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1.
Ann Hematol ; 98(10): 2319-2328, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396671

RESUMO

Triple-negative primary myelofibrosis (TN-PMF) and other myeloid neoplasms with associated bone marrow fibrosis such as the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS-F) or the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN-F) are rare entities, often difficult to distinguish from each other. Thirty-four patients previously diagnosed with TN-PMF (n = 14), MDS-F (n = 18), or MDS/MPN-F (n = 2) were included in the present study. After central revision of the bone marrow histology, diagnoses according to the 2016-WHO classification were TN-PMF (n = 6), MDS-F (n = 19), and MDS/MPN-F (n = 9), with TN-PMF genotype representing only 4% of a cohort of 141 molecularly annotated PMF. Genomic classification according to next-generation sequencing and cytogenetic study was performed in 28 cases. Median number of mutations was 4 (range 1-7) in cases with TP53 disruption/aneuploidy or with chromatin-spliceosome mutations versus 1 mutation (range 0-2) in other molecular subgroups (p < 0.0001). The number of mutations and the molecular classification were better than PMF and MDS conventional scoring systems to predict survival and progression to acute leukemia. In conclusion, TN-PMF is an uncommon entity when the 2016 WHO criteria are strictly applied. Genomic classification may help in the prognostic assessment of patients with myeloid neoplasms with bone marrow fibrosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mutação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Mielofibrose Primária , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/classificação , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/classificação , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/classificação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Mielofibrose Primária/classificação , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Haematologica ; 104(3): 576-586, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262568

RESUMO

Mutations in genes of the RAS-BRAF-MAPK-ERK pathway have not been fully explored in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We, therefore, analyzed the clinical and biological characteristics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with mutations in this pathway and investigated the in vitro response of primary cells to BRAF and ERK inhibitors. Putative damaging mutations were found in 25 of 452 patients (5.5%). Among these, BRAF was mutated in nine patients (2.0%), genes upstream of BRAF (KITLG, KIT, PTPN11, GNB1, KRAS and NRAS) were mutated in 12 patients (2.6%), and genes downstream of BRAF (MAPK2K1, MAPK2K2, and MAPK1) were mutated in five patients (1.1%). The most frequent mutations were missense, subclonal and mutually exclusive. Patients with these mutations more frequently had increased lactate dehydrogenase levels, high expression of ZAP-70, CD49d, CD38, trisomy 12 and unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region genes and had a worse 5-year time to first treatment (hazard ratio 1.8, P=0.025). Gene expression analysis showed upregulation of genes of the MAPK pathway in the group carrying RAS-BRAF-MAPK-ERK pathway mutations. The BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib were not able to inhibit phosphorylation of ERK, the downstream effector of the pathway, in primary cells. In contrast, ulixertinib, a pan-ERK inhibitor, decreased phospho-ERK levels. In conclusion, although larger series of patients are needed to corroborate these findings, our results suggest that the RAS-BRAF-MAPK-ERK pathway is one of the core cellular processes affected by novel mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, is associated with adverse clinical features and could be pharmacologically inhibited.

4.
J Clin Pathol ; 71(11): 975-980, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934356

RESUMO

AIM: To characterise the clinical and histological features of MPL-mutated essential thrombocythaemia (ET). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bone marrow biopsies of 175 patients with ET were centrally reviewed according to the 2016 WHO classification, including 42 cases with MPL mutation, 98 JAK2V617F-mutated and 35 CALR-mutated. Clinical and histological features were compared among the three genotypes included in the current 2016 WHO classification and among the different types of MPL mutations. RESULTS: Patients with MPL-mutated ET were significantly older than those with the other genotypes. Haematological values at diagnosis were similar among MPL-mutated and CALR-mutated ET, with both genotypes showing higher platelet counts and lower haemoglobin values than ET with JAK2V617F genotype. In the bone marrow, the median number of megakaryocytes was higher in MPL and CALR than in JAK2V617F genotype (16, 19 and 14 megakaryocytes per ×20 power field, respectively, p=0.004). Histological features of prefibrotic myelofibrosis were rarely observed in MPL genotype, whereas sinusoidal hyperplasia, dense clusters of megakaryocytes and reticulin fibrosis were more frequent in CALR-mutated ET, with 11% of such cases fulfilling WHO 2016 histological criteria of prefibrotic myelofibrosis. With a median follow-up of 3.5 years, no significant differences were seen among genotypes regarding survival, vascular complications or myelofibrotic transformation. There were no significant differences in the clinical data or in the histological characteristics depending on the type of MPL mutation. CONCLUSION: MPL and CALR ET genotypes share clinical and histological characteristics. In contrast to CALR genotype, features of prefibrotic myelofibrosis are uncommon in MPL-mutated ET.


