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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500548

RESUMO

The emergence of COVID-19 continues to pose severe threats to global public health. The pandemic has infected over 171 million people and claimed more than 3.5 million lives to date. We investigated the binding potential of antiviral cyanobacterial proteins including cyanovirin-N, scytovirin and phycocyanin with fundamental proteins involved in attachment and replication of SARS-CoV-2. Cyanovirin-N displayed the highest binding energy scores (-16.8 ± 0.02 kcal/mol, -12.3 ± 0.03 kcal/mol and -13.4 ± 0.02 kcal/mol, respectively) with the spike protein, the main protease (Mpro) and the papainlike protease (PLpro) of SARS-CoV-2. Cyanovirin-N was observed to interact with the crucial residues involved in the attachment of the human ACE2 receptor. Analysis of the binding affinities calculated employing the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) approach revealed that all forms of energy, except the polar solvation energy, favourably contributed to the interactions of cyanovirin-N with the viral proteins. With particular emphasis on cyanovirin-N, the current work presents evidence for the potential inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by cyanobacterial proteins, and offers the opportunity for in vitro and in vivo experiments to deploy the cyanobacterial proteins as valuable therapeutics against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , COVID-19/virologia , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura , Difração de Raios X
2.
Environ Toxicol ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581487

RESUMO

Although comprehensive exertions have been made in late decades for treating advanced lung cancer with inclusive therapies but efficient anti-lung cancer therapeutics are statically inadequate in the clinics. Hence, compelling novel anti-lung cancer drugs are considerably desired. This backdrop enticed us to unveil anticancer efficacy of astrakurkurol, derivative of wild edible mushroom against lung cancer, whose effects have not yet been described. Mechanistic analysis disclosed that sensitizing effect of astrakurkurol is due to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, increased level of Fas, FADD, decreased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and increased cleaved form of caspase 9, 8, and 3. Apart from the induction of apoptosis, it was demonstrated for the first time that astrakurkurol induced an autophagic response as evidenced by the development of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) with up-regulation of beclin-1, Atg7, and downregulated p62. Apoptosis and autophagy can be sparked by the same stimuli, which was as evident from the astrakurkurol-induced inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling. The thorough scanning of the mechanism of crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is requisite for prosperous anticancer remedy. Triterpenoid has evidently intensified cytotoxicity, induced apoptosis and autophagy on A549 cells. Besides astrakurkurol could also curb migration and regress the size of tumor in ex ovo xenograft model. All these findings put forth astrakurkurol as a convincing novel anti-cancer agent, for scrutinizing the lung cancer therapies and as a robust contender for future in vitro and in vivo analysis.

3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(30): 4939-4962, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497428

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is often associated with a poor prognosis. Long-standing diabetes mellitus is considered as an important risk factor for its development. This risk can be modified by the use of certain antidiabetic medications. On the other hand, new-onset diabetes can signal towards an underlying PC in the elderly population. Recently, several attempts have been made to develop an effective clinical tool for PC screening using a combination of history of new-onset diabetes and several other clinical and biochemical markers. On the contrary, diabetes affects the survival after treatment for PC. We describe this intimate and complex two-way relationship of diabetes and PC in this review by exploring the underlying pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Infect Genet Evol ; : 105067, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487866

RESUMO

The annually recurrent seasonal influenza viruses, namely, influenza A viruses (H1N1/pdm2009 and H3N2) and influenza B viruses, contribute substantially to human disease burden. Elucidation of host adaptation, population dynamics and evolutionary patterns of these viruses contribute to better control of current epidemic situation and bolster efforts towards pandemic preparedness. Present study has been addressed at unraveling the signatures of codon usage and dinucleotide distribution of these seasonal influenza viruses associating with their fitness and ongoing adaptive evolution in human population. Thorough analysis of codon usage adaptation revealed that H3N2 has been exhibited best adapted to human cellular system, which correlate with its highest epidemic intensity as compared with the other seasonal influenza viruses. CpG dinucleotide was found to be strongly avoided among the seasonal influenza viruses with more restraint among influenza B viruses than influenza A viruses, and might be accounted to the strategy of the viral pathogens in evading human immune signals. Dynamic scenes of ongoing evolution in codon usage and elimination of CpG motif among the viruses, which correlate with their distinct host adaption state, signifying the marked impact of selective force operational on the viral genomes, aimed at proficient circulation, enhanced fitness and successful infective manifestations in humans.

