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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(77): 9866-9869, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490864

RESUMO

The site-specific installation of light-activable crosslinker unnatural amino acids offers a powerful approach to trap transient protein-protein interactions both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we engineer a bromodomain to introduce 4-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (BzF) using amber suppressor mutagenesis without compromising its ability to recognize the acetylated histone proteins. We demonstrate the high crosslinking efficiency of the engineered reader towards the interacting partners and its suitability for profiling the transient bromodomain interactome.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524022

RESUMO

Background: This study compared glucose control with fast-acting insulin aspart (FiAsp) versus insulin aspart following moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity exercise (HIE) using a second-generation closed-loop (CL) system in people with type 1 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This randomized crossover study compared FiAsp versus insulin aspart over four sessions during MIE and HIE with CL insulin delivery by the MiniMed™ Advanced hybrid CL system. Participants were randomly assigned FiAsp and insulin aspart each for 6 weeks and within each period performed, in random order, 40 min MIE (∼50% VO2max) and HIE (6 × 2 min ∼80% VO2max; 5 min recovery). The primary outcome was continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) time in range (TIR, 3.9-10.0 mM) for 24 h following exercise. Results: Sixteen adults (9 male; age 48 [37, 57] years; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 7.0 [6.4, 7.2] %; duration diabetes 30 [17, 41] years) were recruited. In the 24 h postexercise, median TIR was >81%, time in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mM) was <4%, and time in hyperglycemia (>10 mM) was <17% for both exercise conditions and insulin formations, with no significant differences between insulins (P > 0.05). In the 2 h postexercise and overnight, the TIR approached 100% for all conditions. Conclusions: There were no differences in TIR during and 24 h after MIE or HIE when comparing insulin aspart with FiAsp delivered by a second-generation CL system. Insulin formulations with an offset in action greater than FiAsp are needed to provide a meaningful improvement in CL glucose control with exercise. Clinical Trial Registration number: ACTRN12619000469112.

3.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2905-2909, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383166

RESUMO

Golden trumpet (Allamanda cathartica) plants were observed to exhibit mottling and distortion symptoms on leaves. The genome of an associated begomovirus (Al-K1) was amplified by rolling-circle amplification, cloned, and sequenced. The viral genome consisted of two circular ssDNA molecules, and the organization of the ORFs was similar to those of DNA-A and DNA-B components of bipartite begomoviruses. The size of DNA-A (KC202818) and DNA-B (MG969497) of the begomovirus was 2772 and 2690 nucleotides, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that the DNA-A and DNA-B components shared the highest sequence identity with duranta leaf curl virus (MN537564, 87.8%) and cotton leaf curl Alabad virus (MH760452, 81.0%), respectively. Interestingly, the Al-K1 isolate shared significantly less nucleotide sequence identity with allamanda leaf curl virus (EF602306, 71.6%), the only monopartite begomovirus reported previously in golden trumpet from China. Al-K1 shared less than 91% sequence identity with other begomoviruses, and hence, according to the latest ICTV guidelines for species demarcation of begomoviruses, Al-K1 is proposed to be a member of a new species, and we propose the name "allamanda leaf mottle distortion virus" (AllLMoDV-[IN-Al_K1-12]) for this virus. AllLMoDV was detected in various golden trumpet samples from different locations by PCR with specific primers based on the genome sequence determined in this study. Our study provides evidence of the occurrence of a new bipartite begomovirus in a perennial ornamental plant in India.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/virologia , Begomovirus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Sequência de Bases , Begomovirus/classificação , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Índia , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate glucose control using fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) compared with insulin aspart (IAsp) delivered by the MiniMed Advanced Hybrid Closed-Loop (AHCL) system in adults with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, crossover study, participants were assigned to receive faster aspart or IAsp in random order. Stages 1 and 2 comprised of 6 weeks in closed loop, preceded by 2 weeks in open loop. This was followed by stage 3, whereby participants changed directly back to the insulin formulation used in stage 1 for 1 week in closed loop. Participants chose their own meals except for two standardized meal tests, a missed meal bolus and late meal bolus. The primary outcome was the percentage of time sensor glucose values were from 70 to 180 mg/dL (time in range; [TIR]). RESULTS: Twenty-five adults (52% male) were recruited; the median (interquartile range) age was 48 (37, 57) years, and the median HbA1c was 7.0% (6.6, 7.2) (53 [49, 55] mmol/mol). Faster aspart demonstrated greater overall TIR compared with IAsp (82.3% [78.5, 83.7] vs. 79.6% [77.0, 83.4], respectively; mean difference 1.9% [0.5, 3.3]; P = 0.007). Four-hour postprandial glucose TIR was higher using faster aspart compared with IAsp for all meals combined (73.6% [69.4, 80.2] vs. 72.1% [64.5, 78.5], respectively; median difference 3.5% [1.0, 7.3]; P = 0.003). There was no ketoacidosis or severe hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Faster aspart safely improved glucose control compared with IAsp in a group of adults with well-controlled type 1 diabetes using AHCL. The modest improvement was mainly related to mealtime glycemia. While the primary outcome demonstrated statistical significance, the clinical impact may be small, given an overall difference in TIR of 1.9%.

