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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(23): 7433-7438, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725306

RESUMO

The interaction of water with TiO2 is of substantial scientific and technological interest as it determines the activity of TiO2 in photocatalytic and environmental applications in nanoparticle suspensions in water, in complex appliances, or in pure form interacting with water vapor. The influence of TiO2 nanoparticles on the hydrogen bonding structure of water molecules is an important factor that controls hydration of other species, reactions, or nucleation processes. We use a combination of ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron yield near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge to investigate the hydrogen bonding structure of adsorbed water on titania nanoparticles in equilibrium with nearly saturated water vapor at 235 K. The results clearly show that the net NEXAFS spectrum of adsorbed water resembles that of liquid, disordered water at 235 K, a temperature at which both homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing of bulk water is anticipated.

2.
Chemistry ; 25(69): 15879-15886, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553090

RESUMO

Hollow ZSM-5 zeolites of size below one micrometer can be produced by desilication of crystals with aluminium zoning. The parent crystals have a core-shell structure: the core part has nearly no aluminium, whereas the aluminium content in the shell increases when extending to exterior surface. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the preservation of the crystalline shell after base leaching, but could not identify its subtle change. An increase of the Si/Al ratio of the surface was detected upon leaching the parent material to form the hollow zeolite by using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy of substituted alkylpyridines. 27 Al MAS NMR showed that base leaching results in a reduced percentage of distorted tetrahedrally coordinated aluminium. The reprecipitation of dissolved species occurs and tetrahedrally coordinated tin atoms can thus be introduced to the shell framework. Overall, the formation of hollow ZSM-5 zeolites by desilication involves not only the removal of silicon-rich core, but also a reduced percentage of exterior aluminium-related acid sites, which should be considered while using hollow zeolites in acid-catalyzed reactions.

3.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 3): 785-792, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074443

RESUMO

The successful design, installation and operation of a high spatial resolution X-ray photoelectron spectrometer at the Swiss Light Source is presented. In this instrument, a Fresnel zone plate is used to focus an X-ray beam onto the sample and an electron analyzer positioned at 45° with respect to the incoming beam direction is used to collect photoelectrons from the backside of the sample. By raster scanning the sample, transmitted current, X-ray absorption and X-ray photoemission maps can be simultaneously acquired. This work demonstrates that chemical information can be extracted with micrometre resolution; the results suggest that a spatial resolution better than 100 nm can be achieved with this approach in future. This kind of photoelectron spectromicroscope will allow in situ measurements with high spatial resolution also under ambient pressure conditions (in the millibar range). Element-specific X-ray photoemission maps can be obtained before and while exposing the sample to gas/gas mixtures to show morphological and chemical changes of the surface.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(1): 102-108, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27936758

RESUMO

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been employed for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of both model and real catalytic surfaces. Recent progress in the detection of photoelectrons has enabled the acquisition of spectra at pressures up to a few tens of millibars. Although reducing the pressure gap represents a remarkable advantage for catalysis, active sites may be short-lived or hidden in the majority of spectator species. Time-resolved experiments, conducted under transient conditions, are a suitable strategy for discriminating between active sites and spectators. In the present work, we characterized the surface of a Pt/CeO2 powder catalyst at 1.0 mbar of a reacting mixture of carbon monoxide and oxygen and, by means of time resolution, identified short-lived active species. We replaced oxygen with nitrogen in the reaction mixture while fast-detecting the core level peaks of cerium. The results indicate that active Ce3+ sites form transiently at the surface when the oxygen is switched off. Analysis of the depth profile shows that Ce3+ ions are located at the ceria surface. The same experiment, performed on platinum-free ceria, reveals negligible reduction, indicating that platinum boosts the formation of Ce3+ active sites at the interface.

