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1.
Curr Biol ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008900

RESUMO

Climate change is generating an intensification of extreme environmental conditions, including frequent and severe droughts [1] that have been associated with increased social conflict in vertebrates [2-4], including humans [5]. Yet, fluctuating climatic conditions have been shown to also promote cooperative behavior and the formation of vertebrate societies over both ecological and evolutionary timescales [6]. Determining when climatic uncertainty breeds social discord or promotes cooperative living (or both) is fundamental to predicting how species will respond to anthropogenic climate change. In light of this, our limited understanding of the order of evolutionary events-that is, whether harsh environments drive the evolution of sociality [6] or, alternatively, whether sociality facilitates the invasion of harsh environments [7]-and of how cooperation and conflict coevolve in response to environmental fluctuation represent critical gaps in knowledge. Here, we perform comparative phylogenetic analyses on Australian rodents (Muridae: Hydromyini) and show that sociality evolves only under harsh conditions of low rainfall and high temperature variability and never under relatively benign conditions. Further, we demonstrate that the requirement to cooperate under harsh climatic conditions generates social competition for reproduction within groups (reflected in the degree of sexual dimorphism in traits associated with intrasexual competition [8]), which in turn shapes the evolution of body size dimorphism. Our findings suggest that as the environment becomes more severe [1], the resilience of some species may hinge on their propensity to live socially, but in so doing, this is likely to affect the evolution of traits that mediate social conflict.

2.
Ecol Lett ; 23(3): 467-475, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912600

RESUMO

Although interspecific competition has long been recognised as a major driver of trait divergence and adaptive evolution, relatively little effort has focused on how it influences the evolution of intraspecific cooperation. Here we identify the mechanism by which the perceived pressure of interspecific competition influences the transition from intraspecific conflict to cooperation in a facultative cooperatively breeding species, the Asian burying beetle Nicrophorus nepalensis. We not only found that beetles are more cooperative at carcasses when blowfly maggots have begun to digest the tissue, but that this social cooperation appears to be triggered by a single chemical cue - dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) - emitted from carcasses consumed by blowflies, but not from control carcasses lacking blowflies. Our results provide experimental evidence that interspecific competition promotes the transition from intraspecific conflict to cooperation in N. nepalensis via a surprisingly simple social chemical cue that is a reliable indicator of resource competition between species.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Cruzamento , Larva , Comportamento Social
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1912): 20191623, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594502

RESUMO

Bet-hedging-a strategy that reduces fitness variance at the expense of lower mean fitness among different generations-is thought to evolve as a biological adaptation to environmental unpredictability. Despite widespread use of the bet-hedging concept, most theoretical treatments have largely made unrealistic demographic assumptions, such as non-overlapping generations and fixed or infinite population sizes. Here, we extend the concept to consider overlapping generations by defining bet-hedging as a strategy with lower variance and mean per capita growth rate across different environments. We also define an opposing strategy-the rising-tide-that has higher mean but also higher variance in per capita growth. These alternative strategies lie along a continuum of biological adaptions to environmental fluctuation. Using stochastic Lotka-Volterra models to explore the evolution of the rising-tide versus bet-hedging strategies, we show that both the mean environmental conditions and the temporal scales of their fluctuations, as well as whether population dynamics are discrete or continuous, are crucial in shaping the type of strategy that evolves in fluctuating environments. Our model demonstrates that there are likely to be a wide range of ways that organisms with overlapping generations respond to environmental unpredictability beyond the classic bet-hedging concept.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4554, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591404

RESUMO

Explaining colour variation among animals at broad geographic scales remains challenging. Here we demonstrate how deep learning-a form of artificial intelligence-can reveal subtle but robust patterns of colour feature variation along an ecological gradient, as well as help identify the underlying mechanisms generating this biogeographic pattern. Using over 20,000 images with precise GPS locality information belonging to nearly 2,000 moth species from Taiwan, our deep learning model generates a 2048-dimension feature vector that accurately predicts each species' mean elevation based on colour and shape features. Using this multidimensional feature vector, we find that within-assemblage image feature variation is smaller in high elevation assemblages. Structural equation modeling suggests that this reduced image feature diversity is likely the result of colder environments selecting for darker colouration, which limits the colour diversity of assemblages at high elevations. Ultimately, with the help of deep learning, we will be able to explore the endless forms of natural morphological variation at unpreceded depths.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Biodiversidade , Cor , Variação Genética , Insetos/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Altitude , Animais , Clima , Aprendizado Profundo , Insetos/fisiologia , Mariposas/classificação , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/fisiologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(6): 1681-1688, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479576

