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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(3): 106106, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonagenarians have been underrepresented in stroke trials that established endovascular treatment as the standard for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Evidence remains inconclusive regarding the efficacy of thrombectomy in this population. OBJECTIVES: To report our experience with thrombectomy in nonagenarians with stroke, and to identify predictors of mortality. We further investigated the effects of first-pass reperfusion and the addition of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) on achieving better outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected for consecutively treated patients at three affiliated comprehensive stroke centers from 2010 to 2021. We included patients ≥90 years-old with AIS secondary to large vessel occlusion. Bivariate analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, and χ2 and Fisher's exact tests, respectively, for nominal and ordinal variables. RESULTS: Thirty-two nonagenarians underwent thrombectomy, of whom 25 (81%) had prestroke mRS ≤2. Thrombectomies were performed using stents (2, 6.7%), aspiration (8, 26.7%), or a combination of both (20, 66.7%). Successful recanalization was achieved in 97%. Procedural complications occurred in 2 (6.3%) and intracranial hemorrhage in 3 (9.4%). Sixteen patients (50%) were discharged home or to rehabilitation, 9 (28.2%) to nursing home or hospice, and 7 (21.9%) died during hospitalization. Only 2 (6%) patients had mRS ≤2 at discharge. No independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were identified, and neither first-pass reperfusion nor the addition of IVT correlated with improvement in clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Although thrombectomy is safe for nonagenarian stroke and can achieve excellent recanalization, high mortality and poor functional status remain high given the advanced age and frailty of this population.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Trombólise Mecânica , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Trombólise Mecânica/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 131(5): 555-561, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192882

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The presence of an aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is rare. Patients may be asymptomatic or complain of conductive hearing loss, otalgia, pulsatile tinnitus, or aural fullness. Otoscopic exam findings can include a pulsating erythematous lesion on the tympanic membrane (TM). It may be misdiagnosed as a glomus tumor, hemangioma, or serous otitis media, or go unrecognized until surgical exploration. Early recognition is important as intraoperative discovery carries risk of iatrogenic injury, hemorrhage and subsequent neurologic sequelae. Prevention requires adequate preoperative suspicion and can be confirmed with radiologic examination via computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Management of iatrogenic injury of an aberrant ICA can include packing, vessel embolization and/or surgical ligation. PATIENT CASE: We report the case of an aberrant ICA injury in a pediatric patient undergoing a myringotomy with tube placement, who sustained neurologic deficits that eventually resolved following treatment with packing and coil embolization. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: An aberrant ICA can cause life-threatening complications without prior diagnosis in a routine myringotomy. Suspicious exam findings should prompt temporal bone CT to rule out aberrant ICA or other vascular pathology of the middle ear prior to surgery. In the case of iatrogenic injury of an aberrant ICA, there is no consensus in existing literature on optimal management. We reviewed 37 studies to compare therapeutic options and subsequent outcomes. Though complications are rare regardless of management, cases in which solely packing was utilized demonstrated an increased incidence of hemiparesis, aphasia, hearing loss, re-bleeding, and delayed pseudoaneurysm, as compared to an approach coupling packing with embolization or ligation, both of which have comparable outcomes.


Assuntos
Tumor Glômico , Lacerações , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Interna/cirurgia , Criança , Orelha Média/cirurgia , Hemorragia , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica
3.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 210: 107008, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775364

RESUMO

Terson's Syndrome describes intraocular hemorrhage secondary to an acutely raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Although Terson's Syndrome is common amongst patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), it is underdiagnosed and often overlooked. This review discusses the current understanding of the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and management of Terson's Syndrome and highlights the visual and prognostic implications to stress the importance of timely diagnosis and management. The origin of intraocular hemorrhage in Terson's Syndrome has been debated. A recognized theory suggests that an acutely raised ICP induces effusion of cerebrospinal fluid into the optic nerve sheath which dilates the retrobulbar aspect of the sheath in the orbit. Dilatation mechanically compresses the central retinal vein and retinochoroidal veins resulting in venous hypertension and rupture of thin retinal vessels. A commonly reported clinical feature is decreased visual acuity and blurred vision. These may be accompanied by symptoms of increased ICP including loss of consciousness and headache. Diagnosis is established using evidence from the clinical presentation, ophthalmoscopy, and, when required, imaging including B-mode ultrasound, CT, MRI, and fluorescein angiography. Terson's Syndrome is managed conservatively by observation for mild cases and with vitrectomy for bilateral cases and for patients whose hemorrhage has not spontaneously resolved after an observational period. Terson's Syndrome can be used as a prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in underlying pathology like SAH. Fundoscopy of patients with SAH, acutely raised ICP or visual disturbance with unknown etiology can help establish a timely Terson's Syndrome diagnosis. This may avoid the risk of permanent visual impairment.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Pressão Intracraniana/fisiologia , Hemorragia Vítrea/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Vítrea/terapia , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Oftalmoscopia , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Visão/terapia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Hemorragia Vítrea/fisiopatologia
5.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; 56(6): 584-590, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614493