5.
Sci Rep ; 6: 35764, 2016 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27762346

RESUMO

Host-guest inclusion complexes of ß-cyclodextrin with two vitamins viz., nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid in aqueous medium have been explored by reliable spectroscopic, physicochemical and calorimetric methods as stabilizer, carrier and regulatory releaser of the guest molecules. Job's plots have been drawn by UV-visible spectroscopy to confirm the 1:1 stoichiometry of the host-guest assembly. Stereo-chemical nature of the inclusion complexes has been explained by 2D NMR spectroscopy. Surface tension and conductivity studies further support the inclusion process. Association constants for the vitamin-ß-CD inclusion complexes have been calculated by UV-visible spectroscopy using both Benesi-Hildebrand method and non-linear programme, while the thermodynamic parameters have been estimated with the help of van't Hoff equation. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies have been performed to determine the stoichiometry, association constant and thermodynamic parameters with high accuracy. The outcomes reveal that there is a drop in ΔSo, which is overcome by higher negative value of ΔHo, making the overall inclusion process thermodynamically favorable. The association constant is found to be higher for ascorbic acid than that for nicotinic acid, which has been explained on the basis of their molecular structures.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Niacina/química , Vitaminas/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Calorimetria , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Sequestrantes/química , Análise Espectral
6.
Anal Chem ; 86(8): 3683-7, 2014 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24601627

RESUMO

Valence band (VB) changes and hence electronic structure evolution was directly observed with low kinetic energy (KE) electrons at near ambient pressure (NAP) conditions with He I photon source in a custom built laboratory ambient pressure photoelectron spectrometer (Lab-APPES). Polycrystalline Cu surfaces were gradually oxidized in O2 to Cu2O, to a mixture of Cu2O + CuO, and finally to CuO between 300 and 625 K and at NAP. Typical VB features for Cu, Cu2O, and CuO were observed, and the results corroborate well with core level and Auger spectral changes. High mean free path associated with low KE electrons, very low or no inelastic scattering, and effective pumping and the design of electrostatic lens regime help to minimize the electron attenuation at NAP conditions. The present results extend the capabilities of the APPES tool to explore the in situ evolution of electronic structure of materials at NAP and high temperatures.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(4): 2692-9, 2014 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24476052

RESUMO

Development of efficient electrocatalyst based on non-precious metal that favors the four-electron pathway for the reduction of oxygen in alkaline fuel cell is a challenging task. Herein, we demonstrate a new facile route for the synthesis of hybrid functional electrocatalyst based on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) and Mn3O4 with pronounced electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution. The synthesis involves one-step in situ reduction of both graphene oxide (GO) and Mn(VII), growth of Mn3O4 nanocrystals and nitrogen doping onto the carbon framework using a single reducing agent, hydrazine. The X-ray photoelectron (XPS), Raman and FTIR spectral, and X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the reduction of GO and growth of nanosized Mn3O4. The XPS profile reveals that N-rGO has pyridinic (40%), pyrrolic (53%), and pyridine N oxide (7%) types of nitrogen. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles are single crystalline and randomly distributed over the wrinkled N-rGO sheets. The hybrid material has excellent ORR activity and it favors the 4-electron pathway for the reduction of oxygen. The electrocatalytic performance of the hybrid catalyst is superior to the N-rGO, free Mn3O4 and their physical mixture. The hybrid material shows an onset potential of -0.075 V, which is 60-225 mV less negative than that of the other catalyst tested. It has excellent methanol tolerance and high durability. The catalytic current density achieved with the hybrid material at 0.1 mg cm(-2) is almost equivalent to that of the commercial Pt/C (10%). The synergistic effect of N-rGO and Mn3O4 enhances the overall performance of the hybrid catalyst. The nitrogen in N-rGO is considered to be at the interface to bridge the rGO framework and Mn3O4 nanoparticles and facilitates the electron transfer.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(3): 326-8, 2014 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24232181

RESUMO

Chemical doping of an electron transporter results in the formation of a radical anion containing semiconductor which showed high electron mobility (13 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) at low operating voltage (1 V).

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