RESUMO

Transposable elements (TEs) - selfish DNA sequences that can move within the genome - comprise a large proportion of the genomes of many organisms. Although low-coverage whole-genome sequencing can be used to survey TE composition, it is noneconomical for species with large quantities of DNA. Here, we utilize restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq) as an alternative method to survey TE composition. First, we demonstrate in silico that double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) markers contain the same TE compositions as whole genome assemblies across arthropods. Next, we show empirically using eight Synalpheus snapping shrimp species with large genomes that TE compositions from ddRADseq and low-coverage whole-genome sequencing are comparable within and across species. Finally, we develop a new bioinformatic pipeline, TERAD, to extract TE compositions from RADseq data. Our study expands the utility of RADseq to study the repeatome, making comparative studies of genome structure for species with large genomes more tractable and affordable.

6.
Biol Lett ; 15(8): 20190314, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387470

RESUMO

In cooperatively breeding species, social conflict is typically assumed to underlie destructive behaviours like infanticide. However, an untested alternative hypothesis in birds is that infanticide in the form of egg tossing may simply be a parental response to partial nest predation representing a life-history trade-off. We examined egg tossing behaviour in the colonial and cooperatively breeding grey-capped social weaver (Pseudonigrita arnaudi), a plural breeder in which pairs nest separately, often in the same tree. Using infrared nest cameras, we found that 78% of the tossing events from 2012 to 2017 were committed by parents, suggesting that social conflict is unlikely to be the main reason underlying egg tossing in this species. Instead, reductions in clutch size due to both natural and experimentally simulated predation induced parental egg tossing. Our study suggests that destructive behaviour in cooperatively breeding birds can be shaped by a variety of mechanisms beyond social conflict and that alternative hypotheses must be considered when studying the adaptive significance of infanticide in group-living species.


Assuntos
Infanticídio , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Cruzamento , Tamanho da Ninhada , Comportamento Predatório
7.
Am Nat ; 194(2): 207-216, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318278

RESUMO

Cooperatively breeding animals occur in virtually every ecosystem on earth. Comparative and biogeographic studies suggest that both benign and harsh-as well as stable and fluctuating-environments can favor the evolution of cooperative breeding behavior. The fact that cooperative societies occur in environments of such contrasting quality creates a paradox of environmental quality and sociality. The dual benefits framework-which leads to the prediction that the ecological consequences of sociality (e.g., range size) vary depending on the benefits that individuals of each species receive by forming social groups-offers a potential resolution to this paradox. Here we use a case study of two avian lineages, starlings (Sturnidae) and hornbills (Bucerotidae), in which environmental unpredictability appears to have opposite effects on the evolution of cooperation to test the dual benefits framework. Consistent with previous work, harsh and unpredictable environments promote cooperative breeding behavior in starlings, which in turn leads to larger geographic ranges. However, cooperatively breeding hornbills occur in benign and stable environments, but sociality does not influence range size. Our study suggests that the paradox of environmental quality and sociality arises largely because cooperative breeding is an umbrella term encompassing social species that form groups for different reasons. We demonstrate that differentiating among the functional causes of social group formation is critical for developing a predictive framework for understanding the evolution of cooperative breeding behavior.

8.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 34: 33-39, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247415

RESUMO

Sociality is exceedingly rare in the marine environment, with true eusociality found only within a single genus of sponge-dwelling snapping shrimp. This genus is socially diverse and exhibits multiple independent evolutionary origins of both eusociality and communal breeding from pair-forming ancestors. Ecology was critical to the evolution of shrimp sociality, as the transition from host specialization to generalism preceded the evolution of eusociality, and the transition from small to large host sponges favored the evolution of communal breeding. Moreover, a change in life history from planktonic to non-dispersing, crawling larvae only occurred in eusocial species. Here, we present a hypothesis describing the evolutionary transitions toward sociality in shrimp that serves to illustrate how ecology and life history interact to shape social evolution more broadly.