5.
Chem Asian J ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448544

RESUMO

Bromodomains are evolutionarily conserved reader modules that recognize acetylated lysine residues on the histone tails to facilitate gene transcription. The bromodomain and PHD finger containing protein 3 (BRPF3) is a scaffolding protein that forms a tetrameric complex with HBO1 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and two other subunits, which is known to regulate the HAT activity and substrate specificity. However, its molecular mechanism, histone ligands, and biological functions remain unknown. Herein, we identify mono- (H4K5ac) and di- (H4K5acK12ac) acetylated histone peptides as novel interacting partners of the BRPF3 bromodomain. Consistent with this, pull-down assays on purified histones from human cells confirm the interaction of BRPF3 bromodomain with acetylated histone H4. Further, MD simulation studies highlight the binding mode of acetyllysine (Kac) and the stability of bromodomain-histone peptide complexes. Collectively, our findings provide a key insight into how histone targets of the BRPF3 bromodomain direct the recruitment of HBO1 complex to chromatin for downstream transcriptional regulation.

6.
Acta Diabetol ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Automated insulin delivery aims to lower treatment burden and improve quality of life as well as glycemic outcomes. METHODS: We present sub-study data from a dual-center, randomized, open-label, two-sequence crossover study in automated insulin delivery naïve users, comparing Medtronic MiniMed® Advanced Hybrid Closed-Loop (AHCL) to Sensor Augmented Pump therapy with Predictive Low Glucose Management (SAP + PLGM). At the end of each 4-week intervention, impacts on quality of life, sleep and treatment satisfaction were compared using seven age-appropriate validated questionnaires given to patients or caregivers. RESULTS: 59/60 people completed the study (mean age 23.3 ± 14.4yrs). Statistically significant differences favoring AHCL were demonstrated in several scales (data shown as mean ± SE). In adults (≥ 18yrs), technology satisfaction favored AHCL over PLGM as shown by a higher score in the DTSQs during AHCL (n = 28) vs SAP + PLGM (n = 29) (30.9 ± 0.7 vs 27.9 ± 0.7, p = 0.004) and DTSQc AHCL (n = 29) vs SAP + PLGM (n = 30) (11.7 ± 0.9 vs 9.2 ± 0.8, p = 0.032). Adolescents (aged 13-17yrs) also showed a higher DTSQc score during AHCL (n = 16) versus SAP + PLGM (n = 15) (14.8 ± 0.7 vs 12.1 ± 0.8, p = 0.024). The DTQ "change" score (n = 59) favored AHCL over SAP + PLGM (3.5 ± 0.0 vs 3.3 ± 0.0, p < 0.001). PSQI was completed in those > 16 years (n = 36) and demonstrated improved sleep quality during AHCL vs SAP + PLGM (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 5.7 ± 0.3, p = 0.048) with a total score > 5 indicating poor quality sleep. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that AHCL compared to SAP + PLGM mode has the potential to increase treatment satisfaction and improve subjective sleep quality in adolescents and adults with T1D.

