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1.
Epilepsia ; 60(11): 2277-2285, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Monoallelic de novo gain-of-function variants in the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN8A are one of the recurrent causes of severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In addition, a small number of de novo or inherited monoallelic loss-of-function variants have been found in patients with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, or movement disorders. Inherited monoallelic variants causing either gain or loss-of-function are also associated with less severe conditions such as benign familial infantile seizures and isolated movement disorders. In all three categories, the affected individuals are heterozygous for a SCN8A variant in combination with a wild-type allele. In the present study, we describe two unusual families with severely affected individuals who inherited biallelic variants of SCN8A. METHODS: We identified two families with biallelic SCN8A variants by diagnostic gene panel sequencing. Functional analysis of the variants was performed using voltage clamp recordings from transfected ND7/23 cells. RESULTS: We identified three probands from two unrelated families with DEE due to biallelic SCN8A variants. Each parent of an affected individual carried a single heterozygous SCN8A variant and exhibited mild cognitive impairment without seizures. In both families, functional analysis demonstrated segregation of one allele with complete loss-of-function, and one allele with altered biophysical properties consistent with partial loss-of-function. SIGNIFICANCE: These studies demonstrate that SCN8A DEE may, in rare cases, result from inheritance of two variants, both of which exhibit reduced channel activity. In these families, heterozygosity for the dominant variants results in less severe disease than biallelic inheritance of two variant alleles. The clinical consequences of variants with partial and complete loss of SCN8A function are variable and likely to be influenced by genetic background.

3.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic added value of electrical source imaging (ESI) in presurgical evaluation of patients with drug resistant focal epilepsy. METHODS: Eighty-two consecutive patients were included. We analyzed both low density (LD) and high density (HD) EEG recordings. LD ESI was done on interictal and ictal signals recorded during long-term video-EEG monitoring (LTM), with standard 25 electrodes and age-matched template head models. HD ESI was done on shorter recordings (90-120 min), with 256 electrodes, using individual head model. The multidisciplinary team made decisions first blinded to ESI (based on all other modalities) and then discussed the results of the ESI. We considered that ESI had diagnostic added value, when it provided non-redundant information that changed the patients management plan. RESULTS: ESI had diagnostic added value in 28 patients (34%). In most cases (85.7%), these changes were related to planning of the invasive recordings. In nine out of 13 patients, invasive recordings confirmed the localization. Out of eight patients in whom the ESI source was resected, six became seizure-free. CONCLUSIONS: ESI provides non-redundant information in one third of the patients undergoing presurgical evaluation. SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence for the diagnostic added value of ESI in presurgical evaluation.

4.
Epilepsy Behav ; 97: 244-252, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate electroclinical and neuropsychological features, genetic background, and evolution of children with idiopathic encephalopathy with status epilepticus during slow sleep (ESES), including Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All children diagnosed with idiopathic ESES at the Danish Epilepsy Centre between March 2003 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Repeated 24-hour electroencephalography (24-h EEG) recordings, neuropsychological assessments, and clinical-neurological evaluation were performed throughout the follow-up in all patients. In 13 children, genetic investigations were performed. RESULTS: We collected 24 children (14 males and 10 females). Mean age at ESES diagnosis was 6 years, and mean ESES duration was 2 years and 7 months. Twenty-one children had epileptic seizures. Three children had LKS. Topography of sleep-related EEG epileptic abnormalities was diffuse in 3 subjects, hemispheric in 6, multifocal in 9, and focal in 6. During the active phase of ESES, all children presented with a heterogeneous combination of behavioral and cognitive disturbances. In 14 children, a parallel between severity of the clinical picture and spike-wave index (SWI) was observed. We could not find a strict correlation between the type and severity of neurobehavioral impairment and the side/topography of sleep-related EEG discharges during the active phase of ESES. At the last follow-up, 21 children were in remission from ESES. Complete recovery from neurobehavioral disorders was observed in 5 children. Genetic assessment, performed in 13 children, showed GRIN2A variant in two (15.4%). SIGNIFICANCE: Our patients with idiopathic ESES showed a heterogeneous pattern of epileptic seizures, neurobehavioral disorders, and sleep EEG features. Only one-fourth of children completely recovered from the neuropsychological disturbances after ESES remission. Lack of correlation between severity/type of cognitive derangement and SWI and/or topography of sleep EEG epileptic abnormalities may suggest the contribution of additional factors (including impaired sleep homeostasis due to epileptic activity) in the neurobehavioral derangement that characterize ESES.