Assuntos
Calreticulina/genética , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Mutação , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Receptores de Trombopoetina/genética , Trombocitemia Essencial/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Exame de Medula Óssea , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Megacariócitos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Contagem de Plaquetas , Mielofibrose Primária/sangue , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Prognóstico , Trombocitemia Essencial/sangue , Trombocitemia Essencial/patologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Leukemia ; 32(6): 1427-1434, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463830

RESUMO

Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is a biologically heterogeneous, clinically defined entity with a variable rate of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Reliable markers for progression are critical for the development of potential therapeutic interventions. We retrospectively evaluated the predictive value of the evolving pattern of serum M-protein among other progression risk factors in 206 patients with SMM diagnosed between 1973 and 2012. Median time from recognition of evolving type to progression into symptomatic MM was 1.1 years (95% CI 0.5-2.0) and progression rate at 3 years was 71%. Development of the evolving type drastically worsened the prognostic estimation made at diagnosis for every covariate predictive of progression (serum M-protein size, bone marrow plasma cell infiltration, immunoparesis and Mayo Clinic risk). On average, the hazard ratio for progression to symptomatic MM increased to 5.1 (95% CI 3.4-7.6) after recognition of the evolving type. In conclusion, in patients with SMM the evolving pattern accurately predicts the risk of early progression to symptomatic disease, thereby allowing the identification of ultra-high risk patients who would be candidates for immediate therapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Mieloma/análise , Mieloma Múltiplo Latente/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mieloma Múltiplo Latente/mortalidade
7.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 59(10): 2318-2326, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29115891

RESUMO

Small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) is considered as the non-leukemic form of presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We have compared the features, genomic alterations, and outcome of 890 patients with CLL and SLL. One hundred and thirteen patients presented as SLL and more frequently had unmutated-IGHV, CD38high, ZAP-70high, CD49dhigh, +12, alterations in genes of NOTCH1, cell cycle, RNA metabolism, and NFkB pathways than CLL. During the follow-up, 46% of SLL patients developed CLL. Time to first treatment (TTFT) was shorter in SLL (10-year: 75% vs 62%; p = .006). Binet stage, SLL, and IGHV were independent predictive factors for TTFT. Transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was higher (10-year: 12% vs 6%; p = .003), and overall survival was shorter in SLL (10-year: 55% vs 66%; p = .004). When A0 CLL patients were excluded, only CD38 and CD49d expression, +12, and 10-year TTFT remained different between the SLL and CLL patients. In summary, SLL showed only minor clinicobiological differences when compared with CLL in similar clinical stages.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Análise de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Trop Pediatr ; 64(6): 553-556, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29272534

RESUMO

Background: Leukoerythroblastosis, a non-specific and often short-lasting response of the bone marrow to different diseases such as malignancies or infections, is characterized by the presence in the peripheral blood of immature red and white cells. Methods: We present a case of leukoerythoblastosis occurring in a 24 months old Mozambican girl, in the context of a severe malaria episode and an associated urinary tract infection. Peripheral blood smear was used for diagnosis of malaria and leukoerythroblastosis. Enterobacter cloacae isolation and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed by conventional microbiology. Results: Peripheral blood smear was positive for Plasmodium falciparum and showed a leukoerythroblastosis with red cell anisopoikilocytosis and left shifted neutrophils. Urine culture confirmed the presence of a multi-resistant E. cloacae. Treatment of underlying conditions resolved the leukoerythroblastic reaction. Conclusions: Leukoerythroblastosis may be related to different infectious diseases and may also appear in the context of severe malaria. Bacterial superinfection needs to be investigated.