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric vein of Galen malformations (VOGMs) are fistulous intracranial malformations arising congenitally within the choroidal fissure that can present with an array of neurological and cardiac sequelae. Associated venous stenosis may result in intracranial venous hypertension and ischemia leading to severe, irreversible cerebral injury. Management of neonatal VOGMs typically involves staged embolization and angioplasty/stenting for relief of venous stenosis. Rarely, jugular foraminal narrowing has been identified as causing jugular bulb stenosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 22-month-old female diagnosed with VOGM prenatally who displayed persistent intracranial venous hypertension despite multiple neuroembolization procedures during the neonatal period. Following initial reduction in arteriovenous shunting, she once again developed venous hypertension secondary to jugular bulb stenosis for which angioplasty was attempted. Failure of angioplasty to relieve the venous hypertension prompted skull base imaging, which revealed jugular foraminal ossification and stenosis. Microsurgical jugular foraminotomy followed by balloon angioplasty and stenting significantly reduced jugular pressure gradients. Restenosis requiring re-stenting developed postoperatively at 9 months, but the patient has remained stable with significant improvement in cortical venous congestion. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the efficacy of microsurgical decompression of the jugular foramen and endovascular angioplasty/stenting as a novel treatment paradigm for the management of intracranial venous hypertension in the setting of VOGM.


Assuntos
Veias Cerebrais , Embolização Terapêutica , Hipertensão Intracraniana , Malformações da Veia de Galeno , Criança , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malformações da Veia de Galeno/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações da Veia de Galeno/cirurgia
7.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 15910199211039924, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital aortic arch anomalies are commonly encountered during neurointerventional procedures. While some anomalies are identified at an early age, many are incidentally discovered later in adulthood during endovascular evaluations or interventions. Proper understanding of the normal arch anatomy and its variants is pivotal to safely navigate normal aortic arch branches and to negotiate the catheter through anomalies during neurointerventional procedures. This is particularly relevant in the increasingly "transradial first" culture of neurointerventional surgery. Moreover, some of these anomalies have a peculiar predilection for complications including aneurysm formation, dissection, and rupture during the procedure. Therefore, an understanding of these anomalies, their underlying embryological basis and associations, and pattern of circulation will help endovascular neurosurgeons and interventional radiologists navigate with confidence and consider relevant pathologic associations that may inform risk of cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Here, we present a brief review of the basic embryology of the common anomalies of the aortic arch along with their neurological significances and discuss, through illustrative cases, the association of aortic arch anomalies with cerebral vascular pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the aortic arch anomalies and its embryological basis is essential to safely navigate the cerebral vascular system during neurointerventional surgeries.

