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1.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 3, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydrogen cross-feeding microbes form a functionally important subset of the human colonic microbiota. The three major hydrogenotrophic functional groups of the colon: sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methanogens and reductive acetogens, have been linked to wide ranging impacts on host physiology, health and wellbeing. RESULTS: An existing mathematical model for microbial community growth and metabolism was combined with models for each of the three hydrogenotrophic functional groups. The model was further developed for application to the colonic environment via inclusion of responsive pH, host metabolite absorption and the inclusion of host mucins. Predictions of the model, using two existing metabolic parameter sets, were compared to experimental faecal culture datasets. Model accuracy varied between experiments and measured variables and was most successful in predicting the growth of high relative abundance functional groups, such as the Bacteroides, and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Two versions of the colonic model were developed: one representing the colon with sequential compartments and one utilising a continuous spatial representation. When applied to the colonic environment, the model predicted pH dynamics within the ranges measured in vivo and SCFA ratios comparable to those in the literature. The continuous version of the model simulated relative abundances of microbial functional groups comparable to measured values, but predictions were sensitive to the metabolic parameter values used for each functional group. Sulphate availability was found to strongly influence hydrogenotroph activity in the continuous version of the model, correlating positively with SRB and sulphide concentration and negatively with methanogen concentration, but had no effect in the compartmentalised model version. CONCLUSIONS: Although the model predictions compared well to only some experimental measurements, the important features of the colon environment included make it a novel and useful contribution to modelling the colonic microbiota.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Sulfetos/metabolismo
2.
Front Nutr ; 7: 563689, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195365

RESUMO

Nutrition affects bone health status. However, analysis of the dietary patterns gives insights into which particular combination of foods may influence nutritional status and bone health. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between dietary patterns, bone mineral density (BMD) and T-scores, and body composition in New Zealand postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study examined 125 postmenopausal women aged between 54 and 81 years. Body composition, BMD and T-scores were determined using dual-energy X-ray a bsorptiometry (DXA). Diet composition was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) composed of 108 food items, from which 34 food groups were created. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. The bone and body composition data including skeletal sites T-scores, waist circumference, BMI and body fat percentage were regressed onto the dietary patterns. Four dietary patterns were identified; the milk and milk-rich beverages dietary pattern, the dessert, cheese and red meat dietary pattern, the fruit-rich, biscuit and crackers dietary pattern and the oily fish, sports drink and seafood-rich dietary pattern. The milk and milk-rich beverages dietary pattern was significantly positively associated with spine T-score (r = 0.247, P = 0.008), and not whole-body BMD (r = 0.182, P = 0.051). The oily fish, sports drink and seafood-rich dietary pattern was marginally negatively associated with waist circumference (r = -0.157, P = 0.094) and body mass index (r = -0.163, P = 0.081) and significantly associated with body fat percentage (r = -0.247, P = 0.008). Binary logistic regression indicated that intake of the milk and milk-rich beverages dietary pattern reduced the occurrence of osteoporosis [adjusted odds ratio OR (95% CI): 0.589 (0.353, 0.982)]. A dietary pattern characterized by a high factor loading of milk and milk-rich beverages was positively associated with whole-body BMD and spine T-score, while the oily fish, sports drink, seafood-rich dietary pattern was inversely associated with total body fat percentage. Consumption of milk, even with coffee showed a positive association with bone health among postmenopausal women. Further longitudinal intervention studies is warranted to confirm effects of dietary patterns on skeletal body sites such as hip and femoral neck T-scores.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212933