Assuntos
Anemia Mielopática/diagnóstico , Enterobacter cloacae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Anemia Mielopática/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Mielopática/microbiologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Transfusão de Sangue , Pré-Escolar , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Blood ; 127(17): 2122-30, 2016 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26837699

RESUMO

Genomic studies have revealed the complex clonal heterogeneity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The acquisition and selection of genomic aberrations may be critical to understanding the progression of this disease. In this study, we have extensively characterized the mutational status of TP53, SF3B1, BIRC3, NOTCH1, and ATM in 406 untreated CLL cases by ultra-deep next-generation sequencing, which detected subclonal mutations down to 0.3% allele frequency. Clonal dynamics were examined in longitudinal samples of 48 CLL patients. We identified a high proportion of subclonal mutations, isolated or associated with clonal aberrations. TP53 mutations were present in 10.6% of patients (6.4% clonal, 4.2% subclonal), ATM mutations in 11.1% (7.8% clonal, 1.3% subclonal, 2% germ line mutations considered pathogenic), SF3B1 mutations in 12.6% (7.4% clonal, 5.2% subclonal), NOTCH1 mutations in 21.8% (14.2% clonal, 7.6% subclonal), and BIRC3 mutations in 4.2% (2% clonal, 2.2% subclonal). ATM mutations, clonal SF3B1, and both clonal and subclonal NOTCH1 mutations predicted for shorter time to first treatment irrespective of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region gene (IGHV) mutational status. Clonal and subclonal TP53 and clonal NOTCH1 mutations predicted for shorter overall survival together with the IGHV mutational status. Clonal evolution in longitudinal samples mainly occurred in cases with mutations in the initial samples and was observed not only after chemotherapy but also in untreated patients. These findings suggest that the characterization of the subclonal architecture and its dynamics in the evolution of the disease may be relevant for the management of CLL patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Genes p53 , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/fisiologia , Proteína 3 com Repetições IAP de Baculovírus , Células Clonais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/fisiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Fosfoproteínas/fisiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/fisiologia , Receptor Notch1/fisiologia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Br J Haematol ; 172(1): 48-55, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26559905

RESUMO

We investigated CD49d (also termed ITGA4) expression and its biological and clinical correlations in 415 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. CD49d expression was stable over the course of the disease. A high expression of CD49d (>30%) was found in 142/415 (34%) patients and was associated with progressive disease (advanced clinical stage, high serum lactate dehydrogenase or ß2 -microglobulin levels; all p < 0·05) and aggressive disease biology (increased ZAP70 or CD38, unmutated IGHV, trisomy 12, mutations of NOTCH1 and SF3B1; all P < 0·05). A higher CD49d expression was also associated with a lower blood lymphocyte count and a higher number of lymphoid areas involved by the disease. Patients with high CD49d expression were treated more frequently (55% vs. 27%; P < 0·001) and earlier (median time to treatment [TTT] 65·4 months vs. not reached; P < 0·001) than those with low CD49d expression. However, no significant differences in response rates were observed. In the subgroup of patients with mutated IGHV, high CD49d expression was predictive of a shorter TTT while other markers, such as ZAP70 and CD38, were not. In conclusion, in this study CD49d expression correlated with high-risk CLL biomarkers and proved to be useful for separating patients with mutated IGHV into two different prognostic groups.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Integrina alfa4/sangue , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Cancer Cell Int ; 15: 122, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26696777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The resulting clinical impact of the combined use of G-CSF with chemotherapy as a chemosensitizing strategy for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients is still controversial. In this study, the effect of ex vivo treatment with G-CSF on AML primary blasts was studied. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AML patients were treated with G-CSF at increasing doses, alone or in co-culture with HS-5 stromal cells. Cell viability and surface phenotype was determined by flow cytometry 72 h after treatment. For clonogenicity assays, AML primary samples were treated for 18 h with G-CSF at increasing concentrations and cultured in methyl-cellulose for 14 days. Colonies were counted based on cellularity and morphology criteria. RESULTS: The presence of G-CSF reduced the overall viability of AML cells co-cultured with bone marrow stroma; whereas, in absence of stroma, a negligible effect was observed. Moreover, clonogenic capacity of AML cells was significantly reduced upon treatment with G-CSF. Interestingly, reduction in the AML clonogenic capacity correlated with the sensitivity to chemotherapy observed in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These ex vivo results would provide a biological basis to data available from studies showing a clinical benefit with the use of G-CSF as a priming agent in patients with a chemosensitive AML and would support implementation of further studies exploring new strategies of chemotherapy priming in AML.