7.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(S1): 22-30, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162114

RESUMO

Encephalopathy related to Status Epilepticus during slow Sleep (ESES) is a peculiar electro-clinical condition, with variable etiologies, characterized by an age-dependent phenomenon of extreme activation of epileptic activity during sleep, i.e. "status epilepticus during sleep", that is strictly associated with the appearance of cognitive and behavioral disturbances. Even though the peculiar EEG picture is fundamental for the diagnosis of ESES, clear-cut and shared diagnostic criteria for defining the EEG boundaries of this syndrome are still lacking. The diagnosis of ESES can be further complicated by the variability of the EEG findings, that during the course of the disease can change from diffuse to more or less focal and viceversa, depending both on the spontaneous clinical evolution of this condition and/or on the effects of medications. Given the complexity and the heterogeneity of EEG parameters during the ESES course, it is important to correlate the EEG findings with the concomitant cognitive and behavioral status, possibly taking into account not only the spike-wave index, but also other parameters, such as for instance the topography of the epileptic abnormalities, their patterns of spread, and their fluctuations over time. Moreover, the epileptiform activity not only during sleep, but also during wakefulness, the presence of focal slowing, the organization of the EEG background and a derangement of the sleep architecture may play a role in determining the clinical picture.

8.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(S1): 62-70, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180328

RESUMO

Encephalopathy related to Status Epilepticus during slow Sleep (ESES) is a childhood epilepsy syndrome characterized by appearance of cognitive and behavioural disturbances in conjunction with a striking activation of EEG epileptic abnormalities during sleep. The link between the extreme amount of epileptic discharges during sleep and the deterioration of cognitive functions and behavior is poorly understood. We hypothesize that the negative effects of ESES may depend on the impairment of the synaptic homeostasis processes occurring during normal sleep and that are particularly important in the developmental age. Sleep ensures synaptic homeostasis by promoting synaptic weakening/elimination after the increase of synaptic strength that occurs during wakefulness. Changes in synaptic strength are reflected in the EEG by changes of sleep slow wave activity (SWA). Recent studies in ESES have failed to show changes of sleep SWA, particularly at the site of the epileptic focus, suggesting a spike-related impairment of the homeostatic recovery of sleep. This impaired synaptic homeostasis in the critical period of development may alter cortical wiring and thereby disrupt, often irreversibly, cognitive functions and behavior, leading to the neuropsychological compromise typical of ESES.

9.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(S1): 82-87, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180330

RESUMO

We present some aspects relevant to the definition and diagnosis of Encephalopathy related to Status Epilepticus during slow Sleep (ESES) to further understand the pathophysiological mechanisms in the light of current knowledge and some recent research. Future lines of research in ESES that include investigation of impairment of sleep homeostasis and disruption of age-related plasticity processes in the developmental age are also discussed.

10.
Neurotherapeutics ; 16(3): 848-857, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054119

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in KCNT1 represent an important cause of treatment-resistant epilepsy, for which an effective therapy has been elusive. Reports about the effectiveness of quinidine, a candidate precision therapy, have been mixed. We sought to evaluate the treatment responsiveness of patients with KCNT1-related epilepsy. We performed an observational study of 43 patients using a collaborative KCNT1 patient registry. We assessed treatment efficacy based upon clinical seizure reduction, side effects of quinidine therapy, and variant-specific responsiveness to treatment. Quinidine treatment resulted in a > 50% seizure reduction in 20% of patients, with rare patients achieving transient seizure freedom. Multiple other therapies demonstrated some success in reducing seizure frequency, including the ketogenic diet and vigabatrin, the latter particularly in patients with epileptic spasms. Patients with the best quinidine response had variants that clustered distal to the NADP domain within the RCK2 domain of the protein. Half of patients did not receive a quinidine trial. In those who did, nearly half did not achieve therapeutic blood levels. More favorable response to quinidine in patients with KCNT1 variants distal to the NADP domain within the RCK2 domain may suggest a variant-specific response.