9.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 34(9): 844-855, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130318

RESUMO

Although social behavior can have a strong genetic component, it can also result in selection on genome structure and function, thereby influencing the evolution of the genome itself. Here we explore the bidirectional links between social behavior and genome architecture by considering variation in social and/or mating behavior among populations (social polymorphisms) and across closely related species. We propose that social behavior can influence genome architecture via associated demographic changes due to social living. We establish guidelines to exploit emerging whole-genome sequences using analytical approaches that examine genome structure and function at different levels (regulatory vs structural variation) from the perspective of both molecular biology and population genetics in an ecological context.


Assuntos
Genoma , Comportamento Social , Ecologia , Genética Populacional
10.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(2): 264-272, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076777

RESUMO

Negative feedback of the vertebrate stress response via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by glucocorticoid receptors in the brain. Epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nr3c1), including DNA methylation of the promoter region, can influence expression of these receptors, impacting behavior, physiology, and fitness. However, we still know little about the long-term effects of these modifications on fitness. To better understand these fitness effects, we must first develop a non-lethal method to assess DNA methylation in the brain that allows for multiple measurements throughout an organism's lifetime. In this study, we aimed to determine if blood is a viable biomarker for Nr3c1 DNA methylation in two brain regions (hippocampus and hypothalamus) in adult European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). We found that DNA methylation of CpG sites in the complete Nr3c1 putative promoter varied among tissue types and was lowest in blood. Although we identified a similar cluster of correlated Nr3c1 putative promoter CpG sites within each tissue, this cluster did not show any correlation in DNA methylation among tissues. Additional studies should consider the role of the developmental environment in producing epigenetic modifications in different tissues.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Metilação de DNA , Expressão Gênica , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Estorninhos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/sangue , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/sangue , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo
11.
Parasitology ; 146(2): 213-219, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009719

RESUMO

The biogeographic histories of parasites and pathogens are infrequently compared with those of free-living species, including their hosts. Documenting the frequency with which parasites and pathogens disperse across geographic regions contributes to understanding not only their evolution, but also the likelihood that they may become emerging infectious diseases. Haemosporidian parasites of birds (parasite genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) are globally distributed, dipteran-vectored parasites. To date, over 2000 avian haemosporidian lineages have been designated by molecular barcoding methods. To achieve their current distributions, some lineages must have dispersed long distances, often over water. Here we quantify such events using the global avian haemosporidian database MalAvi and additional records primarily from the Americas. We scored lineages as belonging to one or more global biogeographic regions based on infection records. Most lineages were restricted to a single region but some were globally distributed. We also used part of the cytochrome b gene to create genus-level parasite phylogenies and scored well-supported nodes as having descendant lineages in regional sympatry or allopatry. Descendant sister lineages of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon were distributed in allopatry in 11, 16 and 15% of investigated nodes, respectively. Although a small but significant fraction of the molecular variance in cytochrome b of all three genera could be explained by biogeographic region, global parasite dispersal likely contributed to the majority of the unexplained variance. Our results suggest that avian haemosporidian parasites have faced few geographic barriers to dispersal over their evolutionary history.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Haemosporida/fisiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Análise de Variância , Migração Animal , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Aves , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/veterinária , Dípteros/classificação , Dípteros/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Haemosporida/classificação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão
12.
Ecol Evol ; 8(17): 8803-8817, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271547

RESUMO

Adaptive studies of avian clutch size variation across environmental gradients have resulted in what has become known as the fecundity gradient paradox, the observation that clutch size typically decreases with increasing breeding season length along latitudinal gradients, but increases with increasing breeding season length along elevational gradients. These puzzling findings challenge the common belief that organisms should reduce their clutch size in favor of additional nesting attempts as the length of the breeding season increases, an approach typically described as a bet-hedging strategy. Here, we propose an alternative hypothesis-the multitasking hypothesis-and show that laying smaller clutches represents a multitasking strategy of switching between breeding and recovery from breeding. Both our individual-based and analytical models demonstrate that a small clutch size strategy is favored during shorter breeding seasons because less time and energy are wasted under the severe time constraints associated with breeding multiply within a season. Our model also shows that a within-generation bet-hedging strategy is not favored by natural selection, even under a high risk of predation and in long breeding seasons. Thus, saving time-wasting less time as a result of an inability to complete a breeding cycle at the end of breeding season-is likely to be the primary benefit favoring the evolution of small avian clutch sizes during short breeding seasons. We also synthesize the seasonality hypothesis (pronounced seasonality leads to larger clutch size) and clutch size-dependent predation hypothesis (larger clutch size causes higher predation risks) within our multitasking hypothesis to develop an integrative model to help resolve the paradox of contrasting patterns of clutch size along elevational and latitudinal gradients. Ultimately, our models provide a new perspective for understanding life-history evolution under fluctuating environments.

