-O-Ag linkage that induces an electronic rearrangement that transforms 1 to 1•. We further show that surface reactivity is an important factor in this process whereby Au(111) is inert towards 1, whereas the Cu(111) surface leads to dehalogenation reactions. The radical nature of the Ag(111)-bound monolayer was further confirmed by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations, which provide evidence of the emergence of the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) of 1•.

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(41): 14467-14471, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322792

RESUMO

A complete experimental and theoretical study has been carried out for aromatic and quinoidal perylene-based bridges substituted with bis(diarylamine) and bis(arylimine) groups respectively. The through-bridge inter-redox site electronic couplings (VAB ) have been calculated for their respective mixed-valence radical cation and radical anion species. The unusual similitudes of the resulting VAB values for the given structures reveal the intervention of molecular shapes with balanced semi-quinoidal/semi-aromatic structures in the charge delocalization. An identical molecular object equally responding to the injection of either positive or negative charges is rare in the field of organic π-conjugated molecules. However, once probed herein for perylene-based systems, it can be extrapolated to other π-conjugated bridges. As a result, this work opens the door to the rational design of true ambipolar bulk and molecular conductors.

4.
Chemphyschem ; 19(19): 2572-2578, 2018 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877600

RESUMO

Perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical-based compounds are widely exploited as molecular switching units. However, their application in optoelectronics is limited by the fact that they exhibit intense absorption bands only in a narrow range of the UV region around 385 nm. Recent experimental works have reported new PTM based compounds which present a broad absorption in the visible region although the origin of this behavior is not fully explained. In this context, Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) calculations have been performed to rationalize the optical properties of these compounds. Moreover, a new compound based on PTM disubstituted with bistriazene units has been synthetized and characterized to complete the set of available experimental data on related compounds. The results point to the delocalization of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) of the substituents along the PTM core as the origin of the new high absorption bands in the visible region. As a consequence, the absorption of the PTM-based compounds can be tuned via the choice of the nature of the donor substituent, type of connection, and number of substituents.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(24): 3038-3041, 2018 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29513343

RESUMO

Here, on ITO//Au patterned substrates SAMs of ferrocene (Fc) on the Au regions and of anthraquinone (AQ) on the ITO areas are prepared, exhibiting three stable redox states. Furthermore, by selectively oxidizing or reducing the Fc or AQ units, respectively, the surface properties are locally modified. As a proof-of-concept, such a confinement of the properties is exploited to locally form host-guest complexes with ß-cyclodextrin on specific surface regions depending on the applied voltage.

6.
Chemistry ; 24(21): 5500-5505, 2018 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470855

RESUMO

Single-component conductors based on neutral organic radicals have received a lot of attention due to the possibility that the unpaired electron can serve as a charge carrier without the need of a previous doping process. Although most of these systems are based on delocalized planar radicals, we present here a nonplanar and spin localized radical based on a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) moiety, linked to a perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical by a conjugated bridge, which exhibits a semiconducting behavior upon application of high pressure. The synthesis, electronic properties, and crystal structure of this neutral radical TTF-Ph-PTM derivative (1) are reported and implications of its crystalline structure on its electrical properties are discussed. On the other hand, the non-radical derivative (2), which is isostructural with the radical 1, shows an insulating behavior at all measured pressures. The different electronic structures of these two isostructural systems have a direct influence on the conducting properties, as demonstrated by band structure DFT calculations.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(5): 1691-1696, 2018 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307191

RESUMO

Organic paramagnetic and electroactive molecules are attracting interest as core components of molecular electronic and spintronic devices. Currently, further progress is hindered by the modest stability and reproducibility of the molecule/electrode contact. We report the synthesis of a persistent organic radical bearing one and two terminal alkyne groups to form Au-C σ bonds. The formation and stability of self-assembled monolayers and the electron transport through single-molecule junctions at room temperature have been studied. The combined analysis of both systems demonstrates that this linker forms a robust covalent bond with gold and a better-defined contact when compared to traditional sulfur-based linkers. Density functional theory and quantum transport calculations support the experimental observation highlighting a reduced variability of conductance values for the C-Au based junction. Our findings advance the quest for robustness and reproducibility of devices based on electroactive molecules.

8.
Chemistry ; 24(15): 3776-3783, 2018 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239499

RESUMO

A detailed analysis is undertaken of positively charged species generated on a series of thienylenevinylene (nTV) wires terminally substituted with two perchlorotriphenylmethyl (. PTM) radical acceptor groups, . PTM-nTV-PTM. (n=2-7). Motivated by the counterintuitive key role played by holes in the nTV bridges on the operating mechanism of electron transfer in their radical anion mixed-valence derivatives, a wide combination of experimental and theoretical techniques is used, with the aim of gaining further insights into their structural location. Consequently, contributions of the . PTM units for the stabilization of the radical cations and hole localization, particularly in the case of the shortest molecular wire, are probed. In this sense, the formation of quinoidal ring segments, resulting from the coupling of the unpaired electron of the . PTM radical site with those generated along the nTV chains is found. Additionally, open-shell dications, described by the recovery of the central aromaticity and two terminal quinoidal segments, assisted by the . PTM units, are detected.