12.
Epilepsia ; 60(5): 830-844, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic variants in SCN8A have been associated with a wide spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes, ranging from benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS) to epileptic encephalopathies with variable severity. Furthermore, a few patients with intellectual disability (ID) or movement disorders without epilepsy have been reported. The vast majority of the published SCN8A patients suffer from severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In this study, we aimed to provide further insight on the spectrum of milder SCN8A-related epilepsies. METHODS: A cohort of 1095 patients were screened using a next generation sequencing panel. Further patients were ascertained from a network of epilepsy genetics clinics. Patients with severe DEE and BFIS were excluded from the study. RESULTS: We found 36 probands who presented with an SCN8A-related epilepsy and normal intellect (33%) or mild (61%) to moderate ID (6%). All patients presented with epilepsy between age 1.5 months and 7 years (mean = 13.6 months), and 58% of these became seizure-free, two-thirds on monotherapy. Neurological disturbances included ataxia (28%) and hypotonia (19%) as the most prominent features. Interictal electroencephalogram was normal in 41%. Several recurrent variants were observed, including Ile763Val, Val891Met, Gly1475Arg, Gly1483Lys, Phe1588Leu, Arg1617Gln, Ala1650Val/Thr, Arg1872Gln, and Asn1877Ser. SIGNIFICANCE: With this study, we explore the electroclinical features of an intermediate SCN8A-related epilepsy with mild cognitive impairment, which is for the majority a treatable epilepsy.

13.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(2): 386-391, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847371

RESUMO

Mutations in the sodium-activated potassium channel gene KCNT1 have been associated with nonlesional sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE). We report the co-occurrence of mild malformation of cortical development (mMCD) and KCNT1 mutations in four patients with SHE. Focal cortical dysplasia type I was neuropathologically diagnosed after epilepsy surgery in three unrelated MRI-negative patients, periventricular nodular heterotopia was detected in one patient by MRI. Our findings suggest that KCNT1 epileptogenicity may result not only from dysregulated excitability by controlling Na+K+ transport, but also from mMCD. Therefore, pathogenic variants in KCNT1 may encompass both lesional and nonlesional epilepsies.

14.
Neurology ; 92(6): e576-e586, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of electromagnetic source imaging (EMSI) in presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We prospectively recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) simultaneously with EEG and performed EMSI, comprising electric source imaging, magnetic source imaging, and analysis of combined MEG-EEG datasets, using 2 different software packages. As reference standard for irritative zone (IZ) and seizure onset zone (SOZ), we used intracranial recordings and for localization accuracy, outcome 1 year after operation. RESULTS: We included 141 consecutive patients. EMSI showed localized epileptiform discharges in 94 patients (67%). Most of the epileptiform discharge clusters (72%) were identified by both modalities, 15% only by EEG, and 14% only by MEG. Agreement was substantial between inverse solutions and moderate between software packages. EMSI provided new information that changed the management plan in 34% of the patients, and these changes were useful in 80%. Depending on the method, EMSI had a concordance of 53% to 89% with IZ and 35% to 73% with SOZ. Localization accuracy of EMSI was between 44% and 57%, which was not significantly different from MRI (49%-76%) and PET (54%-85%). Combined EMSI achieved significantly higher odds ratio compared to electric source imaging and magnetic source imaging. CONCLUSION: EMSI has accuracy similar to established imaging methods and provides clinically useful, new information in 34% of the patients. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that EMSI had a concordance of 53%-89% and 35%-73% (depending on analysis) for the localization of epileptic focus as compared with intracranial recordings-IZ and SOZ, respectively.

15.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 19(3): 217-228, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661434

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Within the last decade, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has resulted in remarkable advances in the field of epilepsy genetics. NGS has become a routine part of the diagnostic workup in many countries. A workup that has led to higher diagnostic yields and insights into the underlying disease mechanisms. Areas covered: In this review, we report on the recent contributions of NGS testing to the diagnosis and the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms, phenotypic variability, and genetic heterogeneity of different epilepsies including developmental and/or epileptic encephalopathies, focal and generalized epilepsies. Furthermore, we discuss how the increased knowledge of the genetic architecture of the epilepsies can be translated into more personalized treatment. Expert opinion/commentary: Targeted gene panels or whole exome sequencing can provide a genetic diagnosis for up to 30% of the patients with early-onset epilepsy. Despite current technical limitations, NGS-based technologies can become the new first-tier diagnostic tests in the epilepsies. As the pool of genetically diagnosed patients has increased, so has the demand for more accurate treatment. Approximately 25% of the epilepsy patients with de novo mutations have genetic diagnoses with potential targets for precision medicine approaches, thus illustrating the enormous utility of genetic testing for therapeutic decision-making.