7.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21821, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325487

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a debilitating complication of many chronic disease states and disuse conditions including denervation. However, molecular and signaling mechanisms of muscle wasting remain less understood. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of several toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their downstream signaling adaptor, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), are induced in skeletal muscle of mice in response to sciatic nerve denervation. Muscle-specific ablation of MyD88 mitigates denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in mice. Targeted ablation of MyD88 suppresses the components of ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy, and FOXO transcription factors in skeletal muscle during denervation. We also found that specific inhibition of MyD88 reduces the activation of canonical nuclear factor-kappa (NF-κB) pathway and expression of receptors for inflammatory cytokines in denervated muscle. In contrast, inhibition of MyD88 stimulates the activation of non-canonical NF-κB signaling in denervated skeletal muscle. Ablation of MyD88 also inhibits the denervation-induced increase in phosphorylation of AMPK without having any effect on the phosphorylation of mTOR. Moreover, targeted ablation of MyD88 inhibits the activation of a few components of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways, especially X-box protein 1 (XBP1). Importantly, myofiber-specific ablation of XBP1 mitigates denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in mice. Collectively, our experiments suggest that TLR-MyD88 signaling mediates skeletal muscle wasting during denervation potentially through the activation of canonical NF-κB signaling, AMPK and UPR pathways.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
8.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 205: 106087, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873075

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medtronic has developed a virtual patient simulator for modeling and predicting insulin therapy outcomes for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). An enhanced simulator was created to estimate outcomes when using the MiniMedTM 670G system with standard NovoLog® (EU: NovoRapid, US: NovoLog) versus Fiasp ® by using clinical data. METHODS: Sixty-seven participants' PK profiles were generated per type of insulin (Total of 134 PK profiles). 7,485 virtual patients' PK measurements was matched with one of the 67 NovoLog® PK Tmax values. These 7,485 virtual patients were then simulated using the Medtronic MiniMed™ 670G algorithm following an in-silico protocol of 90 days: 14 days in open loop (Manual Mode) followed by 76 days in closed loop (Auto Mode). Simulation study was repeated with each NovoLog® PK profile being replaced by its corresponding Fiasp® PK profile in the same virtual patient. To validate our in-silico analysis, we compared the results of "actual" 19 "real life" patients from a clinical study RESULTS: Simulated overall and postprandial glycemic outcomes improved in all age groups with Fiasp®. The percentage of time in the euglycemic range increased by about ~2.2% with Fiasp®, in all age groups (p < 0.01). The percentage of time spent at <70 mg/dL was reduced by about ~0.6% with insulin Fiasp® (p < 0.01) and the mean glucose was reduced by about 1.3 mg/dL (p < 0.01), excluding those age <7 years. The simulated mean postprandial SG was reduced by ~5 mg/dL, a significant difference for all age groups. A clinical study results showed similar improvements with MiniMedTM 670G system when switching from NovoLog® to Fiasp®. CONCLUSIONS: The simulation studies indicate that using Fiasp® in place of NovoLog® with the MiniMedTM 670G system will significantly improve the time spent in the healthy, euglycemic range and reduce exposure to hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in most patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Insulina Aspart , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Aspart/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina
9.
Diabetes Care ; 44(4): 969-975, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the MiniMed Advanced Hybrid Closed-Loop (AHCL) system, which includes an algorithm with individualized basal target set points, automated correction bolus function, and improved Auto Mode stability. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This dual-center, randomized, open-label, two-sequence crossover study in automated-insulin-delivery-naive participants with type 1 diabetes (aged 7-80 years) compared AHCL to sensor-augmented pump therapy with predictive low glucose management (SAP + PLGM). Each study phase was 4 weeks, preceded by a 2- to 4-week run-in and separated by a 2-week washout. RESULTS: The study was completed by 59 of 60 people (mean age 23.3 ± 14.4 years). Time in target range (TIR) 3.9-10 mmol/L (70-180 mg/dL) favored AHCL over SAP + PLGM (70.4 ± 8.1% vs. 57.9 ± 11.7%) by 12.5 ± 8.5% (P < 0.001), with greater improvement overnight (18.8 ± 12.9%, P < 0.001). All age-groups (children [7-13 years], adolescents [14-21 years], and adults [>22 years]) demonstrated improvement, with adolescents showing the largest improvement (14.4 ± 8.4%). Mean sensor glucose (SG) at run-in was 9.3 ± 0.9 mmol/L (167 ± 16.2 mg/dL) and improved with AHCL (8.5 ± 0.7 mmol/L [153 ± 12.6 mg/dL], P < 0.001), but deteriorated during PLGM (9.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L [17 ± 19.8 mg/dL], P < 0.001). TIR was optimal when the algorithm set point was 5.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) compared with 6.7 mmol/L (120 mg/dL), 72.0 ± 7.9% vs. 64.6 ± 6.9%, respectively, with no additional hypoglycemia. Auto Mode was active 96.4 ± 4.0% of the time. The percentage of hypoglycemia at baseline (<3.9 mmol/L [70 mg/dL] and ≤3.0 mmol/L [54 mg/dL]) was 3.1 ± 2.1% and 0.5 ± 0.6%, respectively. During AHCL, the percentage time at <3.9 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) improved to 2.1 ± 1.4% (P = 0.034) and was statistically but not clinically reduced for ≤3.0 mmol/L (54 mg/dL) (0.5 ± 0.5%; P = 0.025). There was one episode of mild diabetic ketoacidosis attributed to an infusion set failure in combination with an intercurrent illness, which occurred during the SAP + PLGM arm. CONCLUSIONS: AHCL with automated correction bolus demonstrated significant improvement in glucose control compared with SAP + PLGM. A lower algorithm SG set point during AHCL resulted in greater TIR, with no increase in hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Adulto Jovem
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20190094, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624711