15.
Nature ; 526(7574): 519-24, 2015 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26200345

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a frequent disease in which the genetic alterations determining the clinicobiological behaviour are not fully understood. Here we describe a comprehensive evaluation of the genomic landscape of 452 CLL cases and 54 patients with monoclonal B-lymphocytosis, a precursor disorder. We extend the number of CLL driver alterations, including changes in ZNF292, ZMYM3, ARID1A and PTPN11. We also identify novel recurrent mutations in non-coding regions, including the 3' region of NOTCH1, which cause aberrant splicing events, increase NOTCH1 activity and result in a more aggressive disease. In addition, mutations in an enhancer located on chromosome 9p13 result in reduced expression of the B-cell-specific transcription factor PAX5. The accumulative number of driver alterations (0 to ≥4) discriminated between patients with differences in clinical behaviour. This study provides an integrated portrait of the CLL genomic landscape, identifies new recurrent driver mutations of the disease, and suggests clinical interventions that may improve the management of this neoplasia.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Mutação/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
Hematology ; 20(8): 435-441, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25680074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare, from a biological and clinical perspective, a significant group of patients with AML with inv(3)(q21q26.2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) with another group of AML carrying different abnormalities of 3q at q21 or q26, the latter named as the AML abn(3q) group. METHODS: We developed a national survey with the participation of 13 Spanish hospitals, and retrospectively reviewed (from 1990 to 2010) these subtypes of AML. Fifty-five patients were collected: 35 with AML inv(3)/t(3;3) and 20 with AML abn(3q). A data collecting page that included main features at diagnosis, therapeutic approach and response, and survival variables, was distributed and completed. RESULTS: We did not find significant differences in sex, age, history of myelodysplastic syndrome or chemo-/radiotherapy, clinical presentation, WBC and platelet counts, hemoglobin level, blasts immunophenotype, serum lactatedehydrogenase, peripheral blood and bone marrow cellular dysplasia, and bone marrow biopsy findings. Although the association with monosomy 7 was significantly more frequent in AML inv(3)/t(3;3), this did not seem to influence outcome. The lack of response to the different modalities of treatment and the aggressive course of the disease were the standard in both cohorts of patients. DISCUSSION: Although not yet recognized by the World Health Organization classification, our results are in agreement with the findings of other authors, who include both subsets of AML together in the same group of adverse prognosis. CONCLUSION: In an attempt to simplify and bound entities with similar genetic background and clinical behavior, it would be desirable to bring together both subgroups of AML in a single section.

17.
Rev. esp. patol ; 47(4): 210-217, oct.-dic. 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-128032

RESUMO

Se ha elaborado un consenso aplicando la metodología Delphi para acordar cuál debe ser la sistemática de evaluación e información de las biopsias de médula ósea en las neoplasias mieloproliferativas crónicas, especialmente en casos de mielofibrosis primaria (MFP). Un panel de 10 expertos hematopatólogos ha elaborado un cuestionario que se ha remitido a 37 hematopatólogos con preguntas acerca de los datos clínicos, analíticos y moleculares a conocer en la fase pre-analítica, parámetros histopatológicos a evaluar y contenido del informe diagnóstico final. Se realizaron 2 rondas buscando un consenso mínimo del 70% para los parámetros imprescindibles y recomendables. A partir de los resultados del consenso se elabora y propone un prototipo de informe histopatológico para informar de manera homogénea y reproducible los casos de MFP (AU)


A consensus based on Delphi methodology was developed to produce a guide for the evaluation and reporting of bone marrow biopsies in patients with a clinical suspicion of myeloproliferative neoplasm with fibrosis. Ten expert haematopathologists formulated a questionnaire including: clinical and laboratory data required before regarding a biopsy suspicious for primary myelofibrosis (PMF), descriptive aspects to be reported and the main histopathological differential diagnoses to be considered. It was circulated among 37 hematopathologists and consensus was defined when more than 70% of the experts “strongly agreed” or “agreed” after two rounds. The recommendations gave rise to a proposal for a standardized diagnostic report form to aid in the diagnostic workup and homogeneous reporting of cases with a clinical suspicion of PMF (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Medula Óssea/patologia , Biópsia/métodos , Mielofibrose Primária/diagnóstico , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Reticulina/análise , Medula Óssea/anatomia & histologia , Medula Óssea/ultraestrutura , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Fibrose/patologia , Fotomicrografia/instrumentação , Fotomicrografia/métodos , Fotomicrografia/tendências
18.
Haematologica ; 99(10): 1599-604, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24972773