6.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 176: 108846, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951481

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study was to compare the islet cell function, insulin sensitivity, and incretin axis between Asian-Indian subjects with either impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prediabetes subjects underwent a mixed meal tolerance test(MMTT) after overnight fasting. Samples for glucose, insulin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. Insulin secretion sensitivity index -2 (ISSI-2) for beta-cell function and Matsuda index for insulin sensitivity were assessed. Alpha cell function was assessed by measuring the area under the curve (AUC) 0-120 glucagon/AUC0-120 glucose. RESULTS: A total of sixty subjects were recruited with 20 in each group. The beta-cell function represented by ISSI-2 was impaired in prediabetes subjects as compared to NGT group (IFG: 2.09 ± 0.44 vs. NGT: 3.04 ± 0.80, P < 0.0001, and IGT: 2.33 ± 0.59 vs. NGT: 3.04 ± 0.80, P = 0.002). Similarly, AUC0-120 glucagon/AUC0-120 glucose was also lower in prediabetes group as compared to healthy controls (IFG: 0.41(0.54) vs. NGT: 1.07(0.39), P = 0.003 and IGT: 0.57(0.38) vs. NGT: 1.07(0.39), P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Asian-Indian prediabetes subjects have reduced beta-cell function with lesser glucagon secretion during MMTT as compared to normal healthy controls.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/fisiopatologia , Incretinas/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Glucagon/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/etnologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/etnologia , Secreção de Insulina/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
7.
Environ Res ; 197: 111015, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775678

RESUMO

The advent of COVID-19 has kept the whole world on their toes. Countries are maximizing their efforts to combat the virus and to minimize the infection. Since infectious microorganisms may be transmitted by variety of routes, respiratory and facial protection is required for those that are usually transmitted via droplets/aerosols. Therefore this pandemic has caused a sudden increase in the demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, masks, and many other important items since, the evidence of individual-to-individual transmission (through respiratory droplets/coughing) and secondary infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). But the disposal of these personal protective measures remains a huge question mark towards the environmental impact. Huge waste generation demands proper segregation according to waste types, collection, and recycling to minimize the risk of infection spread through aerosols and attempts to implement measures to monitor infections. Hence, this review focuses on the impact of environment due to improper disposal of these personal protective measures and to investigate the safe disposal methods for these protective measures by using the safe, secure and innovative biological methods such as the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Ultraviolet (UV) lights for killing such deadly viruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Resíduos Sólidos
8.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(7): 2447-2454, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223527

RESUMO

HIV-1 infection in human beings has been an outcome of cross-species transmission event of simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzees (SIVcpz). Present study reveals differential features of envelope genes representing different categories of HIV-1 disease progression in human beings, namely, rapid progressors (RP), slow progressors (SP) and long-term non-progressors (LTNP) with respect to SIVcpz, based on their amino acid usage patterns. It was evident that SP, LTNP and SIVcpz envelope genes displayed similar patterns of amino acid usage which strongly contrasted with the features exhibited by the envelope genes representing RP category. Robust analysis revealed that selection constraint of human host on SP and LTNP associated envelope genes and chimpanzee host on SIVcpz envelope genes were more severe compared to selection pressure operational on RP associated envelope genes. Evolutionary forces of selection appeared to be comparatively more relaxed on the RP envelope genes in contrast to SP, LTNP and SIVcpz types. Better binding of RP envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) compared to envelope gp120 representing SP, LTNP and SIVcpz with host cellular receptor CD4, as inferred employing molecular docking approaches, promises to confer meaningful insights into the event of speedy progression of HIV in rapid progressors. It was interesting to note that envelope glycoprotein exhibited a tendency of hindering proper interaction of host (human/chimpanzee) CD4 and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II), with a better efficacy in rapid progressors, thus, facilitating highest degrees of immune suppression. Proper identification of the contrasting features might confer a scope to modulate rapid progression of HIV to a long-term non-progressive controlled case, as observed in LTNP and SIVcpz infection, simultaneously aiding therapeutic research against AIDS targeted at drug and vaccine development.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