RESUMO

Faunipollenites Bharadwaj is considered a junior synonym of Protohaploxypinus Samoilovich emend. Morbey. However, Indian workers claim it is a valid genus due to a poorly defined corpus and absence of folds in distal attachment. In India, a standard method is applied including the oxidization with HNO3 more than 48 hours (+10' of KOH). We analyze the effects of that treatment on the morphology of pollen grains of both genera in samples from the Permian of India and Brazil. The same samples are also processed with HCl, HF, two hours of HNO3 and 2' of KOH and slides are mounted after each step. Our analysis reveals that distinct or indistinct central body and presence/absence of folds in distal attachment do not change in contrast to the indistinct central body and mostly absence of folds from samples that underwent a longer period of oxidization (24-48 hours and KOH 10'). The synonymization of Faunipollenites to Protohaploxypinus is confirmed. Species of Faunipollenites are reassigned to the revised species of Protohaploxypinus. The usage of the latter genus and its species in Permian biostratigraphic studies of India will improve Gondwanan correlations and paleobiogeographic reconstructions in future studies.


Assuntos
Pólen , Aprepitanto , Brasil , Humanos , Índia
11.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244593, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434234

RESUMO

Yellow Mosaic Disease (YMD) in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] is one of the most damaging diseases in Asia. In the northern part of India, the YMD is caused by Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV), while in southern India this is caused by Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV). The molecular mechanism of YMD resistance in mungbean remains largely unknown. In this study, RNA-seq analysis was conducted between a resistant (PMR-1) and a susceptible (Pusa Vishal) mungbean genotype under infected and control conditions to understand the regulatory network operating between mungbean-YMV. Overall, 76.8 million raw reads could be generated in different treatment combinations, while mapping rate per library to the reference genome varied from 86.78% to 93.35%. The resistance to MYMIV showed a very complicated gene network, which begins with the production of general PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns), then activation of various signaling cascades like kinases, jasmonic acid (JA) and brassinosteroid (BR), and finally the expression of specific genes (like PR-proteins, virus resistance and R-gene proteins) leading to resistance response. The function of WRKY, NAC and MYB transcription factors in imparting the resistance against MYMIV could be established. The string analysis also revealed the role of proteins involved in kinase, viral movement and phytoene synthase activity in imparting YMD resistance. A set of novel stress-related EST-SSRs are also identified from the RNA-Seq data which may be used to find the linked genes/QTLs with the YMD resistance. Also, 11 defence-related transcripts could be validated through quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The identified gene networks have led to an insight about the defence mechanism operating against MYMIV infection in mungbean which will be of immense use to manage the YMD resistance in mungbean.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vigna/genética , Vigna/virologia , Resistência à Doença , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111960, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513481

RESUMO

The development of low arsenic-accumulating varieties for the contaminated areas is one of the best options for reducing the dietary exposure of arsenic to human population through rice. In this study, grain-arsenic content in one hundred genotypes revealed a large variation ranging from 0.05 mg/kg to 0.49 mg/kg. Compared to high accumulating variety, Shatabdi, 6-8 times the transcript upregulation of Arsenic sequestering ATP binding cassette C1 type gene (ABCC1), was observed in first internode of low accumulating variety Gobindabhog when 5 mg/kg of arsenite was present in soil. A comparison of the genomic sequence of OsABCC1 identified 8 SNPs between the two genotypes; 5 in introns and 3 silent mutations in exons. We identified a PCR based co-dominant marker targeting an SNP (T/G) between the two genotypes, which clearly distinguished 100 genotypes into low (mean 0.14 mg/kg) and high (mean 0.35 mg/kg) accumulating groups. All aromatic genotypes, either long or small grain, carry the Gobindabhog-type ABCC1 allele and are low accumulators of arsenic. Gobindabhog allele carrying 62 RILs and NILs showed almost 40-50% less As-accumulation in grains relative to 84 RILs and NILs carrying Shatabdi type ABCC1-allele. The marker will be useful in introgression of low accumulating allele of OsABCC1 into high yielding photoperiod insensitive varietal backgrounds more easily and accurately.