8.
Clin Imaging ; 79: 289-295, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198113

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Claustrophobia remains a challenging barrier for a significant number of patients to successfully complete a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examination. While use of wide-bore machines and pre-exam administration of a low-dose benzodiazepine are commonly employed, there is little published research to determine which modality is the most efficacious based on the patient's specific degree of claustrophobia. This retrospective case-control study examines the efficacy of using a low-dose oral benzodiazepine and wide-bore magnet to successfully aid the claustrophobic patient in completing an MRI Brain examination. METHODS: 3966 non-contrast MRI brain examinations were considered for this study. The sample was filtered to include only patients who were older than 18 years of age, not currently experiencing symptoms which may hinder MRI examination, and did not undergo any additional MR studies at the time of their exam, resulting in a final sample of 2358 examinations for analysis. Patients were then sub-divided based on severity of claustrophobia and analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Use of wide-bore magnet increased odds of successfully completing the MRI Brain examination in mild, moderately, and severely claustrophobic patients (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.17-2.75). The administration of pre-examination low-dose oral benzodiazepine increased odds of successfully completing the MRI Brain examination in severely claustrophobic patients (OR: 6.21, 95% CI: 1.63-19.28). CONCLUSION: Use of a wide-bore magnet is effective in assisting mild, moderately, and severely claustrophobic patients in completing an MRI Brain exam. However, the efficacy of low-dose oral benzodiazepine is limited to severely claustrophobic patients.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas , Imãs , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 202: 106539, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The management of traumatic pseudoaneurysm (PA) with concomitant arteriovenous fistula (AVF) arising from the thyrocervical trunk is challenging and rarely reported. Here, the usefulness of a multi-modal endovascular strategy for management of traumatic PA and AVF arising from the thyrocervical trunk is presented. A literature review describing unique clinical features and management strategies of traumatic vascular lesions of the thyrocervical trunk is included. METHODS: A 58-year-old man presented with two PAs arising from the ascending cervical artery (AsCA) and a robust AVF between the AsCA and the left vertebral venous plexus which arose acutely after a stabbing incident. These lesions were managed with endovascular vessel sacrifice via coiling and controlled Onyx injection. Relevant literature was identified via a targeted search of the PubMed database. RESULTS: Post-management angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the two traumatic PAs and successful disconnection of the concomitant AVF. Our literature review demonstrates a shift in preferred management approach from invasive surgery to endovascular treatment due to the lower risk and cosmetic preferability. CONCLUSION: Timely treatment of enlarging PA is necessary for reducing associated morbidity and mortality. While surgical resection has been the mainstay therapy, endovascular management has gained popularity in recent years. The choice of endovascular technique is variable and should be individualized based on patient's clinical status, associated risk factors, and lesion morphology. We have shown that parent vessel sacrifice is safe and effective. Reconstruction with a combination of stents, coils, glue, or liquid embolics may be necessary when collateral flow is limited.


Assuntos
Falso Aneurisma/terapia , Fístula Arteriovenosa/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Lesões do Pescoço/terapia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/terapia , Ferimentos Perfurantes/terapia , Falso Aneurisma/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Digital , Fístula Arteriovenosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Terapia Combinada , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões do Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Subclávia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Laryngoscope ; 131(3): E882-E884, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770806

RESUMO

We present a rare iatrogenic cholesteatoma of the neck in a ten year old male four years after tympanomastoidectomy, an entity that to our knowledge has not been published in the literature for over 30 years. Furthermore, we discuss the diagnostic uncertainty of typical magnetic resonance imaging protocols for pediatric neck lesions and the improved diagnostic specificity of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. En bloc surgical extirpation was performed. Laryngoscope, 131:E882-E884, 2021.


Assuntos
Colesteatoma/diagnóstico , Colesteatoma/etiologia , Mastoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Pescoço , Timpanoplastia/efeitos adversos , Criança , Colesteatoma/cirurgia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Masculino
11.
Surg Neurol Int ; 11: 203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital aberrant connections between afferent arteries and draining veins with no intervening capillary bed or neural parenchyma. Other than seizures, the most common initial presentation of AVM is hemorrhage, which is typically intraparenchymal, subarachnoid, or intraventricular, and very rarely subdural. CASE DESCRIPTION: This patient is a 66-year-old male with a history of atrial fibrillation, chronically anticoagulated with apixaban, who presented through emergency services after a fall. On presentation, computed tomography (CT) of the head showed a small, 6 mm right subdural hematoma, and the patient was neurologically intact. The hematoma was evacuated by burr hole craniotomy and placement of a subdural drain 12 days after the initial presentation due to worsening headaches and further hematoma expansion. Two weeks postevacuation, the patient was readmitted for seizures, and at this time, CT angiography showed no intracranial vascular lesion. Approximately 1 month later, the patient was readmitted for decreased responsiveness, and CT head at this time found right frontal intraparenchymal hemorrhage. On subsequent catheter angiography, the right frontal AVM was discovered. It was treated with preoperative embolization followed by surgical resection. Postoperatively, the patient followed commands and tracked with his eyes. There was spontaneous antigravity movement of the right upper extremity, but still no movement of the left upper or bilateral lower extremities. CONCLUSION: This case emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for underlying vascular lesions when evaluating intracranial bleeding, even in the setting of traumatic history, particularly in cases of hematoma expansion.