RESUMO

We investigated the clinico-biological features, outcomes, and prognosis of 949 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia according to age. No biological differences (cytogenetics by fluorescent in situ hybridization, IGHV, ZAP-70, CD38, NOTCH1, SF3B1) were found across age groups. Elderly patients (>70 years; n=367) presented more frequently with advanced disease (Binet C/Rai III-IV: 10/12% versus 5/5%; P<0.001), were treated less frequently (23.8% versus 41.9% at 3 years; P<0.001) and in most cases did not receive highly effective regimens and thus had a lower overall response rate (49% with 14% having complete responses versus 69% with 31% having complete responses; P<0.001). The elderly patients also had a shorter overall survival (6.6 versus 13.3 years; P<0.001) and higher disease-unrelated mortality (34.9% versus 6.9% at 10 years; P<0.001). However, disease-attributable mortality was not significantly different between younger and older patients. A combination of Binet stage, ZAP-70 level, ß2-microglobulin concentration and comorbidity identified two risk groups (low-risk: 0-1 parameters; high-risk: 2-4 parameters) with different overall survivals (median: 6.8 versus 11.4 years, P<0.001). In patients requiring treatment, comorbidity at treatment (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-T>4; hazard ratio 2.2, P<0.001) and response (treatment failure versus response: hazard ratio 1.60, P<0.04) were the most important prognostic factors for overall survival. In conclusion, in our series, elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia did not present with any biological features distinct from those of younger patients, but did have a poorer clinical outcome. This study highlights the importance of comprehensive medical care, achieving response to therapy, and specific management strategies for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Oncotarget ; 5(12): 4337-46, 2014 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24952669

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a neoplasia characterized by the rapid expansion of immature myeloid blasts in the bone marrow, and marked by poor prognosis and frequent relapse. As such, new therapeutic approaches are required for remission induction and prevention of relapse. Due to the higher chemotherapy sensitivity and limited life span of more differentiated AML blasts, differentiation-based therapies are a promising therapeutic approach. Based on public available gene expression profiles, a myeloid-specific differentiation-associated gene expression pattern was defined as the therapeutic target. A XIAP inhibitor (Dequalinium chloride, DQA) was identified in an in silico screening searching for small molecules that induce similar gene expression regulation. Treatment with DQA, similarly to Embelin (another XIAP inhibitor), induced cytotoxicity and differentiation in AML. XIAP inhibition differentially impaired cell viability of the most primitive AML blasts and reduced clonogenic capacity of AML cells, sparing healthy mature blood and hematopoietic stem cells. Taken together, these results suggest that XIAP constitutes a potential target for AML treatment and support the evaluation of XIAP inhibitors in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Morte Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo
20.
Ann Hematol ; 93(10): 1695-703, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24824767

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with myelodysplasia-related changes is characterized by the presence of multilineage dysplasia (MLD), frequently related to high-risk cytogenetics and poor outcome. However, the presence of MLD does not modify the favorable prognostic impact of NPM1 mutation. The prognosis of patients with AML presenting marked dysplasia lacking high-risk cytogenetics and NPM1 mutation is uncertain. We evaluated the prognostic impact of MLD in 177 patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics AML (IR-AML) and wild-type NPM1. Patients were categorized as MLD-WHO (WHO myelodysplasia criteria; n = 43, 24 %), MLD-NRW (significant MLD non-reaching WHO criteria; n = 16, 9 %), absent MLD (n = 80, 45 %), or non-evaluable MLD (n = 38, 22 %). No differences concerning the main characteristics were observed between patients with or without MLD. Outcome of patients with MLD-WHO and MLD-NRW was similar, and significantly worse than patients lacking MLD. The presence of MLD (66 vs. 80 %, p = 0.03; HR, 95 % CI = 2.3, 1.08-4.08) and higher leukocyte count at diagnosis was the only variable associated with lower probability of complete remission after frontline therapy. Concerning survival, age and leukocytes showed an independent prognostic value, whereas MLD showed a trend to a negative impact (p = 0.087, HR, 95 % CI = 1.426, 0.95-2.142). Moreover, after excluding patients receiving an allogeneic stem cell transplantation in first CR, MLD was associated with a shorter survival (HR, 95 % CI = 1.599, 1.026-2.492; p = 0.038). In conclusion, MLD identifies a subgroup of patients with poorer outcome among patients with IR-AML and wild-type NPM1.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Linhagem da Célula , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Hematopoese , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Aguda/patologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Indução de Remissão , Risco , Adulto Jovem
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