Assuntos
Arsênio/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Arsênio/análise , Arsenitos , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Genótipo , Humanos , Oryza/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
13.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(4): 268-276, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185480

RESUMO

Background: The Medtronic MiniMed™ 670G system adjusts basal insulin delivery in response to continuous glucose monitoring levels and is already in use in clinical practice. We tested the home-based feasibility of the new MiniMed advanced hybrid closed-loop (AHCL) system, which includes several algorithm enhancements and an optional autocorrection bolus mode. Methods: Twelve adolescents and young adults (eight females) with type 1 diabetes [median (interquartile range)] aged 16.6 (15.9, 18.2) years and diabetes duration of 7.1 (4.7, 8.8) years] participated in this single-arm study. The first stage was a 6-day open-loop run-in period, with the predictive low-glucose suspend feature on. This was followed by 6 days/5 nights in a supervised hotel setting, using the AHCL system, including closed-loop challenges (missed meal bolus, late meal bolus, and physical activity); and finally, 3 weeks with unrestricted home use. Glycemic parameters were compared between the open-loop and closed-loop periods. Results: Participants spent 93.3% (4.7) of the time in SmartGuard™ Auto Mode. Hemoglobin A1C levels decreased from median (interquartile range) 7.1% (6.7, 7.9) at baseline to 6.8% (6.6, 7.4) at study end, after 4 weeks (P = 0.0027). Time in range (TIR) (70-180 mg/dL) was 68.4% (10.6) and time below 70 mg/dL was 4% (3.5) during open-loop; and 74% (6.1) and 2.6% (1.9), respectively, during the closed-loop at home phase (P = 0.06, P = 0.27). TIR increased during the nighttime, from 64.6% (17.4) to 80.7% (7.8), P = 0.007, without change in time below 70 mg/dL (P = 0.15). No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusions: The new AHCL system demonstrated safety and effectiveness in controlling day and night glucose levels.

15.
J Genet ; 992020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361642

RESUMO

The yield potentiality of kharif rice is not completely used even under well-irrigated agro-ecosystem, mainly due to low irradiance by overcast cloud throughout the growing season in eastern India. We observed more than 50% yield reduction compared to the performance of 100 high-yield genotypes for consecutive three years both under open and 30-35% reduced light intensity, mainly by 34%, 25% and 12% reduction of panicle number, grains per panicle and test weight. As per the analysis of variance, genotypic variance explained 39% of the total yield-variation under shade with 58% heritability. Overall, the maintenance of equal panicle per plant in both open and shade has the highest association with shade tolerance. Purnendu, Sashi and Pantdhan19 showed less than 28% yield-reduction by maintenance or even by increasing grain numbers under shade and test weight. On the other hand, maintenance of an equal number of panicle under both situations was the key to the tolerance of Bhasamanik, Sasarang, Rudra and Swarnaprabha. As compared to open, we noticed the improvement of chlorophyll a and b under shade but saw a poor correlation with the shade tolerance index. Comparing the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) in eight genotypes, we found the best tolerant line ranked last with least Pn at low light intensity (400 µmol m-2 s-1). We also identified diverse parental combinations between newly identified shade tolerant and abiotic stress tolerant high-yielding rice lines following diversity analysis using 54 simple-sequence repeats. Thus, the selected tolerant lines from a large set of genotypes with different adjustment ability to keep up high yield under low light intensity can be used for physiological, molecular analysis as well as pyramiding of traits.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Oryza/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos da radiação , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Ecossistema , Genótipo , Índia , Luz , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5714, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177496

RESUMO

N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have been widely utilized for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various surfaces. The main methodologies for preparation of NHCs-based SAMs either requires inert atmosphere and strong base for deprotonation of imidazolium precursors or the use of specifically-synthesized precursors such as NHC(H)[HCO3] salts or NHC-CO2 adducts. Herein, we demonstrate an electrochemical approach for surface-anchoring of NHCs which overcomes the need for dry environment, addition of exogenous strong base or restricting synthetic steps. In the electrochemical deposition, water reduction reaction is used to generate high concentration of hydroxide ions in proximity to a metal electrode. Imidazolium cations were deprotonated by hydroxide ions, leading to carbenes formation that self-assembled on the electrode's surface. SAMs of NO2-functionalized NHCs and dimethyl-benzimidazole were electrochemically deposited on Au films. SAMs of NHCs were also electrochemically deposited on Pt, Pd and Ag films, demonstrating the wide metal scope of this deposition technique.