13.
J Exp Biol ; 221(Pt 21)2018 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190315

RESUMO

The cost of reproduction results in a life-history trade-off where investment in current reproduction via costly parental care decreases subsequent fitness. Although this trade-off is thought to occur ubiquitously across animals, there is equivocal evidence that parental care behaviours are costly. A major challenge of studying the cost of parental care has been a lack of consensus over which physiological mechanisms underlie this trade-off. Here, we compare four traits believed to mediate the cost of parental care by examining whether glucocorticoids, oxidative stress, immune function or body condition represent a cost of performing offspring care and shape subsequent fitness. We use a 4 year dataset collected in free-living cooperatively breeding superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus), a species in which parental and alloparental care effort varies widely among individuals and across years. Our results showed that within-individual change in physiology was unrelated to investment in offspring care, and physiological state during chick rearing did not predict the likelihood that an individual would breed in subsequent seasons. Instead, individuals that had elevated baseline corticosterone during incubation performed more nest guarding, suggesting that this hormone may play a preparatory role for investing in offspring care. Together, our results indicate that superb starlings modify their investment in offspring care according to their physiological state during incubation, despite there being no evidence of a short-term physiological cost of parental or alloparental care. Thus, breeding cooperatively appears to provide individuals with the flexibility to adjust their investment in offspring care and overcome any potential costs of reproduction.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Estorninhos/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Quênia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Estorninhos/imunologia
14.
Oecologia ; 188(1): 53-63, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858694

RESUMO

The cost of parental care has long been thought to favor the evolution of cooperative breeding, because breeders can provide reduced parental care when aided by alloparents. Oxidative stress-the imbalance between reactive oxygen species and neutralizing antioxidants-has been proposed to mediate the cost of parental care, though results from empirical studies remain equivocal. We measured changes in oxidative status during reproduction in cooperatively breeding superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus) to gain insight into the relationships among breeding status, parental care, and oxidative stress. We also compared the oxidative cost of reproduction in the cooperatively breeding superb starling to that in a sympatric non-cooperatively breeding species, the greater blue-eared glossy starling (L. chalybaeus), to determine whether cooperatively breeding individuals face reduced oxidative costs of parental care relative to non-cooperatively breeding individuals. Breeders and alloparents of the cooperative species did not differ in oxidative status throughout a breeding attempt. However, individuals of the non-cooperative species incurred an increase in reactive oxygen metabolites proportionally to an individual's workload during offspring care. These findings suggest that non-cooperative starlings experience an oxidative cost of parental care, whereas cooperatively breeding starlings do not. It is possible that high nest predation risk and multi-brooding in the cooperatively breeding species may have favored reduced physiological costs of parental care more strongly compared to pair-breeding starlings. Reduced physiological costs of caring for young may thus represent a direct benefit that promotes cooperative breeding.


Assuntos
Estorninhos , Animais , Cruzamento , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Reprodução
15.
R Soc Open Sci ; 5(2): 172406, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515910

RESUMO

Although cooperatively breeding vertebrates occur disproportionately in unpredictable environments, the underlying mechanism shaping this biogeographic pattern remains unclear. Cooperative breeding may buffer against harsh conditions (hard life hypothesis), or additionally allow for sustained breeding under benign conditions (temporal variability hypothesis). To distinguish between the hard life and temporal variability hypotheses, we investigated whether the number of alloparents at a nest increased reproductive success or load-lightening in superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus), and whether these two types of benefits varied in harsh and benign years. We found that mothers experienced both types of benefits consistent with the temporal variability hypothesis, as larger contingents of alloparents increased the number of young fledged while simultaneously allowing mothers to reduce their provisioning rates under both harsh and benign rainfall conditions. By contrast, fathers experienced load-lightening only under benign rainfall conditions, suggesting that cooperative breeding may serve to take advantage of unpredictable benign breeding seasons when they do occur. Cooperative breeding in unpredictable environments may thus promote flexibility in offspring care behaviour, which could mitigate variability in the cost of raising young. Our results highlight the importance of considering how offspring care decisions vary among breeding roles and across fluctuating environmental conditions.