9.
Small ; 14(10)2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280286

RESUMO

A switchable electrode, which relies on an indium-tin oxide conductive substrate coated with a self-assembled monolayer terminated with an anthraquinone group (AQ), is reported as an electrowetting system. AQ electrochemical features confer the capability of yielding a significant modulation of surface wettability as high as 26° when its redox state is switched. Hence, an array of planar electrodes for droplets actuation is fabricated and integrated in a microfluidic device to perform mixing and dispensing on sub-nanoliter scale. Vehiculation of cells across microfluidic compartments is made possible by taking full advantage of surface electrowetting in culture medium.

10.
ACS Nano ; 11(6): 5879-5883, 2017 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494146

RESUMO

Embedding a magnetic electroactive molecule in a three-terminal junction allows for the fast and local electric field control of magnetic properties desirable in spintronic devices and quantum gates. Here, we provide an example of this control through the reversible and stable charging of a single all-organic neutral diradical molecule. By means of inelastic electron tunnel spectroscopy we show that the added electron occupies a molecular orbital distinct from those containing the two radical electrons, forming a spin system with three antiferromagnetically coupled spins. Changing the redox state of the molecule therefore switches on and off a parallel exchange path between the two radical spins through the added electron. This electrically controlled gating of the intramolecular magnetic interactions constitutes an essential ingredient of a single-molecule [Formula: see text] quantum gate.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(11): 117001, 2017 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28368652

RESUMO

Superconductors containing magnetic impurities exhibit intriguing phenomena derived from the competition between Cooper pairing and Kondo screening. At the heart of this competition are the Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (Shiba) states which arise from the pair breaking effects a magnetic impurity has on a superconducting host. Hybrid superconductor-molecular junctions offer unique access to these states but the added complexity in fabricating such devices has kept their exploration to a minimum. Here, we report on the successful integration of a model spin 1/2 impurity, in the form of a neutral and stable all organic radical molecule, in proximity-induced superconducting break junctions. Our measurements reveal excitations which are characteristic of a spin-induced Shiba state due to the radical's unpaired spin strongly coupled to a superconductor. By virtue of a variable molecule-electrode coupling, we access both the singlet and doublet ground states of the hybrid system which give rise to the doublet and singlet Shiba excited states, respectively. Our results show that Shiba states are a robust feature of the interaction between a paramagnetic impurity and a proximity-induced superconductor where the excited state is mediated by correlated electron-hole (Andreev) pairs instead of Cooper pairs.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(11): 2898-2902, 2017 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28140501

RESUMO

Carbon-bridged bis(aminoaryl) oligo(para-phenylenevinylene)s have been prepared and their optical, electrochemical, and structural properties analyzed. Their radical cations are class III and class II mixed-valence systems, depending on the molecular size, and they show electronic couplings which are among the largest for the self-exchange reaction of purely organic molecules. In their dication states, the antiferromagnetic coupling is progressively tuned with size from quinoidal closed-shell to open-shell biradicals. The data prove that the electronic coupling in the radical cations and the singlet-triplet gap in the dications show similar small attenuation factors, thus allowing charge/spin transfer over rather large distances.

13.
Chemistry ; 23(6): 1415-1421, 2017 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859821

RESUMO

A novel, persistent, electrochemically active perchlorinated triphenylmethyl (PTM) radical with a diazonium functionality has been covalently attached to highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by electrografting in a single-step process. Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM) and Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that PTM molecules had a higher tendency to covalently react at the HOPG step edges. The cross-section profiles from EC-STM images showed that there was current enhancement at the functionalized areas, which could be explained by redox-mediated electron tunneling through surface-confined redox-active molecules. Cyclic voltammetry clearly demonstrated that the intrinsic properties of the organic radical were preserved upon grafting and DFT calculations also revealed that the magnetic character of the PTM radical was preserved.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(2): 686-692, 2017 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27997166