17.
FASEB Bioadv ; 2(9): 538-553, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923988

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle atrophy is debilitating consequence of a large number of chronic disease states, aging, and disuse conditions. Skeletal muscle mass is regulated through coordinated activation of a number of signaling cascades. Transforming growth factor-ß activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a central kinase that mediates the activation of multiple signaling pathways in response to various growth factors, cytokines, and microbial products. Accumulating evidence suggests that TAK1 promotes skeletal muscle growth and essential for the maintenance of muscle mass in adults. Targeted inactivation of TAK1 leads to severe muscle wasting and kyphosis in mice. However, the mechanisms by which TAK1 prevents loss of muscle mass remain poorly understood. Through generation of inducible skeletal muscle-specific Tak1-knockout mice, we demonstrate that targeted ablation of TAK1 disrupts redox signaling leading to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and loss of skeletal muscle mass and contractile function. Suppression of oxidative stress using Trolox improves muscle contractile function and inhibits the activation of catabolic signaling pathways in Tak1-deficient muscle. Moreover, Trolox inhibits the activation of ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy markers in skeletal muscle of Tak1-deficient mice. Furthermore, inhibition of oxidative stress using Trolox prevents the slow-to-fast type fiber transition and improves mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of Tak1-deficient mice. Overall, our results demonstrate that TAK1 maintains skeletal muscle mass and health through redox homeostasis.

19.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 918, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670329

RESUMO

Globally, yellow mosaic disease (YMD) remains a major constraint of mungbean production, and management of this deadly disease is still the biggest challenge. Thus, finding ways to manage YMD including development of varieties possessing resistance against mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a research priority for mungbean crop. Characterization of YMD resistance using various advanced molecular and biochemical approaches during plant-virus interactions has unfolded a comprehensive network of pathogen survival, disease severity, and the response of plants to pathogen attack, including mechanisms of YMD resistance in mungbean. The biggest challenge in YMD management is the effective utilization of an array of information gained so far, in an integrated manner for the development of genotypes having durable resistance against yellow mosaic virus (YMV) infection. In this backdrop, this review summarizes the role of various begomoviruses, its genomic components, and vector whiteflies, including cryptic species in the YMD expression. Also, information about the genetics of YMD in both mungbean and blackgram crops is comprehensively presented, as both the species are crossable, and same viral strains are also found affecting these crops. Also, implications of various management strategies including the use of resistance sources, the primary source of inoculums and vector management, wide-hybridization, mutation breeding, marker-assisted selection (MAS), and pathogen-derived resistance (PDR) are thoroughly discussed. Finally, the prospects of employing various powerful emerging tools like translational genomics, and gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9 are also highlighted to complete the YMD management perspective in mungbean.

20.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 66: 105116, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252011

RESUMO

The current work is a "first of a kind" report on the feasibility and efficacy of hydrodynamic cavitation integrated Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP's) towards treatment of a real life greywater stream in form of kitchen wastewater. The work has been carried out in a sequential manner starting with geometry optimization of orifice plate (cavitating device) followed by studying the effects of inlet pressure, pH, effluent dilution ratio on degradation of TOC and COD. Under optimized conditions of pH 3, 4 bar pressure, TOC and COD reduction of 18.23 and 25% were obtained using HC for a period of 120 min. To improve the performance of HC, further studies were carried out by integrating H2O2and O3with HC. Using 5 g/h optimum dosage of H2O2, 87.5% reduction in COD was obtained beyond which it started decreasing. Moreover, integrating O3(57.5% reduction in COD) increased the treatment cost. However, a hybrid process (HC + H2O2 + O3) yielded 76.26 and 98.25% reductions in TOC and COD within60 min.The energetics of all the processes and the treatment costs were studied in detail and it was concluded that combined process of HC + H2O2 + O3surpassed by far the performances of HC + H2O2and HC + O3.

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