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1.
Chemistry ; : e202103830, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936721

RESUMO

Selective detection of H2 S in the cellular systems using fluorescent CPs/MOFs is of great scientific interest due to their outstanding aqueous stability, biocompatibility and real-time detection ability. Fabrication of such materials using complete biologically essential elements and applying them as an efficient biosensor is still quite challenging. In this context, two newly synthesized CPs containing biologically essential metal ion (Zn) and nitro/azido functional groups into the framework to sense extracellular and intracellular H2 S by reducing into respective amines are presented. The CP-1 containing the azide group acted as an efficient fluorescent turn-on probe with the lowest detection limit (7.2 µM) and shortest response time (30 s) among the Zn-based probes reported till date. Moreover, CP-1 exhibited green luminescence in live cells after imaging a very low concentration of H2 S, whereas the nitro analogue CP-2 could not detect the target analyte due to its framework disruption.

2.
J Parasit Dis ; 45(4): 897-902, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789970

RESUMO

There is paucity of studies at community level on prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among under 18 years age group. This cross-sectional community-based research aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal worm infections and its associated risk factors among 1 to 18 years age group in Puducherry, India. Sociodemographic, behavioral and other associated factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. One stool sample was collected from each participant and examined using direct (saline/iodine wet mount) and concentration (floatation/sedimentation) microscopic techniques. Log binomial regression analysis was used to find the factors independently associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Of 187 participants who provided the stool sample, 25 (13.4%) had at least one of the parasitic infections and among them 12 (6.4%) had Soil Transmitted Helminth infection (STH) and 13 (6.9%) had intestinal protozoan parasites. Parasitic infection is marginally higher among 1 to 7 years age group (14.4%) compared to 8 to 18 years age group (12.1%). After adjusting for confounding, urban residence (APR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-8.0) and open-air defecation (APR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.5) were significantly associated with intestinal parasitic infections. One out of eight children had any of the parasitic infection and nearly 50% of parasitic infections were caused by STH. Those children residing in urban areas and practice of open-air defecation had higher prevalence of parasitic infection.

3.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(7): 2436-2440, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568117

RESUMO

Primary health care is a comprehensive care with a wide range of essential services for people living in the rural and hard-to-reach areas. However, the primary healthcare delivery system in India is still in its initial stages and lacks human resources. With the COVID-19 pandemic around the corner, there has been a diversion of resources for controlling corona pandemic leading to undermining availability and accessibility of health services. This article highlights a few case scenarios and the multidimensional impact of lockdown on primary healthcare services. The article suggests certain appropriate measures that can be implemented as the lockdown simply cannot stop the transmission with no definite treatment and vaccine. There should be a multipronged strategy for breaking the chain of transmission and for future preparedness in case of such situations and to strengthen our primary healthcare system.

4.
Biochemistry ; 60(37): 2749-2760, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491040

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is primarily expressed in the liver and in the central nervous system. It is known to be highly polymorphic in nature. It metabolizes several endogenous substrates such as anandamide (AEA). Concomitantly, it is involved in phase 1 metabolism of several antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other drugs. Research in the field of phytocannabinoids (pCBs) has recently accelerated owing to their legalization and increasing medicinal use for pain and inflammation. The primary component of cannabis is THC, which is well-known for its psychotropic effects. Since CYP2D6 is an important brain and liver P450 and is known to be inhibited by CBD, we investigated the interactions of four important highly prevalent CYP2D6 polymorphisms with selected phytocannabinoids (CBD, THC, CBDV, THCV, CBN, CBG, CBC, ß-carophyllene) that are rapidly gaining popularity. We show that there is differential binding of CYP2D6*17 to pCBs as compared to WT CYP2D6. We also perform a more detailed comparison of WT and *17 CYP2D6, which reveals the possible regulation of AEA metabolism by CBD. Furthermore, we use molecular dynamics to delineate the mechanism of this binding, inhibition, and regulation. Taken together, we have found that the interactions of CYP2D6 with pCBs vary by polymorphism and by specific pCB class.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/metabolismo , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Canabidiol/metabolismo , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Canabinol/metabolismo , Canabinol/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Cannabis/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/metabolismo , Dronabinol/metabolismo , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Exp Cell Res ; 406(2): 112760, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339674