RESUMO

Charge transfer/transport in molecular wires over varying distances is a subject of great interest. The feasible transport mechanisms have been generally accounted for on the basis of tunneling or superexchange charge transfer operating over small distances which progressively gives way to hopping transport over larger distances. The underlying molecular sequential steps that likely take place during hopping and the operative mechanism occurring at intermediate distances have received much less attention given the difficulty in assessing detailed molecular-level information. We describe here the operating mechanisms for unimolecular electron transfer/transport in the ground state of radical-anion mixed-valence derivatives occurring between their terminal perchlorotriphenylmethyl/ide groups through thiophene-vinylene oligomers that act as conjugated wires of increasing length up to 53 Å. The unique finding here is that the net transport of the electron in the larger molecular wires is initiated by an electron-hole dissociation intermediated by hole delocalization (conformationally assisted and thermally dependent) forming transient mobile polaronic states in the bridge that terminate by an electron-hole recombination at the other wire extreme. On the contrary, for the shorter radical-anions our results suggest that a flickering resonance mechanism which is intermediate between hopping and superexchange is the operative one. We support these mechanistic interpretations by applying the pertinent biased kinetic models of the charge/spin exchange rates determined by electron paramagnetic resonance and by molecular structural level information obtained from UV-vis and Raman spectroscopies and by quantum chemical modeling.

15.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(51): 10297-10303, 2016 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27966932

RESUMO

The understanding of the crystal structure of organic compounds, and its relationship to their physical properties, have become essential to design new advanced molecular materials. In this context, we present a computational study devoted to rationalize the different crystal packing displayed by two closely related organic systems based on the TTF-PTM dyad (TTF = tetrathiafulvalene, PTM = polychlorotriphenylmethane) with almost the same molecular structure but a different electronic one. The radical species (1), with an enhanced electronic donor-acceptor character, exhibits a herringbone packing, whereas the nonradical protonated analogue (2) is organized forming dimers. The stability of the possible polymorphs is analyzed in terms of the cohesion energy of the unit cell, intermolecular interactions between pairs, and molecular flexibility of the dyad molecules. It is observed that the higher electron delocalization in radical compound 1 has a direct influence on the geometry of the molecule, which seems to dictate its preferential crystal structure.

16.
CrystEngComm ; 18(33): 6149-6152, 2016 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27774040

RESUMO

The electronic and structural properties of two tetrathiafulvalene derivatives bearing aromatic benzene rings are reported. Thin film transistors of these materials show p-type characteristics with comparable mobility values. It is found that the rigidification of the molecule is beneficial for reducing the reorganisation energy but also has an unfavorable impact on the electronic structure dimensionality.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(40): 27733-27737, 2016 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27722361

RESUMO

A redox-active persistent perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical chemically linked to gold exhibits stable electrochemical activity in ionic liquids. Electrochemical tunnelling spectroscopy in this medium demonstrates that the PTM radical shows a highly effective redox-mediated current enhancement, demonstrating its applicability as an active nanometer-scale electronic component.

18.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12066, 2016 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27456200

RESUMO

The energy-level alignment of molecular transistors can be controlled by external gating to move molecular orbitals with respect to the Fermi levels of the source and drain electrodes. Two-terminal molecular tunnelling junctions, however, lack a gate electrode and suffer from Fermi-level pinning, making it difficult to control the energy-level alignment of the system. Here we report an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude of the tunnelling current in a two-terminal junction via chemical molecular orbital control, changing chemically the molecular component between a stable radical and its non-radical form without altering the supramolecular structure of the junction. Our findings demonstrate that the energy-level alignment in self-assembled monolayer-based junctions can be regulated by purely chemical modifications, which seems an attractive alternative to control the electrical properties of two-terminal junctions.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(36): 11517-25, 2016 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27281384

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in the development of single-component molecular conductors based on neutral organic radicals that are mainly formed by delocalized planar radicals, such as phenalenyl or thiazolyl radicals. However, there are no examples of systems based on nonplanar and spin-localized C-centered radicals exhibiting electrical conductivity due to their large Coulomb energy (U) repulsion and narrow electronic bandwidth (W) that give rise to a Mott insulator behavior. Here we present a new type of nonplanar neutral radical conductor attained by linking a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) donor unit to a neutral polychlorotriphenylmethyl radical (PTM) with the important feature that the TTF unit enhances the overlap between the radical molecules as a consequence of short intermolecular S···S interactions. This system becomes semiconducting upon the application of high pressure thanks to increased electronic bandwidth and charge reorganization opening the way to develop a new family of neutral radical conductors.

20.
Chemphyschem ; 17(12): 1810-4, 2016 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27017152

RESUMO

Mixed molecular self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold, based on two types of electroactive molecules, that is, electron-donor (ferrocene) and electron-acceptor (anthraquinone) molecules, are prepared as an approach to realise surfaces exhibiting multiple accessible redox states. The SAMs are investigated in different electrolyte media. The nature of these media has a strong impact on the types of redox processes that take place and on the redox potentials. Under optimised conditions, surfaces with three redox states are achieved. Such states are accessible in a relatively narrow potential window in which the SAMs on gold are stable. This communication elucidates the key challenges in fabricating bicomponent SAMs as electrochemical switches.

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