RESUMO

Multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements are frequently used amongst older populations to improve adequacy of micronutrients, including B-vitamins, but evidence for improved health outcomes are limited and deficiencies remain prevalent. Although this may indicate poor efficacy of supplements, this could also suggest the possibility for altered B-vitamin bioavailability and metabolism in older people. This open-label, single-arm acute parallel study, conducted at the Liggins Institute Clinical Research Unit in Auckland, compared circulatory and urinary B-vitamer responses to MVM supplementation in older (70.1 ± 2.7 y, n = 10 male, n = 10 female) compared to younger (24.2 ± 2.8 y, n = 10 male, n = 10 female) participants for 4 h after the ingestion of a single dose of a commercial MVM supplement and standardized breakfast. Older adults had a lower area under the curve (AUC) of postprandial plasma pyridoxine (p = 0.02) and pyridoxal-5'phosphate (p = 0.03) forms of vitamin B6 but greater 4-pyridoxic acid AUC (p = 0.009). Urinary pyridoxine and pyridoxal excretion were higher in younger females than in older females (time × age × sex interaction, p < 0.05). Older adults had a greater AUC increase in plasma thiamine (p = 0.01), riboflavin (p = 0.009), and pantothenic acid (p = 0.027). In older adults, there was decreased plasma responsiveness of the ingested (pyridoxine) and active (pyridoxal-5'phosphate) forms of vitamin B6, which indicated a previously undescribed alteration in either absorption or subsequent metabolic interconversion. While these findings cannot determine whether acute B6 responsiveness is adequate, this difference may have potential implications for B6 function in older adults. Although this may imply higher B vitamin substrate requirements for older people, further work is required to understand the implications of postprandial differences in availability.

4.
JBMR Plus ; 4(10): e10399, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103028

RESUMO

The role of micronutrients such as folate and vitamin B-12 in bone quality has been widely studied with conflicting results. Ethnicity seems to play a large role on nutrient intake, as diet varies across cultures. In this study, we examined the relationships of BMD, proximal femur strength, and bone resorption with plasma folate and vitamin B-12 in a cohort of 93 healthy postmenopausal women of Chinese-Singaporean descent. The parameters examined were areal (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) of the proximal femur and the third lumbar vertebra (L3), total body aBMD, proximal femur bending, compressive and impact strength indices (composite strength indices) and circulating levels of C-telopeptide of type I collagen. Eighteen participants (19.4%) had aBMD in the osteoporotic range (osteoporosis group), 59 (63.4%) in the osteopenic range (osteopenia group), and the remaining 16 (17.2%) in the normal range (normal BMD group). Circulating folate levels were significantly higher in the normal BMD group compared with the osteoporosis group. Using linear regression analysis, we found that overall, aBMD and vBMD are positively associated with folate concentrations, whereas composite strength indices were positively associated with vitamin B-12 concentrations. These findings support the existing literature and suggest a link between levels of circulating folate/vitamin B-12 and BMD/bone strength in the cohort examined. Further investigation is needed to examine if individuals with inadequate circulating levels of these nutrients could decrease their risk for fragility fractures through better nutrition or vitamin supplementation. © 2020 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research © 2020 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014892

RESUMO

The human gastrointestinal tract harbors most of the microbial cells inhabiting the body, collectively known as the microbiota. These microbes have several implications for the maintenance of structural integrity of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, metabolism of nutrients, and protection against pathogens. Dysfunctions in these mechanisms are linked to a range of conditions in the gastrointestinal tract, including functional gastrointestinal disorders, ranging from irritable bowel syndrome, to functional constipation and functional diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic abdominal pain with changes in bowel habit in the absence of morphological changes. Despite the high prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in the global population, the mechanisms responsible for this condition are poorly understood. Although alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota, low-grade inflammation and immune activation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders, there is inconsistency between studies and a lack of consensus on what the exact role of the microbiota is, and how changes to it relate to these conditions. The complex interplay between host factors, such as microbial dysbiosis, immune activation, impaired epithelial barrier function and motility, and environmental factors, including diet, will be considered in this narrative review of the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders.

6.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(36)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883793

RESUMO

Lactobacillus fermentum is found in food products and is generally considered safe. L. fermentum AGR1485 promotes barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells and has genetic similarities to other known probiotic L. fermentum strains. L. fermentum AGR1485 has potential as a probiotic and was sequenced to explore these probiotic properties. The genome is a 2.2-Mbp circular chromosome with no plasmids and a GC content of 51.15%.

