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1.
Cancer Lett ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454144

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate lung cancer survival in never-smokers, both overall and specifically by sex, exposure to residential-radon, age, histological type, and diagnostic stage. We included lung cancer cases diagnosed in a multicentre, hospital-based, case-control-study of never-smoker patients, diagnosed from January-2011 to March-2015 (Lung Cancer Research In Never Smokers study). 369 never-smokers (79% women; median age 71 years; 80% adenocarcinoma; 66% stage IV) were included. Median overall survival, and at one, 3 and 5 years of diagnosis was 18.3 months, 61%, 32% and 22%, respectively. Higher median survival rates were obtained for: younger age, adenocarcinoma, actionable mutations, and earlier-stage at diagnosis. Higher indoor radon showed a higher risk of death in multivariate analysis. Median lung cancer survival in never-smokers seems higher than that in ever-smokers. Patients with actionable mutations have a significantly higher survival. Higher indoor-radon exposure has a negative effect on survival.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425519

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between exposure to residential radon and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by means of a systematic review. Material and Methods: A search was conducted in PubMed and OVID for papers making reference to the radon-COPD relationship. No search filters were applied, whether by date of publication, study type or sample size. All studies not written in English or Spanish were discarded. Results: A total of 174 and 57 papers were found in PubMed and OVID, respectively: of these, 13 (11 on miners and 2 on the general population) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only four of the studies on cohorts of miners analysed COPD as a specific disease, and only one reported statistically significant results. In addition, many of these studies lacked information on tobacco use among miners. In contrast, studies conducted on the general public showed an association between mortality and hospital admissions, on the one hand, and residential radon on the other. Conclusion: There are not enough studies to provide a basis for confirming or ruling out an association between radon exposure and COPD. Nonetheless, the most recent general population studies point to evidence of a possible association. In view of the heterogeneity of available studies, it is impossible to say whether this gas may or may not affect COPD morbidity and mortality, until such a time as further studies are carried out.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229257, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106226

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of multiple social, and clinical factors for readmission after a severe acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) during various time periods. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study in which recruited patients with AECOPD. We systematically collected numerous clinical (symptoms, pulmonary function, comorbidities, and treatment) and social (financial situation, housing situation, family support, caregiver overload, ability to perform activities, and risk of social exclusion) variables using several questionnaires and indices. The patients were followed closely for one year and readmissions at 30, 60, and 365 days were analysed. RESULTS: 253 patients were included, aged 68.9±9.8years, FEV1 = 42.1%±14.2%, and a Charlson's index = 1.8±0.9. Of these patients, 20.2%, 39.6%, and 63.7% were readmitted within the first 30, 90, and 365 days after discharge, respectively. In the multivariate model applied, the variables that were independently associated with readmission over all three periods of the analysis were dependence to perform basic activities of daily living (BADLs) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.10-4.10) and a history of two or more admissions within the previous year (OR = 2.78-3.78). At 90 days, a history of bacterial isolates in a previous sputum culture (OR = 2.39) and at 365 days, a high grade of dyspnoea (OR = 2.51) and obesity (OR = 2.38) were also identified as predictors of hospital readmission. CONCLUSIONS: The patients' limitation to perform BADLs and their history of admissions for AECOPD were the best predictive variables for the likelihood of readmission when adjusted for many other social and clinical variables, regardless of the time period considered for such prediction.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Meio Social , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(1): 53-68, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET5-799