9.
Genomics ; 113(1 Pt 2): 821-830, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096254

RESUMO

The fungal genus Cryptococcus comprises of several diverse species. The pathogens forming Cryptococcus neoformans/ Cryptococcus gatti species complex are of immense clinical significance owing to the high frequency of infections and deaths globally. Three closely related non-pathogenic species namely, Cryptococcus amylolentus, Cryptococcus wingfieldii and Cryptococcus depauperatus are the non-pathogenic ancestral species from which pathogenic lineages have diverged. In the current study, a comprehensive analysis of factors influencing the codon and amino acid usage bias in six pathogenic and three non-pathogenic species was performed. Our results revealed that though compositional bias played a crucial role, translational selection and gene expression were the key determinants of codon usage variations. Analysis of relative dinucleotide abundance and codon context signatures revealed strict avoidance of TpA dinucleotide across genomes. Multivariate statistical analysis based on codon usage data resulted in discrete clustering of pathogens and non-pathogens which correlated with previous reports on their phylogenetic distribution.

10.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-11, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305988

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), presents an unprecedented challenge to global public health with researchers striving to find a possible therapeutic candidate that could limit the spread of the virus. In this context, the present study employed an in silico molecular interaction-based approach to estimate the inhibitory potential of the phytochemicals from ethnomedicinally relevant Indian plants including Justicia adhatoda, Ocimum sanctum and Swertia chirata, with reported antiviral activities against crucial SARS-CoV-2 proteins. SARS-CoV-2 proteins associated with host attachment and viral replication namely, spike protein, main protease enzyme Mpro and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) are promising druggable targets for COVID-19 therapeutic research. Extensive molecular docking of the phytocompounds at the binding pockets of the viral proteins revealed their promising inhibitory potential. Subsequent assessment of physicochemical features and potential toxicity of the compounds followed by robust molecular dynamics simulations and analysis of MM-PBSA energy scoring function revealed anisotine against SARS-CoV-2 spike and Mpro proteins and amarogentin against SARS-CoV-2 RdRp as potential inhibitors. It was interesting to note that these compounds displayed significantly higher binding energy scores against the respective SARS-CoV-2 proteins compared to the relevant drugs that are currently being targeted against them. Present research findings confer scopes to explore further the potential of these compounds in vitro and in vivo towards deployment as efficient SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors and development of novel effective therapeutics.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 570131, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224111

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV) has caused several outbreaks as the consequence of spillover events from zoonotic sources and has resulted in huge death tolls. In spite of considerable progress, a thorough know-how regarding EBOV adaptation in various host species and detailed information about the potential reservoirs of EBOV still remains obscure. The present study was executed to examine the patterns of codon usage and its associated influence in the adaptation of EBOV to potential hosts that dwell in Africa, the origin of the viral outbreaks. Correspondence analysis (CA) revealed that the codon usage signature in EBOV is a complex interplay of factors including compositional bias and natural selection, with the latter having a more pronounced impact. Low codon usage bias in EBOV indicates a flexibility of the viruses in adapting to diverse range of hosts with different codon usage architectures. EBOV adaptation in potential hosts, as estimated by codon adaptation index (CAI) and relative codon deoptimization index (RCDI), revealed that the viruses were relatively better adapted to African primates than other mammals examined, which might account for the high fatality rate of primates owing to EBOV infection. Bats have been speculated as natural reservoirs of EBOV. In the present analysis it was interesting to note that EBOV displayed lower degrees of adaptation, as estimated by CAI and RCDI, with bats in comparison to the primate hosts. Lower degrees of adaptation might contribute to long-term co-existence and circulation of the viral pathogens in bat populations. Codon usage patterns of EBOV isolates associated with different outbreaks varied significantly, with discrete patterns between the West and Central African isolates. Additional evolutionary analyses indicated that the West African Epidemic began with an initial spillover infection and there was more than one population of EBOV circulating in the natural reservoir in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The present study yields valuable information regarding the possible circulation of EBOV in various African mammals.