7.
Front Nutr ; 7: 91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733910

RESUMO

Lipids in milk are secreted as a triacylglycerol core surrounded by a trilayer membrane, the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). This membrane, known to have important roles in infant brain and intestinal development, is composed of proteins, glycoproteins, and complex lipids. We hypothesized that some of the beneficial properties of MFGM are due to its effects on the gastrointestinal microbiota. This study aimed to determine the effect of a commercial phospholipid concentrate (PC) and enriched bovine, caprine, and ovine MFGM fractions on ileal and hindgut microbiota in vitro. Digestion of PC and MFGMs was conducted using an in vitro model based on infant gastric and small intestine conditions. The recovered material was then in vitro fermented with ileal and caecal inocula prepared from five piglets fed a commercial formula for 20 days before ileal and caecal digesta were collected. After each fermentation, samples were collected to determine organic acid production and microbiota composition using 16S rRNA sequencing. All substrates, except PC (5%), were primarily fermented by the ileal microbiota (8-14%) (P < 0.05). PC and caprine MFGM reduced ileal microbiota alpha diversity compared to ileal inoculum. Caprine MFGM increased and PC reduced the ileal ratio of firmicutes:proteobacteria (P < 0.05), respectively, compared to the ileal inoculum. Bovine and ovine MFGMs increased ileal production of acetic, butyric, and caproic acids compared to other substrates and reduced the proportions of ileal proteobacteria (P < 0.0001). There was a limited fermentation of bovine (3%), caprine (2%), and ovine (2%) MFGMs by the caecal microbiota compared to PC (14%). In general, PC and all MFGMs had a reduced effect on caecal microbiota at a phylum level although MFG source-specific effects were observed at the genus level. These indicate that the main effects of the MFGM in the intestinal microbial population appears to occur in the ileum.

8.
Front Integr Neurosci ; 14: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848651

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that alterations in the development of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract during the early postnatal period can influence brain development and vice-versa. It is increasingly recognized that communication between the GI tract and brain is mainly driven by neural, endocrine, immune, and metabolic mediators, collectively called the gut-brain axis (GBA). Changes in the GBA mediators occur in response to the developmental changes in the body during this period. This review provides an overview of major developmental events in the GI tract and brain in the early postnatal period and their parallel developmental trajectories under physiological conditions. Current knowledge of GBA mediators in context to brain function and behavioral outcomes and their synthesis and metabolism (site, timing, etc.) is discussed. This review also presents hypotheses on the role of the GBA mediators in response to the parallel development of the GI tract and brain in infants.

9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(10): 2527-2538, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism referred as venous thromboembolism (VTE) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Plasma from healthy controls or individuals who have experienced a VTE were analyzed using metabolomics to characterize biomarkers and metabolic systems of patients with VTE. Approach and Results: Polar metabolite and lipidomic profiles from plasma collected 3 months after an incident VTE were obtained using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Fasting-state plasma samples from 42 patients with VTE and 42 healthy controls were measured. Plasma metabolomic profiling identified 512 metabolites forming 62 biological clusters. Multivariate analysis revealed a panel of 21 metabolites altogether capable of predicting VTE status with an area under the curve of 0.92 (P=0.00174, selectivity=0.857, sensitivity=0.971). Multiblock systems analysis revealed 25 of the 62 functional biological groups as significantly affected in the VTE group (P<0.05 to control). Complementary correlation network analysis of the dysregulated functions highlighted a subset of the lipidome composed mainly of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids within the predominant triglycerides as a potential regulator of the post-VTE event biological response, possibly controlling oxidative and inflammatory defence systems, and metabolic disorder associated dysregulations. Of interest was microbiota metabolites including trimethylamine N-oxide that remained associated to post incident VTE patients, highlighting a possible involvement of gut microbiota on VTE risk and relapse. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show promise for the elucidation of underlying mechanisms and the design of a diagnostic test to assess the likely efficacy of clinical care in patients with VTE.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Lipídeos/sangue , Metabolômica , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Biologia de Sistemas , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Incidência , Lipidômica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Fatores de Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612960

RESUMO

Preterm infants are exposed to major perinatal, post-natal, and early infancy events that could impact on the gut microbiome. These events include infection, steroid and antibiotic exposure, parenteral nutrition, necrotizing enterocolitis, and stress. Studies have shown that there are differences in the gut microbiome during the early months of life in preterm infants. We hypothesized that differences in the gut microbial composition and metabolites in children born very preterm persist into mid-childhood. Participants were healthy prepubertal children aged 5-11 years who were born very preterm (≤32 weeks of gestation; n = 51) or at term (37-41 weeks; n = 50). We recorded the gestational age, birth weight, mode of feeding, mode of birth, age, sex, and the current height and weight of our cohort. We performed a multi'omics [i.e., 16S rRNA amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, SPME-GCMS (solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry)] analysis to investigate the structure and function of the fecal microbiome (as a proxy of the gut microbiota) in our cross-sectional cohort. Children born very preterm were younger (7.8 vs. 8.3 years; p = 0.034), shorter [height-standard deviation score (SDS) 0.31 vs. 0.92; p = 0.0006) and leaner [BMI (body mass index) SDS -0.20 vs. 0.29; p < 0.0001] than the term group. Children born very preterm had higher fecal calprotectin levels, decreased fecal phage richness, lower plasma arginine, lower fecal branched-chain amino acids and higher fecal volatile (i.e., 3-methyl-butanoic acid, butyrolactone, butanoic acid and pentanoic acid) profiles. The bacterial microbiomes did not differ between preterm and term groups. We speculate that the observed very preterm-specific changes were established in early infancy and may impact on the capacity of the very preterm children to respond to environmental changes.