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La asistencia de los testigos es decisiva para mejorar los resultados de la parada cardiaca extrahospitalaria. Pese al número creciente de métodos de formación en soporte vital básico (SVB), la fórmula más efectiva no está definida. Esta revisión sistemática pretende describir los posibles métodos de entrenamiento en SVB para población general adulta y analizar su eficacia aspirando a identificar un patrón de referencia. MÉTODOS: Se revisó la base de datos MEDLINE (de enero de 2006 a julio de 2018) empleando criterios de inclusión y exclusión predefinidos y considerando todos los estudios que evaluaron métodos prácticos de formación en SVB. Dos revisores extrajeron los datos de manera independiente y evaluaron la calidad de los estudios mediante la escala MERSQI (Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument). RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 27 de los 1.263 estudios identificados. Los ensayos aleatorizados y controlados eran minoría, con una calidad media de 13 sobre 18 y un considerable acuerdo interobservadores. La heterogeneidad de los contenidos y los instrumentos de formación y evaluación limitan la comparabilidad. Los métodos guiados por instructor, incluyendo práctica y apoyados por dispositivos de retroalimentación, parecen haber obtenido los mejores resultados y el reentrenamiento facilitó la retención. La formación mejoró además aspectos actitudinales. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque los datos no son lo bastante coincidentes para establecer el método óptimo, hubo una aparente ventaja de los guiados por instructor, con práctica y apoyados por retroalimentación, así como del reentrenamiento. Futuros estudios deberían perseguir criterios de calidad estandarizados e instrumentos de evaluación validados para garantizar la coherencia y la comparabilidad


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Bystander assistance is decisive to enhance the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Despite an increasing number of basic life support (BLS) training methods, the most effective formula remains undefined. To identify a gold standard, we performed a systematic review describing reported BLS training methods for laypeople and analyzed their effectiveness. METHODS: We reviewed the MEDLINE database from January 2006 to July 2018 using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, considering all studies training adult laypeople in BLS and performing practical skill assessment. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of the studies using the MERSQI (Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument) scale. RESULTS: Of the 1263 studies identified, 27 were included. Most of them were nonrandomized controlled trials and the mean quality score was 13 out of 18, with substantial agreement between reviewers. The wide heterogeneity of contents, methods and assessment tools precluded pooling of data. Nevertheless, there was an apparent advantage of instructor-led methods, with feedback-supported hands-on practice, and retraining seemed to enhance retention. Training also improved attitudinal aspects. CONCLUSIONS: While there were insufficiently consistent data to establish a gold standard, instructor-led formulas, hands-on training with feedback devices and frequent retraining seemed to yield better results. Further research on adult BLS training may need to seek standardized quality criteria and validated evaluation instruments to ensure consistency

8.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(1): 53-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808611

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Bystander assistance is decisive to enhance the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Despite an increasing number of basic life support (BLS) training methods, the most effective formula remains undefined. To identify a gold standard, we performed a systematic review describing reported BLS training methods for laypeople and analyzed their effectiveness. METHODS: We reviewed the MEDLINE database from January 2006 to July 2018 using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, considering all studies training adult laypeople in BLS and performing practical skill assessment. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of the studies using the MERSQI (Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument) scale. RESULTS: Of the 1263 studies identified, 27 were included. Most of them were nonrandomized controlled trials and the mean quality score was 13 out of 18, with substantial agreement between reviewers. The wide heterogeneity of contents, methods and assessment tools precluded pooling of data. Nevertheless, there was an apparent advantage of instructor-led methods, with feedback-supported hands-on practice, and retraining seemed to enhance retention. Training also improved attitudinal aspects. CONCLUSIONS: While there were insufficiently consistent data to establish a gold standard, instructor-led formulas, hands-on training with feedback devices and frequent retraining seemed to yield better results. Further research on adult BLS training may need to seek standardized quality criteria and validated evaluation instruments to ensure consistency.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos
9.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 56(2): 84-89, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare from a gender perspective the social profile of patients admitted to a respiratory unit for COPD exacerbations (COPDE). METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study in patients with serious COPDE in which demographic, clinical, and social data (economic situation, care, dependency for basic and instrumental activities, social risk, caregiver overload, use of social services) were collected using questionnaires and indices such as Barthel, Lawton-Brody, Zarit, Barber, and Gijón. A descriptive analysis was made of patients' social and healthcare situation, compared on the basis of gender. RESULTS: We included 253 patients, aged 68.9±9.8years, 58 (23%) women, FEV1 42.1±14.2%, and Charlson index 1.8±0.9; 37.9% were active smokers. In total, 55.2% had an income of less than €800/month, 46.2% had some dependency for basic activities, and 89.3% for instrumental activities, 89% presented social fragility, while 64% were in a situation of social problem/risk; 49% had a caregiver, 83% in a non-formal arrangement, 90.9% of whom were women, with some overload reported by 69.2%. A total of 21.4% lived alone, and 22.9% had contacted social services. Women with COPDE are younger, smoke more actively, and have fewer comorbidities. They have more scant economic resources and assistance and are in a poorer socio-familiar situation, but they are less dependent for some activities. CONCLUSIONS: The social profile of patients with serious COPDE admitted to respiratory units is very unfavorable, especially among women. These inequalities appear to go beyond differences in the expression of COPD, and are associated with gender.

