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1.
J Plant Res ; 132(1): 3-17, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552526

RESUMO

We provide here the first full chloroplast genome sequence, i.e., the plastome, for a species belonging to the fern order Hymenophyllales. The phylogenetic position of this order within leptosporangiate ferns, together with the general scarcity of information about fern plastomes, places this research as a valuable study on the analysis of the diversity of plastomes throughout fern evolution. Gene content of V. speciosa plastome was similar to that in most ferns, although there were some characteristic gene losses and lineage-specific differences. In addition, an important number of genes required U to C RNA editing for proper protein translation and two genes showed start codons alternative to the canonical AUG (AUA). Concerning gene order, V. speciosa shared the specific 30-kb inversion of euphyllophytes plastomes and the 3.3-kb inversion of fern plastomes, keeping the ancestral gene order shared by eusporangiate and early leptosporangiate ferns. Conversely, V. speciosa has expanded IR regions comprising the rps7, rps12, ndhB and trnL genes in addition to rRNA and other tRNA genes, a condition shared with several eusporangiate ferns, lycophytes and hornworts, as well as most seed plants.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Gleiquênias/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Ann Bot ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357311

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Vandenboschia speciosa is a highly vulnerable fern species, with a large genome (10.5 Gb). Haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes are perennial, can reproduce vegetatively, and certain populations are composed only of independent gametophytes. These features make this fern a good model: (1) for high-throughput analysis of satellite DNA (satDNA) to investigate possible evolutionary trends in satDNA sequence features; (2) to determine the relative contribution of satDNA and other repetitive DNAs to its large genome; and (3) to analyse whether the reproduction mode or phase alternation between long-lasting haploid and diploid stages influences satDNA abundance or divergence. Methods: We analysed the repetitive fraction of the genome of this species in three different populations (one comprised only of independent gametophytes) using Illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis with RepeatExplorer and satMiner. Key Results: The satellitome of V. speciosa is composed of 11 satDNA families, most of them showing a short repeat length and being A + T rich. Some satDNAs had complex repeats composed of sub-repeats, showing high similarity to shorter satDNAs. Three families had particular structural features and highly conserved motifs. SatDNA only amounts to approx. 0.4 % of its genome. Likewise, microsatellites do not represent more than 2 %, but transposable elements (TEs) represent approx. 50 % of the sporophytic genomes. We found high resemblance in satDNA abundance and divergence between both gametophyte and sporophyte samples from the same population and between populations. Conclusions: (1) Longer (and older) satellites in V. speciosa have a higher A + T content and evolve from shorter ones and, in some cases, microsatellites were a source of new satDNAs; (2) the satellitome does not explain the huge genome size in this species while TEs are the major repetitive component of the V. speciosa genome and mostly contribute to its large genome; and (3) reproduction mode or phase alternation between gametophytes and sporophytes does not entail accumulation or divergence of satellites.

3.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 45(5): 508-518, sept.-oct. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167007

RESUMO

Introduction: Cow's milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Treatments such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guides on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop a clinical guide on OIT based on the available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. Methods: A review was made of studies published in the period between 1984 and June 2016, Doctoral Theses published in Spain, and summaries of communications at congresses (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI), with evaluation of the opinion consensus established by a group of experts pertaining to the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. Results: Recommendations have been established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of suffering adverse reactions. Conclusions: A clinical practice guide is presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg, based on the opinion consensus of Spanish experts (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Imunoterapia Sublingual/métodos
4.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 45(4): 393-404, jul.-ago. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-165100

RESUMO

Introduction: Cow's milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Treatments such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guides on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop a clinical guide on OIT based on the available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. Methods: A review was made of studies published in the period between 1984 and June 2016, Doctoral Theses published in Spain, and summaries of communications at congresses (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI), with evaluation of the opinion consensus established by a group of experts pertaining to the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. Results: Recommendations have been established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of suffering adverse reactions. Conclusions: A clinical practice guide is presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg, based on the opinion consensus of Spanish experts (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica
5.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 45(4): 393-404, 2017 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662773

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cow's milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Treatments such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guides on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. OBJECTIVES: To develop a clinical guide on OIT based on the available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. METHODS: A review was made of studies published in the period between 1984 and June 2016, Doctoral Theses published in Spain, and summaries of communications at congresses (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI), with evaluation of the opinion consensus established by a group of experts pertaining to the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. RESULTS: Recommendations have been established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of suffering adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: A clinical practice guide is presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg, based on the opinion consensus of Spanish experts.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Proteínas do Ovo/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Proteínas do Leite/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contraindicações , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Proteínas do Ovo/imunologia , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Proteínas do Leite/imunologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Espanha
6.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 45(5): 508-518, 2017 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676231