RESUMO

The activity of the most complex system, the central nervous system (CNS) is profoundly regulated by a huge number of membrane-associated proteins (MAP). A minor change stimulates immense chemical changes and the elicited response is organized by MAP, which acts as a receptor of that chemical or channel enabling the flow of ions. Slight changes in the activity or expression of these MAPs lead to severe consequences such as cognitive disorders, memory loss, or cancer. CNS tumors are heterogeneous in nature and hard-to-treat due to random mutations in MAPs; like as overexpression of EGFRvIII/TGFßR/VEGFR, change in adhesion molecules α5ß3 integrin/SEMA3A, imbalance in ion channel proteins, etc. Extensive research is under process for developing new therapeutic approaches using these proteins such as targeted cytotoxic radiotherapy, drug-delivery, and prodrug activation, blocking of receptors like GluA1, developing viral vector against cell surface receptor. The combinatorial approach of these strategies along with the conventional one might be more potential. Henceforth, our review focuses on in-depth analysis regarding MAPs aiming for a better understanding for developing an efficient therapeutic approach for targeting CNS tumors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Animais , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Humanos
6.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(4): 1515-1519, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123884

RESUMO

The concept of Herd immunity is a key factor for epidemic control. According to it only a proportion of entire population needs to be immune either via natural infection or vaccination. The idea of herd immunity via natural infection rather than vaccination is a bit controversial, as it is not clear how long will the antibodies last, and whether re-infection or re-activation of the virus can occur after the antibodies starts weaning from the body. It has been suggested that coronavirus will likely become similar to a seasonal flu once the herd immunity is attained. Till then, it will continue causing outbreaks year-round and there could be multiple waves of virus transmission before achieving herd immunity. Therefore, the public needs to learn to live with it, and continue practising the best prevention measures, including wearing of masks, physical distancing, hand hygiene, and avoidance of gathering.

7.
Cytopathology ; 32(5): 695-699, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165844

RESUMO

Cytodiagnosis of metastatic neuroblastoma presenting as subcutaneous swellings.

8.
ACS Omega ; 6(18): 11878-11896, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056342

RESUMO

The photophysics of 4-azidocoumarin (4-AC), a novel fluorescent coumarin derivative, is well established by the investigation of the alteration of the microheterogeneous environment comprising two types of systems: supramolecular systems, cyclodextrins (CDs), and biomolecular systems, serum albumins (SAs). The enhanced emission of the ligand with the organized assemblies like α-CD, ß-CD, and γ-CD by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy at 298 K is compared with those of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA). The remarkable enhancement of the emission of ligand 4-AC along with the blue shift of the emission for both the systems are visualized as the incorporation of 4-AC into the hydrophobic core of the CDs and proteins mainly due to reduction of nonradiative decay process in the hydrophobic interior of CDs and SAs. The binding constants at 298 K and the single binding site are estimated using enhanced emission and anisotropy of the bound ligand in both the systems. The marked enhancement of the fluorescence anisotropy indicates that the ligand molecule experiences a motionally constrained environment within the CDs and SAs. Rotational correlation time (θc) of the bound ligand 4-AC is calculated in both the categories of the confined environment using time-resolved anisotropy at 298 K. Molecular docking studies for both the variety of complexes of the ligand throw light to assess the location of the ligand and the microenvironment around the ligand in the ligand-CD and ligand-protein complexes. Solvent variation study of the probe 4-AC molecule in different polar protic and aprotic solvents clearly demonstrates the polarity and hydrogen-bonding ability of the solvents, which supports the alteration of the microenvironments around 4-AC due to binding with the biomimicking as well as biomolecular systems. Dynamic light scattering is employed to determine the hydrodynamic diameter of free BSA/HSA and complexes of BSA/HSA with the ligand 4-AC.

9.
Indian J Dermatol ; 66(1): 12-23, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911289

RESUMO

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a cutaneous sequel of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar and has become an entity of epidemiological significance by virtue of its ability to maintain the disease in circulation during inter-epidemic periods. PKDL has been identified as one of the epidemiological marker of "kala-azar elimination programme." Data obtained in 2018 showed PKDL distribution primarily concentrated in 6 countries, which includes India, Sudan, south Sudan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Nepal in decreasing order of case-burden. In India, PKDL cases are mainly found in 54 districts, of which 33 are in Bihar, 11 in West Bengal, 4 in Jharkhand, and 6 in Uttar Pradesh. In West Bengal the districts reporting cases of PKDL cases include Darjeeling, Uttar Dinajpur, Dakshin Dinajpur, Malda, and Murshidabad. The vulnerability on the young age is documented in various studies. The studies also highlights a male predominance of the disease but recent active surveillance suggested that macular form of PKDL shows female-predominance. It is recommended that along with passive case detection, active survey helps in early identification of cases, thus reducing disease transmission in the community. The Accelerated plan for Kala-azar elimination in 2017 introduced by Government of India with the goal to eliminate Kala-azar as a public health problem, targets to reduceing annual incidence <1/10,000. Leishmania donovani is the established causative agent, but others like L. tropica or L. infantum may occasionally lead to the disease, especially with HIV-co-infection. Dermal tropism of the parasite has been attributed to overexpression of parasite surface receptors (like gp 63, gp46). Various host factors are also identified to contribute to the development of the disease, including high pretreatment IL 10 and parasite level, inadequate dose and duration of treatment, malnutrition, immuno-suppression, decreased interferon-gamma receptor 1 gene, etc. PKDL is mostly concentrated in the plains below an altitude of 600 mts which is attributed to the environment conducive for the vector sand fly (Phlebotumus). Risk factors are also linked to the habitat of the sand fly. Keeping these things in mind "Integrated vector control" is adopted under National vector borne disease control programme as one of the strategies to bring down the disease burden.