11.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(6): 563-567, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4645

RESUMO

Objective: To explore whether there is a possible problem regarding indoor radon concentration surpassing the new European Directive 2013/59/Euratom threshold in Spanish workplaces. We also aim to find out whether radon concentration might be associated with certain characteristics of workplaces. Method: We performed a cross-sectional study to measure indoor radon concentrations in Spanish workplaces including five different sectors (education, public administration, the health sector, the tourist sector and the private sector). To be measured, the workplace should be occupied permanently by at least one worker. Alpha-track type radon detectors were placed for at least three months and read at the Galician Radon Laboratory at the University of Santiago de Compostela. A descriptive analysis was performed on radon distribution by sector, building characteristics and number of workers affected. Results: We faced enormous difficulties in finding volunteers for this study. Galicia and Madrid had the highest number of measurements. Of a total of 248 measurements, 27% had concentrations above 300 Bq/m3. Median radon concentration was 251 Bq/m3 in Galicia, followed by Madrid, with 61.5 Bq/m3. Forty-six percent of the workplaces measured in Galicia had radon concentrations higher than 300 Bq/m3 followed by 10.6% in Madrid. Nineteen percent of all workers were exposed to more than 300 Bq/m3 and 6.3% were exposed to radon concentrations higher than 500 Bq/m3. Conclusion: Indoor radon exposure might be a relevant problem in Spanish workplaces and the number of affected workers could be high. The prevalence of workers exposed to high radon concentrations probably depends on the geographical area


Objetivo: Explorar si podría existir un problema en cuanto a la concentración de radón en los puestos de trabajo en España por superación del umbral propuesto por la nueva Directiva Europea 2013/59/Euratom. También se pretende conocer si la concentración de radón puede estar asociada a las características de los puestos de trabajo. Método: Estudio transversal en seis regiones y diferentes sectores (educación, administración pública, sanitario, turístico y privado). El puesto de trabajo medido debía ser ocupado de manera permanente por al menos un trabajador. Los detectores de radón de tipo alfa-track estuvieron colocados al menos 3 meses y fueron revelados en el Laboratorio de Radón de Galicia, de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de la concentración de radón por sector, por características de los edificios y por número de trabajadores afectados. Resultados: Hubo dificultades para encontrar voluntarios para este estudio. Galicia y Madrid tuvieron el mayor número de mediciones. Se midieron 248 lugares de trabajo, con el 27% por encima de los 300 Bq/m3. La concentración mediana fue de 251 Bq/m3 en Galicia, seguida de Madrid con 61,5 Bq/m3. El 46% de los puestos de trabajo en Galicia tenían concentraciones mayores de 300 Bq/m3, y el 10,6% en Madrid. El 19% de los trabajadores estuvieron expuestos a más de 300 Bq/m3 y el 6,3% a más de 500 Bq/m3. Conclusión: La exposición a radón podría ser un problema de salud relevante en los lugares de trabajo en España. El número de trabajadores expuestos parece elevado. La prevalencia de trabajadores afectados depende del área geográfica

12.
Gac Sanit ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676139

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between exposure to radon and genitourinary cancer in a mining population through a systematic review of the scientific literature. METHOD: A systematic review of the scientific literature was carried out in MEDLINE (PubMed), combining MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and free terms. We applied a specific scale to assess the quality of the included studies. RESULTS: We included 17 studies; all were cohort studies with the exception of one which was a pooling of data. All studies included analysed the relationship between exposure to radon and genitourinary cancer. While some studies point towards an association between radon exposure and genitourinary cancer, especially kidney cancer, others do not find such association. CONCLUSIONS: The included studies showed great heterogeneity. It cannot be concluded that there is an association between exposure to radon and genitourinary cancer. More research is needed on this topic, designing studies with higher statistical power, better control of confounders, and preferably prospective.