12.
World Neurosurg ; 144: 184, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827746

RESUMO

Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulas have an increased risk of rupture and hemorrhage, and therefore require urgent treatment to occlude the fistula and proximal venous drainage. This is usually accomplished via endovascular treatment. We present a case of a Cognard grade IV dural arteriovenous fistula that presented as trigeminal neuralgia. This video showcases the angiographic vascular composition of the lesion with main feeders coming from the middle meningeal artery and the tentorial artery of Bernasconi and Cassinari. Details, benefits, and risks of the procedure were thoroughly discussed with the patient and consent was obtained prior to the procedure. We performed endovascular Onyx embolization through a distal branch of the right middle meningeal artery. We were able to successfully occlude the lesion using Onyx embolization and the patient had significant improvement of her pretreatment trigeminal neuralgia.


Assuntos
Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/cirurgia , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Humanos , Artérias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Polivinil , Resultado do Tratamento , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/etiologia
13.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 19(3): 241-248, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) can be challenging. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical presentation, endovascular treatment techniques, and prognostic outcome of patients diagnosed with intracranial VAD at our institution. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 35 patients who were diagnosed with VAD at our institution over 17-yr period (2001-2017) is presented. A total of 27 patients with a total of 30 affected arteries underwent endovascular treatment, and their outcome was evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 35 total patients with VAD, 15 presented with headache, 12 with focal neurological deficits, 2 with neck pain, 2 with dizziness, 1 with syncope, and 3 after trauma. Of the 30 dissected arteries, 18 were treated with deconstruction and 12 were treated with stent reconstruction. Treatment method was determined by the dominance of the affected artery and location relative to the ipsilateral posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and the basilar artery. Deconstructive techniques were utilized in all cases of hypoplastic artery dissection and the majority of codominant artery dissections, whereas reconstruction was performed on the majority of dominant artery dissections. Rupture did not impact treatment technique. Four patients demonstrated post-treatment infarcts, and another 1 patient died because of intraparenchymal bleed. The remaining 22 patients demonstrated favorable clinical outcome. None of the patients developed recanalization or needed retreatment till the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that endovascular treatment of intracranial VAD with deconstruction or stent reconstruction based on the patients anatomy, particularly vessel dominance and location with respect to PICA, is feasible and effective though the revascularization procedures still has its role in selected cases.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral , Artéria Basilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Basilar/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/cirurgia
14.
Interv Neurol ; 8(2-6): 164-171, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508898

RESUMO

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare, ill-understood disease of significant morbidity. Because the pathophysiology is poorly understood, treatment protocols are not uniform and are directed towards alleviating the most common symptoms: headache and visual loss. In this review, we analyze 25 case series, all of which included IIH patients (n = 408) who were treated with placement of a venous sinus stent. Among 342 patients who had headache, 240 patients (70.2%) had improvement or resolution of headache after the stent insertion. Of the 217 patients documented to have visual problems, visual acuity was improved or stabilized in 161 patients (74.2%). Of the 304 patients with papilledema, 257 showed resolution or improved (84.5%). Of the 124 patients who presented with pulsatile tinnitus, it was resolved in 110 patients (88.7%) after stent placement. Endovascular management of dural sinus stenosis is therefore clinically efficacious in patients with IIH who have failed medical and surgical therapy.