12.
Curr Opin Environ Sci Health ; 17: 72-81, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015428

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has grown to be global public health emergency. The biosurfactants (BSs) are surface-active biomolecules with unique properties and wide applications. Several microbes synthesize secondary metabolites with surface-active properties, which have a wide range of anti-inflammatory and anti-viral roles. The monocytes and neutrophils are activated by bacteria, which subsequently result in high secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, Il-18 and IL-1ß) and toll-like receptors-2 (TLR-2). Following the inflammatory response, BSs induce the production of cationic proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lysozyme, and thus can be used for therapeutic purposes. This article provides recent advances in the anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities of BSs and discusses the potential use of these compounds against COVID-19, highlighting the need for in-vitro and in-vivo approaches to confirm this hypothesis. This suggestion is necessary because there are still no studies that have focused on the use of BSs against COVID-19.

14.
World J Diabetes ; 11(7): 280-292, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843931

RESUMO

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by progressive inflammation and fibrosis of the pancreas that eventually leads to pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Diabetes in the background of CP is very difficult to manage due to high glycemic variability and concomitant malabsorption. Progressive beta cell loss leading to insulin deficiency is the cardinal mechanism underlying diabetes development in CP. Alpha cell dysfunction leading to deranged glucagon secretion has been described in different studies using a variety of stimuli in CP. However, the emerging evidence is varied probably because of dependence on the study procedure, the study population as well as on the stage of the disease. The mechanism behind islet cell dysfunction in CP is multifactorial. The intra-islet alpha and beta cell regulation of each other is often lost. Moreover, secretion of the incretin hormones such as glucagon like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide is dysregulated. This significantly contributes to islet cell disturbances. Persistent and progressive inflammation with changes in the function of other cells such as islet delta cells and pancreatic polypeptide cells are also implicated in CP. In addition, the different surgical procedures performed in patients with CP and antihyperglycemic drugs used to treat diabetes associated with CP also affect islet cell function. Hence, different factors such as chronic inflammation, dysregulated incretin axis, surgical interventions and anti-diabetic drugs all affect islet cell function in patients with CP. Newer therapies targeting alpha cell function and beta cell regeneration would be useful in the management of pancreatic diabetes in the near future.

15.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 24(2): 206-214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699792

RESUMO

Objectives: Chronic hypoparathyroidism is treated conventionally with active vitamin D and high doses of calcium. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH) replacement is an attractive option for treating patients with hypoparathyroidism since it can replace the physiological action of native PTH. The aim of our study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of PTH replacement on calcium homeostasis, bone metabolism, and daily requirement of calcium and active vitamin D. Materials and Methods: Randomized controlled trials done in chronic hypoparathyroid patients were included in this meta-analysis. The PTH group included subjects receiving a subcutaneous injection of either PTH (1-84) or PTH (1-34) with oral calcium and/or active vitamin D. The control group included those receiving oral calcium and active vitamin D with/without subcutaneous placebo injection. The primary outcome of this meta-analysis was to compare serum calcium, 24-h urinary calcium, and severe adverse effects among PTH and control groups. Results: In this meta-analysis, we did not find any difference in serum calcium level between PTH and control groups [mean difference (MD) - 0.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) - 0.09, 0.06; P = 0.71]. Although there was a trend towards low 24-h urinary calcium in the PTH group, the difference was not statistically significant (MD - 1.43; 95% CI - 2.89, 0.03; P = 0.06). The incidence of serious adverse events was also similar in both groups (RR 1.35; 95% CI 0.58, 3.16; P = 0.49). Conclusion: Both PTH and active vitamin D therapies are associated with comparable serum and urine calcium levels with a similar incidence of serious adverse events in patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism.