16.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 129(11): 2403-2410, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of automated EEG source imaging (ESI) in localizing epileptogenic zone. METHODS: Long-term EEG, recorded with the standard 25-electrode array of the IFCN, from 41 consecutive patients with focal epilepsy who underwent resective surgery, were analyzed blinded to the surgical outcome. The automated analysis comprised spike-detection, clustering and source imaging at the half-rising time and at the peak of each spike-cluster, using individual head-models with six tissue-layers and a distributed source model (sLORETA). The fully automated approach presented ESI of the cluster with the highest number of spikes, at the half-rising time. In addition, a physician involved in the presurgical evaluation of the patients, evaluated the automated ESI results (up to four clusters per patient) in clinical context and selected the dominant cluster and the analysis time-point (semi-automated approach). The reference standard was location of the resected area and outcome one year after operation. RESULTS: Accuracy was 61% (95% CI: 45-76%) for the fully automated approach and 78% (95% CI: 62-89%) for the semi-automated approach. CONCLUSION: Automated ESI has an accuracy similar to previously reported neuroimaging methods. SIGNIFICANCE: Automated ESI will contribute to increased utilization of source imaging in the presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy.

18.
Neurology ; 91(12): e1112-e1124, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the electroclinical features of SCN8A infantile developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE13, OMIM #614558). METHODS: Twenty-two patients, aged 19 months to 22 years, underwent electroclinical assessment. RESULTS: Sixteen of 22 patients had mildly delayed development since birth. Drug-resistant epilepsy started at a median age of 4 months, followed by developmental slowing, pyramidal/extrapyramidal signs (22/22), movement disorders (12/22), cortical blindness (17/22), sialorrhea, and severe gastrointestinal symptoms (15/22), worsening during early childhood and plateauing at age 5 to 9 years. Death occurred in 4 children, following extreme neurologic deterioration, at 22 months to 5.5 years. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus recurred in 14 of 22 patients. The most effective antiepileptic drugs were oxcarbazepine, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and benzodiazepines. EEG showed background deterioration, epileptiform abnormalities with a temporo-occipital predominance, and posterior delta/beta activity correlating with visual impairment. Video-EEG documented focal seizures (FS) (22/22), spasm-like episodes (8/22), cortical myoclonus (8/22), and myoclonic absences (1/22). FS typically clustered and were prolonged (<20 minutes) with (1) cyanosis, hypomotor, and vegetative semiology, sometimes unnoticed, followed by (2) tonic-vibratory and (3) (hemi)-clonic manifestations ± evolution to a bilateral tonic-clonic seizure. FS had posterior-temporal/occipital onset, slowly spreading and sometimes migrating between hemispheres. Brain MRI showed progressive parenchymal atrophy and restriction of the optic radiations. CONCLUSIONS: SCN8A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy has strikingly consistent electroclinical features, suggesting a global progressive brain dysfunction primarily affecting the temporo-occipital regions. Both uncontrolled epilepsy and developmental compromise contribute to the profound impairment (increasing risk of death) during early childhood, but stabilization occurs in late childhood.

19.
Genet Med ; 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093711

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of epilepsies related to DEPDC5, NPRL2 and NPRL3 genes encoding the GATOR1 complex, a negative regulator of the mTORC1 pathway METHODS: We analyzed clinical and genetic data of 73 novel probands (familial and sporadic) with epilepsy-related variants in GATOR1-encoding genes and proposed new guidelines for clinical interpretation of GATOR1 variants. RESULTS: The GATOR1 seizure phenotype consisted mostly in focal seizures (e.g., hypermotor or frontal lobe seizures in 50%), with a mean age at onset of 4.4 years, often sleep-related and drug-resistant (54%), and associated with focal cortical dysplasia (20%). Infantile spasms were reported in 10% of the probands. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) occurred in 10% of the families. Novel classification framework of all 140 epilepsy-related GATOR1 variants (including the variants of this study) revealed that 68% are loss-of-function pathogenic, 14% are likely pathogenic, 15% are variants of uncertain significance and 3% are likely benign. CONCLUSION: Our data emphasize the increasingly important role of GATOR1 genes in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsies (>180 probands to date). The GATOR1 phenotypic spectrum ranges from sporadic early-onset epilepsies with cognitive impairment comorbidities to familial focal epilepsies, and SUDEP.

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