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cow's milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Treatments such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guides on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. OBJECTIVES: To develop a clinical guide on OIT based on the available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. METHODS: A review was made of studies published in the period between 1984 and June 2016, Doctoral Theses published in Spain, and summaries of communications at congresses (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI), with evaluation of the opinion consensus established by a group of experts pertaining to the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. RESULTS: Recommendations have been established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of suffering adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: A clinical practice guide is presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg, based on the opinion consensus of Spanish experts.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Proteínas do Ovo/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Proteínas do Leite/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/imunologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Proteínas do Ovo/imunologia , Prova Pericial , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Proteínas do Leite/imunologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Espanha
7.
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol ; 27(4): 225-237, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28731411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cow milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guidelines on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop clinical guidelines for OIT based on available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. METHODS: A review was made of studies published between 1984 and June 2016, doctoral theses published in Spain, summaries of communications at scientific meetings (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, and AAAAI), and the consensus of opinion established by a group of experts from the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. RESULTS: Recommendations were established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical practice guidelines based on the consensus reached between Spanish experts are presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Administração Oral , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Espanha
8.
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol ; 27(5): 279-290, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28593864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cow milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guidelines on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop clinical guidelines for OIT based on available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. METHODS: A review was made of studies published between 1984 and June 2016, doctoral theses published in Spain, summaries of communications at scientific meetings (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, and AAAAI), and the consensus of opinion established by a group of experts from the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. RESULTS: Recommendations were established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical practice guidelines based on the consensus reached between Spanish experts are presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 581-582: 289-296, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087073

RESUMO

Octopus vulgaris is a sedentary organism that inhabits coastal waters being exposed to anthropogenic compounds. Lead concentration in coastal environments reflects many processes and activities namely weathering, industrial and domestic discharges, and atmospheric deposition. Since lead isotopic composition is little affected by kinetic processes occurring between source and sink, its signature has been used to identify different Pb sources. After a short-term heavy rainfall, hundreds of octopus appeared dead in two Portuguese coastal areas. Histopathology and Pb levels and its stable isotopes were determined in tissues, such as digestive gland, of stranded octopus and compared to alive specimens, sediments and runoff material from the same areas. Histology results showed severe damage in stranded octopus tissues suggesting that death was probably associated to multiple organ failure linked to hypertrophy and exudates input. In addition, Pb in stranded specimens reach concentrations up to one order of magnitude above the levels reported for alive octopus. Pb isotopic signatures in stranded organisms were closer to runoff material pointing to a similar origin of Pb. In summary, the results in this study showed that a short-term runoff event might change abruptly the salinity leading to the disruption of the osmoregulation function of octopus and consequently leading to its death. The analyses of stable isotopic Pb signature in octopus tissues corroborate these results and points to a change in the Pb source due to runoff after the storm water event. Pb stable isotopes in octopus proved to be an adequate tool to confirm the cause of death and linking it to the environment conditions.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/toxicidade , Octopodiformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Isótopos , Chuva , Água
10.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167246

RESUMO

Introduction: Cow milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guidelines on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop clinical guidelines for OIT based on available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. Methods: A review was made of studies published between 1984 and June 2016, doctoral theses published in Spain, summaries of communications at scientific meetings (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, and AAAAI), and the consensus of opinion established by a group of experts from the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. Results: Recommendations were established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of adverse reactions. Conclusions: Clinical practice guidelines based on the consensus reached between Spanish experts are presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg (AU)