13.
Environ Res ; 179(Pt B): 108812, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between do-it-yourself activities entailing the exposure to carcinogenic substances and the risk of lung cancer. METHODS: We pooled individual data from different case-control studies conducted in Northwestern Spain which investigated residential radon and lung cancer. Cases had an anatomopathologically confirmed primary lung cancer and controls were selected at the pre-surgery unit with uncomplicated surgeries. Both cases and controls were older than 30 years with no previous cancer history. All participants were interviewed face-to-face using a specific questionnaire. Painting, model building, furniture refinishing and woodworking or home carpentry were the do-it-yourself activities considered risky due to exposure to carcinogenic agents. RESULTS: We included 1528 cases and 1457 controls. Practicing do-it-yourself risk activities was more frequent among cases: 16.0% were exposed to carcinogenic exposures during leisure time, compared to 11.8% for controls. The overall adjusted OR for lung cancer risk among individuals who practiced do-it-yourself risk activities, was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.36-2.31); this was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.51-3.11) when the analysis was restricted to individuals who performed these activities for at least 10 years. These risks were greater when the analyses were carried out exclusively among never-smokers, with the respective ORs being 2.04 (95% CI: 1.38-3.01) and 3.10 (95% CI: 1.78-5.40). CONCLUSION: These results support the hypothesis that do-it-yourself activities involving exposure to certain carcinogens are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, both in ever and never-smokers.

14.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740082

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Scant evidence is available on whether dependency for basic (BADL) or instrumental (IADL) activities of daily living can be predictors of mortality after severe COPD exacerbation (COPDE). In addition, it is as yet unclear whether the inclusion of this parameter in a multidimensional score can improve the prediction of mortality. METHODOLOGY: Prospective cohort study, with follow-up of patients discharged after COPDE and multivariate analysis of clinical-demographic and dependency variables (Barthel and Lawton and Brody indices) as predictors of mortality. Three scores were generated (including or not including dependency for BADL and IADL) that were compared with each other and with other commonly used multidimensional indices (BODEx, ADO, DOSE, CODEx). RESULTS: In total, 247 patients were included, 112 (45%, 3); and 195 (72.4%) had some dependency for BADL and IADL. Survival was 631.7 (258.8) days, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 60-912 days. Fifty-four (21.9%, 95% CI 17-27) patients died. Age> 60 years, FEV1 <50% and Charlson score ≥ 3 were independent predictors in the 3 models generated. Dependency for BADL and IADL were predictors in each of the models in which they were included. The score that included the dependency for BADL presented the best predictive capacity (area under the curve 0.818, 95% CI 0.757-0.879). Stratification into tertiles differentiated groups with a higher risk of death from the beginning of the follow-up (P<.01). CONCLUSIONS: Dependence for activities of daily living, especially the most elementary ones, is an independent predictor of mortality after a severe COPDE that is comparable to clinical variables. Its inclusion in multidimensional scores clearly improves predictive capacity.

15.
Gac Sanit ; 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the biomedical journal characteristics that are associated with the retraction of papers. METHOD: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. All papers retracted and indexed in PubMed from January 1st 2013 to December 31st, 2016 were included. We used nine main categories to classify retractions: aspects related with data, authors issues, plagiarism, unethical research, journal issues, review process, conflict of interest, other, and unknown. These categories were further classified as: misconduct, suspicion of misconduct, or no misconduct. RESULTS: The proportion of retraction was 2.5 per 10,000 publications. Retractions appeared in 611 journals. During the study period, retraction due to misconduct was more frequent among journals with low-impact factor. Within these retracted publications, among low-impact journals the presence of misconduct was higher with a 73% compared to 61% for the high-impact journals (p=0.001). There were differences in the percentage of retractions due to misconduct regarding the journal classification category (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Retraction of publications is present in both high- and low-impact factor biomedical journals, but misconduct is more frequent among the papers retracted from lower impact journals. Measures before and after publication should be taken to limit misconduct.