10.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 592: 167-173, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662822

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that the reported evolution (growth) of composite water marbles filled with saline water and coated with lycopodium dispersed in a thin layer of silicone oil is due to the osmotic mass transfer. The hypothesis is supported by the semi-empirical model of osmotic growth of small liquid marbles floating on distilled water. EXPERIMENTS: Saline composite, silicone oil-coated marbles floating on distilled water grew with time; whereas, composite marbles filled with distilled water floating on aqueous solutions of NaCl lost mass with time and shrunk. However, composite liquid marbles filled with saline water and floating on aqueous solutions of NaCl remained stable during 25 h of the laboratory experiment. FINDINGS: The reported findings are reasonably attributed to osmotic mass transport through the thin silicon layer filled with lycopodium particles coating the marbles, acting as an osmotic membrane. This is supported by the suggested model for the osmotic growth of marbles.

12.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 55: 102510, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370702

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression is more common among older adults, but there is a paucity of information about its association with spiritual intelligence. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and association of depressive symptoms with spiritual intelligence among older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This community-based cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 292 older adults in a rural area of Puducherry, India. A structured questionnaire was used to collect each participant's socio-demographic and behavioral factors; the presence of depressive symptoms was assessed by using Geriatric Depression Scale (short form), spiritual intelligence by the Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory-24 questionnaire and activities of daily living by Katz Index of Independence scale. Proportion for prevalence estimate, bivariate and multivariable log binomial regression analysis were done. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 64.1 % (187/292; 95 % CI 58.3-69.3). Of total, 103 (35.3 %) had low, 92 (31.55 %) had moderate and 97 (33.2 %) had high spiritual intelligence. About 11 % (32/292) were partially or fully dependent. Depressive symptoms showed a significant association with marital status, education, sleep pattern, relationship with family members and spiritual intelligence in bivariate analysis. Depressive symptoms were high among those with low spiritual intelligence and disturbed sleep pattern with Adjusted Prevalence Ratio of 1.33 (95 %CI 1.26-1.4) and 1.06 (95 %CI 1.0-1.14) respectively. CONCLUSION: Majority of the older adults had depressive symptoms and significantly more among those with low spiritual intelligence and disturbed sleep. This study gives new evidence on spiritual intelligence among older adults in a community setting and the magnitude of association of depressive symptoms with spiritual intelligence.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Depressão , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Inteligência , Prevalência
13.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 43(6): e770-e773, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening, aggressive syndrome. It can be primary, which involves genetic mutation with an early presentation, or secondary to infections, malignancies, etc., due to absence of immune downregulation. It is a very rare condition in newborns. Dengue is a potential virus causing HLH, but, in newborns, there are only few case reports and limited clinical literature. OBSERVATION: Herein, in this report, we highlight a case of neonatal HLH, triggered by perinatal dengue. The neonate manifested clinically within the first week of life, the earliest reported timeline so far in the literature. CONCLUSION: HLH should be excluded in neonates especially when multisystem involvement cannot be explained by sepsis alone.


Assuntos
Dengue/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/terapia , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Gerenciamento Clínico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Masculino
14.
Org Lett ; 22(24): 9653-9657, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300790

RESUMO

A Ca(OTf)2- and self-promoted ynone-amidine atom-economic formal [4 + 2]-cycloaddition of various ynones with amidines is reported for the construction of highly functionalized tricyclic azepines. High reaction rate, ease of operation, and high product selectivity with wide substrate scope are the key advantages of the present annulation protocol.

15.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol ; : 1-5, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095087

RESUMO

Background: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm with unknown etiology and recurrent potential. They are widely reported in children and young adults. Nearly 50% of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor harbor rearrangement in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene with the majority expressing ALK protein. ALK-negative IMTs harbor alteration in ROS1 gene in a subset of cases. Few reports have shown association of IMT with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Case report: We report a case of IMT of the spleen in an 18-month-old infant presenting with abdominal distention and failure to thrive. Workup for ALK-1, ROS1, and EBV small-encoded RNA in-situ hybridization using immunohistochemistry was negative. Conclusions: IMT can arise in an infant spleen.