11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 501, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727440

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

12.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 349, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the metabolic and lipidomic changes that accompany bone loss in osteoporosis might provide insights about the mechanisms behind molecular changes and facilitate developing new drugs or nutritional strategies for osteoporosis prevention. This study aimed to examine the effects of short- or long-term glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis on plasma metabolites and lipids of ovariectomized (OVX) sheep. METHODS: Twenty-eight aged ewes were divided randomly into four groups: an OVX group, OVX in combination with glucocorticoids for two months (OVXG2), and OVX in combination with five doses of glucocorticoids (OVXG5) to induce bone loss, and a control group. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry untargeted metabolomic analysis was applied to monthly plasma samples to follow the progression of osteoporosis over five months. RESULTS: The metabolite profiles revealed significant differences in the plasma metabolome of OVX sheep and OVXG when compared with the control group by univariate analysis. Nine metabolites were altered, namely 5-methoxytryptophan, valine, methionine, tryptophan, glutaric acid, 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid, indole-3-carboxaldehyde, 5-hydroxylysine and malic acid. Similarly, fifteen lipids were perturbed from multiple lipid classes such as lysophoslipids, phospholipids and ceramides. CONCLUSION: This study showed that OVX and glucocorticoid interventions altered the metabolite and lipid profiles of sheep, suggesting that amino acid and lipid metabolisms are potentially the main perturbed metabolic pathways regulating bone loss in OVX sheep.

13.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1073, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547517

RESUMO

Understanding the metabolic dynamics of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is of growing importance as research continues to link the microbiome to host health status. Microbial strains that metabolize hydrogen have been associated with a variety of both positive and negative host nutritional and health outcomes, but limited data exists for their competition in the GIT. To enable greater insight into the behaviour of these microbes, a mathematical model was developed for the metabolism and growth of the three major hydrogenotrophic groups: sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methanogens and reductive acetogens. In batch culture simulations with abundant sulphate and hydrogen, the SRB outcompeted the methanogen for hydrogen due to having a half-saturation constant 106 times lower than that of the methanogen. The acetogen, with a high model threshold for hydrogen uptake of around 70 mM, was the least competitive. Under high lactate and zero sulphate conditions, hydrogen exchange between the SRB and the methanogen was the dominant interaction. The methanogen grew at 70% the rate of the SRB, with negligible acetogen growth. In continuous culture simulations, both the SRB and the methanogen were washed out at dilution rates above 0.15 h-1 regardless of substrate availability, whereas the acetogen could survive under abundant hydrogen conditions. Specific combinations of conditions were required for survival of more than one hydrogenotroph in continuous culture, and survival of all three was not possible. The stringency of these requirements and the inability of the model to simulate survival of all three hydrogenotrophs in continuous culture demonstrates that factors outside of those modelled are vital to allow hydrogenotroph coexistence in the GIT.

14.
Small ; 16(21): e2000486, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363770

RESUMO

Human exposure to persistent, nonbiological nanoparticles and microparticles via the oral route is continuous and large scale (1012 -1013 particles per day per adult in Europe). Whether this matters or not is unknown but confirmed health risks with airborne particle exposure warns against complacency. Murine models of oral exposure will help to identify risk but, to date, lack validation or relevance to humans. This work addresses that gap. It reports i) on a murine diet, modified with differing concentrations of the common dietary particle, food grade titanium dioxide (fgTiO2 ), an additive of polydisperse form that contains micro- and nano-particles, ii) that these diets deliver particles to basal cells of intestinal lymphoid follicles, exactly as is reported as a "normal occurrence" in humans, iii) that confocal reflectance microscopy is the method of analytical choice to determine this, and iv) that food intake, weight gain, and Peyer's patch immune cell profiles, up to 18 weeks of feeding, do not differ between fgTiO2 -fed groups or controls. These findings afford a human-relevant and validated oral dosing protocol for fgTiO2 risk assessment as well as provide a generalized platform for application to oral exposure studies with nano- and micro-particles.

