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Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 161: 107170, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798669


Two types of domestic water buffalo are currently recognized: the river buffalo from the Indian subcontinent and Mediterranean countries and the swamp buffalo from China and Southeast Asia. To test the hypothesis of two separate species of water buffalo, we sequenced the genome of the lowland anoa, Bubalus depressicornis, which is a dwarf wild buffalo endemic to Sulawesi, and two genomes of swamp buffalo, and made comparisons with 12 additional genomes. Three genomic data sets were constructed to infer phylogenetic relationships: the mitochondrial genome (15,468 bp; maternal transmission), two concatenated Y-chromosomal genes, AMELY and DDX3Y (20,036 bp; paternal transmission), and a selection of 30 nuclear genes representing all cattle chromosomes (364,887 bp; biparental transmission). The comparisons between our 30 nuclear gene sequences obtained by read mapping and those directly extracted from Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis genome assemblies show that the mapping approach revealed higher levels of heterozygosity at both nucleotide sites and indels (insertions and deletions) (0.09-0.15%), as well as several sequence errors (0.07%). Our phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses provide strong evidence that the lowland anoa, river buffalo, and swamp buffalo are three distinct taxa which separated rapidly from each other during the Pleistocene epoch. We therefore conclude that two species of domestic water buffalo should be distinguished: Bubalus bubalis for the river buffalo and Bubalus kerabau for the swamp buffalo. The new classification can have deep implications for understanding the evolution and selection of domesticated forms and for the conservation and management of wild buffalo populations in South and Southeast Asia.

Búfalos/genética , Genoma , Filogenia , Rios , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Búfalos/classificação , Bovinos , Feminino , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8820, 2017 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28821782


The island rule describes a graded trend in insular populations of vertebrates from gigantism in small species to dwarfism in large species. The dwarfing of large mammals on islands has been observed both in the present fauna and in the fossil record. Elephants, hippopotami, deer, and other species became dwarfed on islands scattered all over the world, from the Mediterranean Sea to Indonesia, from the Eastern to Western Pacific Ocean, from the Caribbean to Canary Islands. The most rapid and well documented cases of island dwarfing known thus far took place over thousands of years. Here, we describe a rapid example of dwarfing of a large mammal - the feral cattle of Amsterdam Island, southern Indian Ocean, which dwarfed to about three quarters of its body size in slightly more than one century. This population provides us with a rare opportunity to assess the rapidity of demographic, life history, and morphological responses of large mammals to a very isolated and ecologically simple, insular environment.

Nanismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Bovinos , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo
Integr Zool ; 9(2): 213-228, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24673764


Endemic bovids are intriguing elements of insular faunas. The living species include the Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) and the Formosan serow (C. swinhoei), the tamaraw from Mindoro, Philippines, (Bubalus mindorensis) and the anoas (B. depressicornis and B. quarlesi), 2 species of dwarf buffalos endemic to Sulawesi, Indonesia. Fossil endemic bovids are only recorded in some Asian, North American and Western Mediterranean islands. Here we present a comprehensive overview of the changes in body size and evolutionary patterns exhibited by both extant and extinct insular bovids. Our appraisal indicates that each insular representative of Bovidae shows its own peculiar evolutionary model, albeit some parallel trends exist (e.g. reduction in body size, allometric changes in limb bones, alteration of the life history traits). Some changes in morphology (e.g. the simplification of horn cores, the increase in hypsodonty, the acquisition of a 'low-gear' locomotion), for instance, appear as common, albeit not general, patterns triggered by a combination of selective forces. Body size patterns support the 'generality of the island rule' and suggest that biotic interaction had/have a major role in influencing body size evolution in these species, although in different ways on different islands. All things considered, available evidence suggest that a major role in the evolution of insular bovids is played by the structure of the insular community, the nature of available niches and by the dynamics of ecological interactions.

Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Fósseis , Ilhas , Modelos Biológicos , Ruminantes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Geografia , Especificidade da Espécie , Dente/anatomia & histologia
Integr Zool ; 8(3): 244-59, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24020464


A variety of methods have been developed to use bovid postcranial elements in the functional morphology approach to paleohabitat prediction. This study represents a first attempt at testing morphometric methods based on astragalus and phalanges on extant mountain-dwelling bovids and insular fossil bovids from Sardinia assigned to the so-called 'Nesogoral group', already regarded as close to the Caprini tribe. We intended to answer the questions whether a classic four-habitats model could be successfully applied to extant mountain-dwelling bovids, and whether results obtained could support the hypothesis of a radiative evolution for the Sardinian bovids. Results obtained, on the one hand, highlighted some inadequacies of the method if not applied to African bovids; on the other hand, they stressed the difficulties of discriminating habitat preferences of Sardinian taxa only based on biometry of astragalus and phalanges. Nonetheless, statistical habitat predictions suggest the contemporaneous presence in Sardinia of bovids having about the same size, but inhabiting different environments, giving support to the hypothesis that Sardinian representatives of the genus Nesogoral originated from a still unknown ancestor by an adaptive radiation evolutionary process.

Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Fósseis , Ilhas , Modelos Biológicos , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Itália , Tálus/anatomia & histologia , Tálus/fisiologia , Falanges dos Dedos do Pé/anatomia & histologia , Falanges dos Dedos do Pé/fisiologia