16.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 195: 111265, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739770

RESUMO

Interfacial properties of the animal retinas are reported. Wetting of the retina-retinal pigment epithelium-choroid-sclera tissues of cow, sheep, and pig eyes by water, silicone and castor oil was explored experimentally. Both water and silicone oils demonstrated complete wetting of the retina, regardless of the viscosity of the silicone oil, whereas the castor oil demonstrated a partial wetting regime. Similar wetting regimes were observed for sheep, cow and pig retinas. The intact surface of animal retina was found to be both hydrophilic and oleophilic. Wetting experiments with double sandwich oil/water layers were performed. Water demonstrated stronger affinity to the retina than silicone and castor oils, and eventually replaced the oils at the liquid/retina interface. We conclude that aqueous solutions continuously secreted in the living eye may displace silicone oil from the retinal surface and contribute to retinal re-detachment. Study of dynamics of wetting of the animal retina by water and organic oils is reported. The exponent describing the dynamics of spreading of the castor oil is lower than that predicted by the Tanner law. Castor oil may provide more effective tamponade than silicone oil.


Assuntos
Oftalmologia , Descolamento Retiniano , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Retina , Descolamento Retiniano/cirurgia , Ovinos , Óleos de Silicone , Suínos , Vitrectomia
17.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(4): 1801-1804, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670921

RESUMO

Urgent care practice (UCP) is a novel concept for India. Urgent care primarily deals with injuries or illnesses requiring immediate care. Medical emergency and urgency can happen anywhere unannounced. Research has shown that 90% of the morbidities can be resolved within the community by primary care physicians lead teams. Given the changing professional demands, non-specialists tend to refer away far too many cases to specialists, undermining generalist medical care, particularly in Indian settings. The spillover of the patient load from the primary care setting to the tertiary care centers is enormous leading to resource mismatch. Family physicians and other primary care providers are best positioned to develop practices and provide good quality urgent care to society. Family physicians, general practitioners, and medical officers are already functioning as the frontline care providers for any emergency or medical urgency arising within communities. Urgent care is essentially ambulatory care or outpatient care outside of a traditional hospital emergency room. "UCP aims to provide timely support, which is easily accessible with a focus on good clinical outcomes, e.g. survival, recovery, lack of adverse events, and complications. Core interventions of urgent care are centered on the 4Rs - Rescue, Resuscitate, Relate, and Refer. At present, there are no available, established training model for future faculty, residents, and medical students on "UCP" in India.

18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(11): 4279-4285, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396360

RESUMO

A model macroscopic system imitating the entry of viruses into living cells is suggested. The system represents the contact of a composite (core-shell) liquid marble with hydrophobic/hydrophilic particles. Composite liquid marbles are water droplets coated with silicone oil armored with nanometer-sized hydrophobic particles serving as an interfacial model of a living cell. Composite marbles absorbed hydrophilic polymer particles but prevented hydrophobic particles from entering their core. Swallowing of hydrophilic particles by composite marbles resembles the penetration of viruses into living cells. The interfacial mechanism of absorption is suggested.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Polímeros/química , Óleos de Silicone/química , Água/química
19.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 575: 35-41, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361045

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Liquid marbles are non-stick droplets coated with colloidal usually hydrophobic particles. We suggest that "composite" liquid marbles, i.e. bi-liquid droplets, may be prepared with water droplets coated by a thin silicone oil layer containing hydrophobic, colloidal particles. EXPERIMENTS: The process enabling manufacturing water marbles coated with silicone oil containing fumed fluorosilica particles is reported. The marbles remained stable when placed on solid and liquid supports. Bouncing and coalescence of the composite marbles was explored. FINDINGS: Non-coalescence prolonged (ca. 20 min) jumping of composite marbles above a vibrating water bath was observed. Composite marbles withstand coalescence better than colloidal particle-stabilized liquid marbles. The effective surface tension of the composite marbles is markedly lower than that of water marbles coated with fumed fluorosilica particles. The coefficient of restitution of the composite marbles bouncing on a hydrophobic solid substrate is lower than that established for water marbles. This observation is related to the viscous dissipation occurring within the silicone layer making up the composite marbles.

20.
Org Lett ; 22(8): 2897-2901, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223251

RESUMO

Bioactive compounds featuring an unusual core of spiro[5.5]undecenes and calliviminones were synthesized in very good yield with good regio- and diastereoselectivities through a one-pot Knoevenagel and [4 + 2] cycloaddition from the readily available aldehydes, cyclic-1,3-diones, dienes, and a catalytic amount of (s)-proline.

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