15.
Adv Nutr ; 11(4): 890-907, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149335

RESUMO

There is emerging evidence that an unhealthy dietary pattern may increase the risk of developing depression or anxiety, whereas a healthy dietary pattern may decrease it. This nascent research suggests that dietary interventions could help prevent, or be an alternative or adjunct therapy for, depression and anxiety. The relation, however, is complex, affected by many confounding variables, and is also likely to be bidirectional, with dietary choices being affected by stress and depression. This complexity is reflected in the data, with sometimes conflicting results among studies. As the research evolves, all characteristics of the relation need to be considered to ensure that we obtain a full understanding, which can potentially be translated into clinical practice. A parallel and fast-growing body of research shows that the gut microbiota is linked with the brain in a bidirectional relation, commonly termed the microbiome-gut-brain axis. Preclinical evidence suggests that this axis plays a key role in the regulation of brain function and behavior. In this review we discuss possible reasons for the conflicting results in diet-mood research, and present examples of areas of the diet-mood relation in which the gut microbiota is likely to be involved, potentially explaining some of the conflicting results from diet and depression studies. We argue that because diet is one of the most significant factors that affects human gut microbiota structure and function, nutritional intervention studies need to consider the gut microbiota as an essential piece of the puzzle.

16.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 43(5): 885-894, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982985

RESUMO

The bacterial production of acetate via reductive acetogenesis along the Wood-Ljungdahl metabolic pathway is an important source of this molecule in several environments, ranging from industrial bioreactors to the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we contributed to the study of reductive acetogens by considering mathematical modelling techniques for the prediction of bacterial growth and acetate production. We found that the incorporation of a hydrogen uptake concentration threshold into the models improves their predictions and we calculated this threshold as 86.2 mM (95% confidence interval 6.1-132.6 mM). Monod kinetics and first-order kinetics models, with the inclusion of two candidate threshold terms or reversible Michaelis-Menten kinetics, were compared to experimental data and the optimal formulation for predicting both growth and metabolism was found. The models were then used to compare the efficacy of two growth media for acetogens. We found that the recently described general acetogen medium was superior to the DSMZ medium in terms of unbiased estimation of acetogen growth and investigated the contribution of yeast extract concentration to acetate production and bacterial growth in culture. The models and their predictions will be useful to those studying both industrially and environmentally relevant reductive acetogenesis and allow for straightforward adaptation to similar cases with different organisms.

17.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1012-1021, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891398

RESUMO

The food we consume and its interactions with the host and their gut microbiota affect normal gut function and health. Functional gut disorders (FGDs), including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), can result from negative effects of these interactions, leading to a reduced quality of life. Certain foods exacerbate or reduce the severity and prevalence of FGD symptoms. IBS can be used as a model of perturbation from normal gut function with which to study the impact of foods and diets on the severity and symptoms of FGDs and understand how critical processes and biochemical mechanisms contribute to this impact. Analyzing the complex interactions between food, host, and microbial metabolites gives insights into the pathways and processes occurring in the gut which contribute to FGDs. The following review is a critical discussion of the literature regarding metabolic pathways and dietary interventions relevant to FGDs. Many metabolites, for example bile acids, SCFAs, vitamins, amino acids, and neurotransmitters, can be altered by dietary intake, and could be valuable for identifying perturbations in metabolic pathways that distinguish a "normal, healthy" gut from a "dysfunctional, unhealthy" gut. Dietary interventions for reducing symptoms of FGDs are becoming more prevalent, but studies investigating the underlying mechanisms linked to host, microbiome, and metabolite interactions are less common. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the recent literature to assist with further progression of research in this field.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Estado Nutricional , Humanos
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(5): 2131-2143, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325042