Introducción: El huevo y la leche de vaca son la causa más frecuente de alergia alimentaria en los primeros años de vida. Como alternativa terapéutica a la dieta de eliminación se han investigado otras formas de tratamiento como la inmunoterapia oral (ITO). Actualmente no existen guías de práctica clínica para el manejo de la ITO con leche y huevo. Objetivos: Elaborar una guía clínica para el tratamiento con ITO basada en la evidencia científica disponible y en la opinión de expertos. Métodos: Revisión de estudios publicados desde el año 1984 hasta junio de 2016, tesis doctorales publicadas en España, resúmenes de comunicaciones en congresos (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI) y consenso de opinión de un grupo de expertos de las sociedades científicas SEICAP y SEAIC. Resultados: Se establecen recomendaciones acerca de la indicación, requerimientos, aspectos prácticos del tratamiento en las diferentes fases de la ITO, y pautas especiales para pacientes de alto riesgo de reacciones adversas. Conclusiones: Se presenta una guía con las directrices para el manejo en la práctica clínica de la ITO con leche y huevo que aúna la opinión consensuada de expertos españoles (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Omalizumab/administração & dosagem , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Dosagem/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Administração Sublingual
11.
J. investig. allergol. clin. immunol ; 27(4): 225-237, 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-165011

RESUMO

Introduction: Cow milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guidelines on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop clinical guidelines for OIT based on available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. Methods: A review was made of studies published between 1984 and June 2016, doctoral theses published in Spain, summaries of communications at scientific meetings (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, and AAAAI), and the consensus of opinion established by a group of experts from the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. Results: Recommendations were established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of adverse reactions. Conclusions: Clinical practice guidelines based on the consensus reached between Spanish experts are presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg (AU)


Introducción: El huevo y la leche de vaca son la causa más frecuente de alergia alimentaria en los primeros años de vida. Como alternativa terapéutica a la dieta de eliminación se han investigado otras formas de tratamiento como la inmunoterapia oral (ITO). Actualmente no existen guías de práctica clínica para el manejo de la ITO con leche y huevo. Objetivos: Elaborar una guía clínica para el tratamiento con ITO basada en la evidencia científica disponible y en la opinión de expertos. Métodos: Revisión de estudios publicados desde el año 1984 hasta junio de 2016, tesis doctorales publicadas en España, resúmenes de comunicaciones en congresos (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI) y consenso de opinión de un grupo de expertos de las sociedades científicas SEICAP y SEAIC. Resultados: Se establecen recomendaciones acerca de la indicación, requerimientos, aspectos prácticos del tratamiento en las diferentes fases de la ITO, y pautas especiales para pacientes de alto riesgo de reacciones adversas. Conclusiones: Se presenta una guía con las directrices para el manejo en la práctica clínica de la ITO con leche y huevo que aúna la opinión consensuada de expertos españoles (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde
13.
Allergy ; 70(8): 1013-9, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25913298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of patients show immediate selective hypersensitivity reactions to clavulanic acid (CLV) and amoxicillin (AX), probably due to their increased prescription. The maintenance of this response should be established. OBJECTIVE: To assess that the immediate hypersensitivity selective response to AX or to CLV is maintained after repeated administration of penicillin G (PG)/penicillin V (PV) and AX. METHODS: Patients with proven immediate hypersensitivity to AX (Group A) or CLV (Group B) were included. Diagnosis was performed using skin tests with major and minor determinants of PG (PPL/MDM), AX and CLV and by drug provocation test (DPT) if required. Selectivity was established by confirming tolerance to PG/PV (Group A) and to PG/PV and AX (Group B). The maintenance of the selective response was verified by repeating DPT, 15 days after the initial investigation, with the same procedure. RESULTS: Of 51 patients, 78% belonged to Group A and 22% to Group B. Most had anaphylaxis. In Group A, 72% were skin test positive; 28% required DPT. In Group B, 63% were skin test positive; 37% required DPT. Only two AX-selective cases developed positive responses after re-provocation with PG/PV. No cases selective for CLV developed a positive response to PG, PV or AX. DISCUSSION: The selective response to AX appears consistent, and a response to penicillin determinants only develops in a minority of cases. For the case of CLV, the selective response appears not to be modified by exposure to penicillin determinants, meaning that patients with CLV allergy can take penicillin derivatives safely.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Ácido Clavulânico/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/epidemiologia , Penicilina G/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Amoxicilina/imunologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Ácido Clavulânico/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/etiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Testes Cutâneos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Insect Mol Biol ; 24(3): 319-30, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25565136