15.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 194: 105798, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222653

RESUMO

When an incapacitated Jehovah's Witness neurologically deteriorates and requires immediate craniectomy, institutional protocols may delay surgery if the patient's refusal of blood products is ambiguous. We are among the first to describe such an ethically contentious case in emergency neurosurgery, review the morbidity of operative delays, discuss medicolegal concerns raised, and provide a detailed guide to hemostasis in patients who refuse blood products. We discuss the case of a 46-year-old woman presented with nausea, vomiting, and right-sided weakness, progressing to stupor over several hours. When an initial Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed a large, left-sided intraparenchymal hematoma with significant midline shift, she was booked for an emergency hemicraniectomy. According to the family, she was a Jehovah's Witness and would have refused blood consent, but was without the proper documentation. Despite her worsening neurological status, an indeterminate blood consent delayed surgery for more than two hours. Her neurological exam did not improve postoperatively, and she later expired. The ethical, legal, and operative concerns that arise in the emergency neurosurgical treatment of Jehovah's Witness patients pose unique management challenges. Since operative delay is a preventable cause of mortality in patients requiring urgent craniectomy, and the likelihood of requiring a transfusion from hemorrhage is minimal, an ambiguous blood consent should not postpone a potentially life-saving treatment. For the beneficence and autonomy of Jehovah's Witness patients, institutional policies should respect the family's wishes in order to expedite surgical decompression. In addition to discussing the nuances of such ethical considerations, we also provide a detailed list of commonly used, topical and parenteral hemostatic agents from the neurosurgical operating room which, depending on whether they are blood-derived, either should or should not be used when treating a Jehovah's Witness.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/ética , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/ética , Testemunhas de Jeová , Neurocirurgia/ética , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/ética , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Descompressão Cirúrgica/ética , Feminino , Hemostasia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Neurosurg Open ; 1(3): okaa008, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preliminary data suggest that Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulability and neurovascular events, but data on outcomes is limited. OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical course and outcomes of a case series of COVID-19 patients with a variety of cerebrovascular events. METHODS: We performed a multicentric, retrospective chart review at our three academic tertiary care hospitals, and identified all COVID-19 patients with cerebrovascular events requiring neuro-intensive care and/or neurosurgical consultation. RESULTS: We identified 26 patients between March 1 and May 24, 2020, of whom 12 (46%) died. The most common event was a large-vessel occlusion (LVO) in 15 patients (58%), among whom 8 died (8/15, 53%). A total of 9 LVO patients underwent mechanical thrombectomy, of whom 5 died (5/9, 56%). A total of 7 patients (27%) presented with intracranial hemorrhage. Of the remaining patients, 2 had small-vessel occlusions, 1 had cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and another had a vertebral artery dissection. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome occurred in 8 patients, of whom 7 died. Mortalities had a higher D-dimer on admission (mean 20 963 ng/mL) than survivors (mean 3172 ng/mL). Admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was poor among mortalities (median 7), whereas survivors had a favorable GCS at presentation (median 14) and at discharge (median 14). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 may be associated with hemorrhage as well as ischemia, and prognosis appears poorer than expected-particularly among LVO cases, where outcome remained poor despite mechanical thrombectomy. However, a favorable neurological condition on admission and lower D-dimer may indicate a better outcome.

17.
J Oncol ; 2019: 5247837, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110519

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to determine if sequential interventional therapy can become a mainstay option in providing palliation from fastidious osseous neoplasms in patients with pain refractory to oral analgesia and radiotherapy. This retrospective monocentric study was approved by our institutional review board. Between July 2012 and August 2014, we reviewed 15 patients (6 women, 9 men; age range of 36-81 years) who underwent embolization followed by cryoablation, with or without osteoplasty. Patient demographics and tumor characteristics, including primary histology and the location of metastasis, were included in our review. Pain intensity at baseline, after radiotherapy, and after sequential interventional therapy was reviewed using the hospital electronic medical record. The use of oral analgesia and procedural complications was also noted. Data was then assessed for normality and a two-tailed Student's t-test was performed on mean pain scores for difference phases of treatment. While radiotherapy offers pain relief with a mean pain score of 7.25 ±1.5 (p =<.0001), sequential interventional therapy results in better comfort as demonstrated by a mean pain score of 3.9 ± 2.6 (p=.0015). Moreover, all patients who reported oral analgesic use at presentation reported a decrease in their requirement after sequential interventional therapy. Embolization and cryoablation were performed in all patients, while osteoplasty was indicated in 6 cases. There was no difference in postprocedural pain intensity between patients who required osteoplasty and patients who did not (p = 0.7514). There were no complications observed during treatment. This retrospective study shows that sequential intervention with transarterial embolization, cryoablation, and osteoplasty is both safe and efficacious for bone pain refractory to the current standard of care. We demonstrated that this combination therapy has the potential to become an effective mainstay treatment paradigm in the palliative care of osseous neoplasm to improve quality of life.