16.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 55(9): 459-464, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186155

RESUMO

Introducción: La silicosis es una enfermedad crónica progresiva producida por la inhalación de sílice cristalina. La mayoría de los casos aparecen en trabajadores de minería de interior y extracción de piedra natural (pizarra, granito). Ante la progresiva aparición de nuevos casos de silicosis en trabajadores con conglomerados artificiales de cuarzo (CAC), se planteó un estudio que tuvo como objetivo analizar las características de la silicosis producida por un nuevo agente en España. Métodos: El estudio consistió en una serie de 96 casos diagnosticados de silicosis según criterios internacionales durante el periodo comprendido entre 2010 y 2017. Se analizaron las características clínicas, radiológicas, funcionales y patológicas. Resultados: La edad media fue de 45 años, el 55% con silicosis simple y el 45% con silicosis complicada. En 10 pacientes se diagnosticó silicosis acelerada, con una media de 33 años de edad. El tiempo medio de exposición a los conglomerados fue de 15 años y en un 77% no se utilizaban medidas de protección adecuadas. La mitad de los pacientes estaban asintomáticos y presentaban diferentes formas clásicas en la radiografía de tórax y tomografía computarizada de alta resolución de tórax, así como imágenes de vidrio deslustrado. No se observaron alteraciones en la función pulmonar. Conclusiones: La silicosis en los trabajadores con CAC se observa en personas jóvenes, en activo, en un considerable porcentaje de forma acelerada, con escasos síntomas y sin alteración funcional. Las medidas de protección son escasas. Es importante conocer estas características para el diagnóstico precoz y las necesarias medidas preventivas


Introduction: Silicosis is a chronic progressive disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica. Most cases develop in underground mine workers and in subjects involved in the extraction of natural stone (slate and granite). In view of the progressive emergence of new cases of silicosis in artificial quartz conglomerate workers, we performed a study to analyze the characteristics of silicosis produced by this new agent in Spain. Methods: The study consisted of a series of 96 cases of silicosis diagnosed according to international criteria during the period 2010-2017. We analyzed clinical, radiological, pathological and functional characteristics. Results: Mean age of participants was 45 years; 55% had simple silicosis and 45% had complicated silicosis. Ten patients were diagnosed with accelerated silicosis, with a mean age of 33 years. Mean time of exposure to conglomerates was 15 years, and 77% had not used appropriate protection measures. Half of the patients were asymptomatic and presented different classic forms on chest X-ray and chest high-resolution computed tomography, along with ground-glass images. No lung function changes were recorded. Conclusions: Silicosis in artificial quartz conglomerate workers occurs in a young, actively employed population, a considerable percentage of whom present an accelerated form. They have few symptoms and no functional limitations. Protection measures are scarce. It is important to characterize these features to provide early diagnosis and implement the necessary preventive measures


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Silicose/etiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Quartzo/toxicidade , Diagnóstico Precoce , Silicose/patologia , Silicose/diagnóstico por imagem , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Radiografia Torácica
17.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 58(11-12): 1187-1193, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402692

RESUMO

Background. Vertical facial growth has a high prevalence. Nonspecialized professionals have shown low sensitivity to identify patients at risk. In the face of this difficulty, we designed and validated a screening checklist for vertical facial growth. Methods. A multidisciplinary team of 5 members developed the Vertical Facial Growth Screening Test. A sample of 160 evaluations was obtained. We consider as the gold standard the evaluation of 2 specialists in dentofacial orthopedics. Results. Consistency measured with Cronbach α was .675 for 10 items. Test-retest reliability was .956. The interobserver concordance was .886. The receiver operating characteristic curve has .987 area under the curve. Conclusion. This is the first study to design and validate a screening checklist for vertical facial growth for nonexpert evaluators. We think that given its good performance, ease of use, inexpensiveness, and availability, the test could be useful for nontrained professionals dealing with children.