RESUMO

We analyse intragenomic variation of the ITS2 internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans, by means of tagged PCR 454 amplicon sequencing performed on both genomic DNA (gDNA) and RNA-derived complementary DNA (cDNA), using part of the ITS2 flanking coding regions (5.8S and 28S rDNA) as an internal control for sequencing errors. Six different ITS2 haplotypes (i.e. variants for at least one nucleotide in the complete ITS2 sequence) were found in a single population, one of them (Hap4) being specific to a supernumerary (B) chromosome. The analysis of both gDNA and cDNA from the same individuals provided an estimate of the expression efficiency of the different haplotypes. We found random expression (i.e. about similar recovery in gDNA and cDNA) for three haplotypes (Hap1, Hap2 and Hap5), but significant underexpression for three others (Hap3, Hap4 and Hap6). Hap4 was the most extremely underexpressed and, remarkably, it showed the lowest sequence conservation for the flanking 5.8-28S coding regions in the gDNA reads but the highest conservation (100%) in the cDNA ones, suggesting the preferential expression of mutation-free rDNA units carrying this ITS2 haplotype. These results indicate that the ITS2 region of rDNA is far from complete homogenization in this species, and that the different rDNA units are not expressed at random, with some of them being severely downregulated.


Assuntos
DNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Genoma de Inseto , Gafanhotos/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sequência Conservada , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Variação Genética , Gafanhotos/genética , Haplótipos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico
15.
Chromosoma ; 124(2): 263-75, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25472934

RESUMO

The desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) has been used as material for numerous cytogenetic studies. Its genome size is estimated to be 8.55 Gb of DNA comprised in 11 autosomes and the X chromosome. Its X0/XX sex chromosome determinism therefore results in females having 24 chromosomes whereas males have 23. Surprisingly, little is known about the DNA content of this locust's huge chromosomes. Here, we use the Feulgen Image Analysis Densitometry and C-banding techniques to respectively estimate the DNA quantity and heterochromatin content of each chromosome. We also identify three satellite DNAs using both restriction endonucleases and next-generation sequencing. We then use fluorescent in situ hybridization to determine the chromosomal location of these satellite DNAs as well as that of six tandem repeat DNA gene families. The combination of the results obtained in this work allows distinguishing between the different chromosomes not only by size, but also by the kind of repetitive DNAs that they contain. The recent publication of the draft genome of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), the largest animal genome hitherto sequenced, invites for sequencing even larger genomes. S. gregaria is a pest that causes high economic losses. It is thus among the primary candidates for genome sequencing. But this species genome is about 50 % larger than that of L. migratoria, and although next-generation sequencing currently allows sequencing large genomes, sequencing it would mean a greater challenge. The chromosome sizes and markers provided here should not only help planning the sequencing project and guide the assembly but would also facilitate assigning assembled linkage groups to actual chromosomes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Gafanhotos/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Satélite/genética , Feminino , Heterocromatina/genética , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Histonas/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 114(2): 207-19, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25248465

RESUMO

The spliceosome, constituted by a protein set associated with small nuclear RNA (snRNA), is responsible for mRNA maturation through intron removal. Among snRNA genes, U1 is generally a conserved repetitive sequence. To unveil the chromosomal/genomic dynamics of this multigene family in grasshoppers, we mapped U1 genes by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 70 species belonging to the families Proscopiidae, Pyrgomorphidae, Ommexechidae, Romaleidae and Acrididae. Evident clusters were observed in all species, indicating that, at least, some U1 repeats are tandemly arrayed. High conservation was observed in the first four families, with most species carrying a single U1 cluster, frequently located in the third or fourth longest autosome. By contrast, extensive variation was observed among Acrididae, from a single chromosome pair carrying U1 to all chromosome pairs carrying it, with occasional occurrence of two or more clusters in the same chromosome. DNA sequence analysis in Eyprepocnemis plorans (species carrying U1 clusters on seven different chromosome pairs) and Locusta migratoria (carrying U1 in a single chromosome pair) supported the coexistence of functional and pseudogenic lineages. One of these pseudogenic lineages was truncated in the same nucleotide position in both species, suggesting that it was present in a common ancestor to both species. At least in E. plorans, this U1 snDNA pseudogenic lineage was associated with 5S rDNA and short interspersed elements (SINE)-like mobile elements. Given that we conclude in grasshoppers that the U1 snDNA had evolved under the birth-and-death model and that its intragenomic spread might be related with mobile elements.