16.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-13, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691680

RESUMO

A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as the causative agent behind the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Treatment efforts have been severely impeded due to the lack of specific effective antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-associated pathologies. In the present research endeavour the inhibitory prospects of cyanobacterial metabolites were assessed at the active binding pockets of the two vital SARS-CoV-2 proteases namely, main protease (Mpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro) that proteolytically process viral polyproteins and facilitate viral replication, employing an in silico molecular interaction-based approach. It was evident from our analysis based on the binding energy scores that the metabolites cylindrospermopsin, deoxycylindrospermopsin, carrageenan, cryptophycin 52, eucapsitrione, tjipanazole, tolyporphin and apratoxin A exhibited promising inhibitory potential against the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The compounds cryptophycin 1, cryptophycin 52 and deoxycylindrospermopsin were observed to display encouraging binding energy scores with the PLpro of SARS-CoV-2. Subsequent estimation of physicochemical properties and potential toxicity of the metabolites followed by robust molecular dynamics simulations and analysis of MM-PBSA energy scoring function established deoxycylindrospermopsin as the most promising inhibitory candidate against both SARS-CoV-2 proteases. Present research findings bestow ample scopes to further exploit the potential of deoxycylindrospermopsin as a successful inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo and pave the foundation for the development of novel effective therapeutics against COVID-19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

17.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-12, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552595

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has rattled global public health, with researchers struggling to find specific therapeutic solutions. In this context, the present study employed an in silico approach to assess the inhibitory potential of the phytochemicals obtained from GC-MS analysis of twelve Clerodendrum species against the imperative spike protein, main protease enzyme Mpro and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2. An extensive molecular docking investigation of the phytocompounds at the active binding pockets of the viral proteins revealed promising inhibitory potential of the phytochemicals taraxerol, friedelin and stigmasterol. Decent physicochemical attributes of the compounds in accordance with Lipinski's rule of five and Veber's rule further established them as potential therapeutic candidates against SARS-CoV-2. Molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) binding free energy estimation revealed that taraxerol was the most promising candidate displaying the highest binding efficacy with all the concerned SARS-CoV-2 proteins included in the present analysis. Our observations were supported by robust molecular dynamics simulations of the complexes of the viral proteins with taraxerol for a timescale of 40 nanoseconds. It was striking to note that taraxerol exhibited better binding energy scores with the concerned viral proteins than the drugs that are specifically targeted against them. The present results promise to provide new avenues to further evaluate the potential of the phytocompound taraxerol in vitro and in vivo towards its successful deployment as a SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor and combat the catastrophic COVID-19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

20.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 26(7): 1539-1547, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762623

RESUMO

Clerodendrum is a plant with potent antioxidant activity and has been frequently employed as a traditional remedy against bronchitis, asthma, liver and stomach disorders. Three species of genus Clerodendrum namely Clerodendrum indicum, C. colebrookianum and C. inerme (Syn. Volkameria inermis) were investigated for their possible activity against oxidative stress induced liver injury. Apart from generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the WRL-68 cell line (human hepatic cell line), in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant assays were also assessed. Features of immune cell proliferation (MTT) were analyzed thoroughly. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses have been performed to identify the active biological compounds. These active biological compounds were further subjected to molecular docking. The antioxidant activity of three Clerodendrum sp. was significantly high in DPPH, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide etc. Biochemical parameters like catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were generated in excess due to CCl4 administration, which was ameliorated by treating with Clerodendrum extract. The phytochemical 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D shows excellent binding affinity in Autodock Vina. The present study provided convincing evidences that C. indicum and C. inerme showed good result but C. colebrookianum performed better by almost all means.

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