18.
Am J Infect Control ; 47(12): 1474-1478, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is recommended in pregnant women and prior to urologic procedures with anticipated mucosal disruption. However, there is still insufficient evidence of the usefulness of treating ASB prior to urologic procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain the risk of infections in patients undergoing urologic surgery based on the presence of ASB. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study among patients undergoing urologic surgery at a single center located in Medellín, Colombia. All patients were screened for ASB prior to their procedures. Patients were evaluated for the development of any postoperative infectious complications for up to 30 days after the procedure. RESULTS: A total of 149 patients were included in this cohort. Incidence of ASB was 14.8%. Thirteen patients (8.72%) developed infectious complications: 3 (13.64%) with ASB and 10 (7.87%) without ABS. Factors associated with postoperative infectious complications included urologic cancers (hazard ratio [HR], 5.26; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.24-22.37), urologic interventions in the preceding 3 months (HR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.02-13.51), and use of antibiotics 3 months prior to surgery (HR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.01-15.49). Presence of ASB was not associated with postsurgical infectious complications (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.26-3.96). CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between ASB and postoperative infectious complications. There were other factors associated with infectious complications, such as urologic cancer, previous history of urologic manipulation, and antibiotic use.

19.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 198, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a relationship between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and the development of lung cancer (LC). The aim of this study is to analyse several blood markers and compare their concentrations in patients with only COPD and LC + COPD. METHODS: Case-control study with cases presenting combined LC and COPD and two control groups (patients presenting only COPD and patients presenting only LC). We also included LC patients with descriptive purposes. In both groups, peripheral blood analyses of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, total leukocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, total platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, alpha 1-antitripsin (A1AT), IgE, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol and bilirubin were performed. We developed univariate and multivariate analyses of these markers, as well as a risk score variable, and we evaluated its performance through ROC curves. RESULTS: We included 280 patients, 109 cases (LC + COPD), 83 controls (COPD) and 88 LC without COPD. No differences were observed in the distribution by sex, age, BMI, smoking, occupational exposure, lung function, GOLD stage or comorbidity. Patients with LC + COPD had significantly higher levels of neutrophils [OR 1.00 (95%CI 1.00-1.00), p = 0.03] and A1AT [OR 1.02 (95%CI 1.01-1.03), p = 0.003] and lower cholesterol levels [OR 0.98 (95%CI 0.97-0.99), p = 0.009] than COPD controls. We developed a risk score variable combining neutrophils, A1AT and cholesterol, achieving a sensitivity of 80%, a negative predictive value of 90.7% and an area under the curve of 0.78 (95%CI 0.71-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: COPD patients who also have LC have higher levels of neutrophils and A1AT and lower of cholesterol. These parameters could be potentially predicting biomarkers of LC in COPD patients.

20.
Lung Cancer ; 135: 10-15, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship of GSTT1, GSTM1, XRCC1 (rs25487), ERCC1 (rs11615, rs3212986), ERCC2 (rs13181), XRCC3 (rs861539), OGG1 (rs1052133), and Alpha-1-Antitrypsin mutations (AAT) with the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers, and ascertain if there is an effect modification between these polymorphisms and residential radon exposure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We designed a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in a radon-prone area. 322 cases and 338 controls, all never-smokers, were included. They were selected using a frequency sampling based on sex and age distribution of the cases. Participants donated 3 ml. of whole blood used to determine genotype for polymorphisms. They placed a radon detector to measure residential radon exposure in their dwelling. RESULTS: The OR for deleted GSTM1 patients was 3.46 (95% CI = 1.52-7.89) at residential radon exposures above 200 Bq/m3. The ERCC1 rs3212986 polymorphism was the most associated with the risk of developing lung cancer, both for low and high radon exposures. The ERCC1 rs321986 GT and TT genotypes (at radon concentrations >200 Bq/m3) were more significantly associated with higher lung cancer risk (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.29-4.45; OR = 4.45, 95% CI = 1.26-15.7, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that certain polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA-repair and carriers of GSTM1 deletion have an increased risk of lung cancer in never-smokers exposed to residential radon.

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