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrients for growing infants. However, many circumstances can arise which preclude breast milk feeding, leading to the use of infant formula, including during the weaning period. Many diet-related effects are modulated by the gut microbiome. Therefore, we investigated the effect of human milk (HM) or infant formula (IF) on the gut microbiota in weanling rats. METHODS: The gut microbiota of weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats fed HM or IF for 28 days was analysed by shotgun metagenome sequencing. Caecal contents were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics. RESULTS: Numerous genera within the Proteobacteria phylum were relatively more abundant in the ileum, caecum, and colon of rats fed HM, including ileal Escherichia (HM = 9.6% ± 4.3 SEM; IF = 0.9% ± 0.3 SEM; P = 0.03). Other taxa that differed between HM- and IF-fed rats included Prevotella and Ruminococcus. Overall, more differences were observed in the ileum than the caecum and colon between rats fed HM and IF. For the rats fed IF, in the ileum, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium was higher (HM = 1.7% ± 0.7 SEM; IF = 5.0% ± 1.5 SEM; P = 0.04) with gene functions related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism also decreased. In the caecum, metabolic features such as bile acids were elevated while amino sugars were also decreased. CONCLUSION: Our results show that HM and IF composition differences are reflected in the gut microbiome composition and function in both the small and large intestines.

19.
Front Nutr ; 6: 180, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867339

RESUMO

High protein diets may improve the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass in the elderly, although it remains less clear what broader impact such diets have on whole body metabolic regulation in the elderly. Non-targeted polar metabolomics analysis using HILIC HPLC-MS was used to profile the circulating plasma metabolome of elderly men (n = 31; 74.7 ± 4.0 years) who were randomized to consume for 10 weeks a diet designed to achieve either protein (RDA; 0.8·g-1·kg-1) or that doubled this recommend intake (2RDA; 1.6.g.kg-1). A limited number of plasma metabolites (n = 24) were significantly differentially regulated by the diet. These included markers of protein anabolism, which increased by the 2RDA diet, including; urea, creatine, and glutarylcarnitine. Whilst in response to the RDA diet; glutamine, glutamic acid, and proline were increased, relative to the 2RDA diet (p < 0.05). Metaboanalyst identified six major metabolic pathways to be influenced by the quantity of protein intake, most notably the arginine and proline pathways. Doubling of the recommended protein intake in older males over 10 weeks exerted only a limited impact on circulating metabolites, as determined by LC-MS. This metabolomic response was almost entirely due to increased circulating abundances of metabolites potentially indicative of altered protein anabolism, without evidence of impact on pathways for metabolic health. Trial Registration: This trial was registered on 3rd March 2016 at the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) at ACTRN 12616000310460.

20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 10772-10778, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629525

RESUMO

Colostrum plays an important role in initiating the development of the intestinal barrier in newborn mammals. Given its bioactivity, there is much interest in the potential use of bovine colostrum to improve human gastrointestinal health throughout the life span. There is evidence that bovine colostrum is effective at improving small intestinal barrier integrity and some indication that it may alter colonic motility. However, for colostrum to be used as a product to improve intestinal health, it needs to be bioactive after processing. The aim of this study was to determine whether industrial processing of bovine colostrum affects its ability to improve small intestinal barrier integrity or alter distal colon motility. Three colostrum sample types were compared; raw whole colostrum powder (WCP), raw skim colostrum powder (SCP), and industrially produced colostrum milk protein concentrate (CMPC). To determine whether these colostrum powders had different effects on small intestinal barrier integrity, their effects on the transepithelial electrical resistance across an in vitro intestinal epithelial layer (Caco-2 cells) were measured, both with and without a challenge from the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α. These results showed that CMPC enhanced transepithelial electrical resistance across unchallenged epithelial cell layers, whereas the raw colostrum samples, WCP and SCP, did not have an effect. The colostrum samples were also compared to determine how they affect contractility in the distal colon isolated from the rat. Skim colostrum powder was the only sample to act directly on colonic tissue to modulate motility, increasing the amplitude of contractions. The results show that bovine colostrum is able to improve small intestinal barrier integrity and alter colon motility, and they implicate different components. The barrier integrity enhancement was apparent only in the industrial CMPC, which may have been due to the increase in protein concentration or the release of small peptides as a result of processing. The ability to alter colon motility was present in SCP but absent in WCP, again implying that an increase in protein concentration is responsible for the effect. However, this effect was not apparent for the industrially processed CMPC, suggesting denaturation or degradation of the active component. The beneficial effect of colostrum on small intestinal barrier integrity was present after processing, confirming that it is feasible to industrially produce an active product for gut health.


Assuntos
Colostro , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Leite/farmacologia , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Bovinos , Humanos , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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