18.
World Neurosurg ; 125: 392-397, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutis verticis gyrata (CVG) is a rare condition of the scalp in which thickening of the dermis induces rigid folds and furrows resembling the cerebral cortex. Two forms of primary CVG exist: essential, in which CVG is the only presenting problem, and nonessential, in which the scalp condition occurs along with neuropsychiatric ailments. CVG can also occur secondary to a variety of causes including inflammatory, neoplastic, and metabolic conditions or drug use. A review of the available literature, including description of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, histology, and typical management of CVG, is provided. However, we identified no literature describing the complications of CVG in the setting of a craniotomy. CASE REPORT: The patient presented here is a 54-year-old man with CVG who presented with occlusion of the M2/M2 branches of the middle cerebral artery, resulting in malignant cerebral edema, requiring emergent management via decompressive craniectomy. Because of the thickening of the scalp, skin incision was complicated by bleeding and difficulty in achieving hemostasis using Raney clips. Plastic surgery was consulted intraoperatively for assistance with complex closure of the wound in a multilayered fashion. Despite this, the patient's postoperative course was complicated by cerebrospinal fluid leakage due to difficulty in approximating the incision during closure. Subsequent cranioplasty was performed jointly between neurosurgery and plastic surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Despite its rarity, CVG is an important issue for neurosurgeons to understand as it can present complications in performing craniotomy, most notably during the scalp exposure and closure. CVG may also complicate the postoperative course if adequate approximation of the tissues cannot be achieved, resulting in wound infection and/or cerebrospinal fluid leak. The presented patient benefited from a combined neurosurgical and plastic surgical approach that was implemented intraoperatively and continued through the postoperative stages and the subsequent cranioplasty.


Assuntos
Craniectomia Descompressiva/métodos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/complicações , Couro Cabeludo/cirurgia , Edema Encefálico/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
World Neurosurg ; 121: 51-58, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intracranial arterial dissection (IAD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease that is likely underdiagnosed because of the inherent difficulty of visualizing the subtle radiographic signs of the pathologic small intracranial arteries. No widespread consensus exists on the treatment of IAD, and thus it is often managed empirically because of the absence of major randomized controlled trials. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the management and treatment options for IAD. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines using the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed) and Cochrane Library. Included studies were limited to human patients with dissections in intracranial vessels only. RESULTS: A total of 82 studies were included in this systematic review. The most common complications of IAD were cerebral infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage, and thus, patients with IAD can be subdivided into those presenting with either ischemia or hemorrhage, respectively. Those with ischemia were predominantly managed with antiplatelet therapy, whereas patients presenting with hemorrhage often were amenable to treatment with endovascular techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Given these findings, clinicians should prescribe antiplatelet therapy for patients with IAD presenting with ischemia and consider endovascular treatment for those presenting with hemorrhage. However, further investigation is required given the heterogeneity of methods and reporting outcomes in the investigated studies.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/complicações , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Infarto Cerebral/terapia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/etiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/terapia , Aneurisma Dissecante/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia
20.
World Neurosurg ; 121: 97-99, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolated abducens nerve palsy can be the presenting sign of a ruptured PICA aneurysm. Few cases have been reported in the literature. In the majority of cases, cranial nerve VI resolved following microsurgical clipping. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we report a 56-year-old female who presented with a ruptured 4 mm × 3 mm left PICA aneurysm associated with a left abducens nerve palsy. The patient underwent endovascular coil embolization of the aneurysm and had complete resolution of her abducens nerve palsy. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we present the first case of an abducens nerve palsy associated with a ruptured PICA aneurysm to completely resolve following endovascular coil embolization. The direction and amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage extravasation from the ruptured aneurysm are most likely responsible for cranial nerve palsy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Nervo Abducente/etiologia , Aneurisma Roto/complicações , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Doenças do Nervo Abducente/diagnóstico , Doenças do Nervo Abducente/terapia , Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico , Aneurisma Roto/terapia , Cerebelo/irrigação sanguínea , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Embolização Terapêutica , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/terapia
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