Assuntos
Genoma de Inseto , Gafanhotos/genética , Família Multigênica , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U1/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos , Sequência Conservada , Feminino , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular
17.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 48(4): 452-8, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25150439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To get to know the influence of the four domains of the Chronic Lower Limb Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire (CIVIQ) on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with primary superficial venous incompetence, and their behaviour in relation to age, gender, occupation, body mass index (BMI), and also with respect to the clinical and anatomical classes of the CEAP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample was composed of 468 patients with primary superficial venous reflux (135 male and 333 female) who answered 100% of the questions in the Short Form-12 (SF12) and CIVIQ questionnaires. After a clinical and duplex examination, the patients were categorized as C0-6, Ep, As, Ap or As,p and Pr according to the CEAP classification. The relationships between CIVIQ domains and gender, age, occupation, BMI, and the clinical and anatomical classes of the CEAP classification were analyzed. RESULTS: Men reported better QoL than women (33.2 vs. 46.3) and this was also true for each of the CIVIQ's domains (p < .00). Pain (50.6) and physical restriction (45.3) were the dimensions with a greater influence on QoL, whereas social (41.7) and psychological (38.1) dimensions had a lesser influence. Patients aged between 45 and 64, household activities, and patients with C2-3 clinical classes were the patient groups with the worst scores in all the CIVIQ dimensions and those where significant differences were found. The BMI and anatomical distribution of the reflux had no influence on the QoL. CONCLUSIONS: Pain and physical restriction were the CIVIQ domains with greater influence on the QoL of patients with primary superficial venous reflux. Age increase (up to 64 years), female gender, household activities, and C2-3 CEAP clinical class were the main factors associated with the worst QoL perception.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Insuficiência Venosa/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla , Insuficiência Venosa/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 112(5): 531-42, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24346496

RESUMO

Wide arrays of repetitive DNA sequences form an important part of eukaryotic genomes. These repeats appear to evolve as coherent families, where repeats within a family are more similar to each other than to other orthologous representatives in related species. The continuous homogenization of repeats, through selective and non-selective processes, is termed concerted evolution. Ascertaining the level of variation between repeats is crucial to determining which evolutionary model best explains the homogenization observed for these sequences. Here, for the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans, we present the analysis of intragenomic diversity for two repetitive DNA sequences (a satellite DNA (satDNA) and the 45S rDNA) resulting from the independent microdissection of several chromosomes. Our results show different homogenization patterns for these two kinds of paralogous DNA sequences, with a high between-chromosome structure for rDNA but no structure at all for the satDNA. This difference is puzzling, considering the adjacent localization of the two repetitive DNAs on paracentromeric regions in most chromosomes. The disparate homogenization patterns detected for these two repetitive DNA sequences suggest that several processes participate in the concerted evolution in E. plorans, and that these mechanisms might not work as genome-wide processes but rather as sequence-specific ones.


Assuntos
DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Satélite/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma/genética , Gafanhotos/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Animais , Composição de Bases/genética , Sequência de Bases , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/classificação , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , DNA Satélite/química , DNA Satélite/classificação , Feminino , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
19.
Oecologia ; 173(1): 83-93, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23386048

RESUMO

Animals often announce their unprofitability to predators through conspicuous coloured signals. Here we tested whether the apparently conspicuous colour designs of the four European Coraciiformes and Upupiformes species may have evolved as aposematic signals, or whether instead they imply a cost in terms of predation risk. Because previous studies suggested that these species are unpalatable, we hypothesized that predators could avoid targeting them based on their colours. An experiment was performed where two artificial models of each bird species were exposed simultaneously to raptor predators, one painted so as to resemble the real colour design of these birds, and the other one painted using cryptic colours. Additionally, we used field data on the black kite's diet to compare the selection of these four species to that of other avian prey. Conspicuous models were attacked in equal or higher proportions than their cryptic counterparts, and the attack rate on the four species increased with their respective degree of contrast against natural backgrounds. The analysis of the predator's diet revealed that the two least attacked species were negatively selected in nature despite their abundance. Both conspicuous and cryptic models of one of the studied species (the hoopoe) received fewer attacks than cryptic models of the other three species, suggesting that predators may avoid this species for characteristics other than colour. Globally, our results suggest that the colour of coraciiforms and upupiforms does not function as an aposematic signal that advises predators of their unprofitability, but also that conspicuous colours may increase predation risk in some species, supporting thus the handicap hypothesis.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Cor , Comportamento Predatório , Aves Predatórias/fisiologia , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Dieta , Fatores de Risco
20.
Environ Entomol ; 42(1): 97-106, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23339790

RESUMO

Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Herbicidas , Insetos , Inseticidas , Olea , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Dinâmica Populacional , Espanha
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