16.
Horm Behav ; 97: 85-93, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29054796

RESUMO

The steroid hormone testosterone not only plays an important role in gamete production, but also influences social and aggressive behavior. Testosterone varies seasonally, peaking when competition for mates is high and declining during parental care. Surprisingly, little is known about how testosterone mediates social conflict and parental care behavior in highly social species like cooperative breeders, where group members compete for breeding opportunities and provide parental or alloparental care. We examined how testosterone differs across breeding roles in the tropical cooperatively breeding superb starling, Lamprotornis superbus. We determined whether testosterone was elevated in larger groups, and whether testosterone was negatively related to total levels of parental and alloparental care. We found that male breeders had higher testosterone than male helpers and female breeders and helpers during incubation. However, breeding males exhibited a significant decline in testosterone from incubation to chick rearing, and all individuals had similar levels during the chick rearing stage. Additionally, helpers-but not breeders-in large social groups had higher testosterone than those in small groups. Finally, testosterone was not correlated with nestling provisioning rates during chick rearing, suggesting that natural variation in the low levels of testosterone observed during periods of high parental care does not affect nestling provisioning. Together, these results offer insight into how testosterone is related to breeding roles, intra-group conflict, and parental care in a highly social species.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Comportamento Paterno/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estorninhos
17.
Ecol Lett ; 20(12): 1516-1525, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980422

RESUMO

Evidence from insects and vertebrates suggests that cooperation may have enabled species to expand their niches, becoming ecological generalists and dominating the ecosystems in which they occur. Consistent with this idea, eusocial species of sponge-dwelling Synalpheus shrimps from Belize are ecological generalists with a broader host breadth and higher abundance than non-eusocial species. We evaluate whether sociality promotes ecological generalism (social conquest hypothesis) or whether ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality (social transition hypothesis) in 38 Synalpheus shrimp species. We find that sociality evolves primarily from host generalists, and almost exclusively so for transitions to eusociality. Additionally, sponge volume is more important for explaining social transitions towards communal breeding than to eusociality, suggesting that different ecological factors may influence the independent evolutionary origins of sociality in Synalpheus shrimps. Ultimately, our results are consistent with the social transition hypothesis and the idea that ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Comportamento Social
18.
Integr Comp Biol ; 57(3): 560-565, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28957528

RESUMO

Nearly all animals interact with members of their own species at some point during their lives. These behavioral interactions range from courtship, mating, and parental care to the complex cooperative behavior among related or unrelated individuals in group-living species. A number of theoretical models have attempted to explain how cooperation can evolve through natural selection. Although tremendously influential in animal behavior research, these traditional models have largely ignored individual variation in cooperative behavior and its underlying developmental and proximate mechanisms. However, a set of emerging models suggest that the evolution of cooperation can be heavily influenced by the degree of individual variation in cooperative behavior, as well as the complexity of the underlying mechanisms. Yet, while theoreticians argue the importance of studying individual variation in cooperation and the mechanisms underlying it, empiricists have not focused upon these aspects. The main objectives of our symposium at the 2017 meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology is to establish new research avenues to study variation in cooperative behavior using both proximate and ultimate explanations and to produce a road map to study the developmental and proximate mechanisms in generating individual variation in cooperative behavior. This symposium brought together empiricists and theoreticians investigating cooperative behavior in diverse taxa and across multiple levels of analysis. Here we briefly describe the rationale for this symposium and why we thought it was needed as well as provide a brief overview of the contributions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Congressos como Assunto , Seleção Genética
19.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 17(6): e160-e173, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28776934

RESUMO

Molecular markers are powerful tools for studying patterns of relatedness and parentage within populations and for making inferences about social evolution. However, the development of molecular markers for simultaneous study of multiple species presents challenges, particularly when species exhibit genome duplication or polyploidy. We developed microsatellite markers for Synalpheus shrimp, a genus in which species exhibit not only great variation in social organization, but also interspecific variation in genome size and partial genome duplication. From the four primary clades within Synalpheus, we identified microsatellites in the genomes of four species and in the consensus transcriptome of two species. Ultimately, we designed and tested primers for 143 microsatellite markers across 25 species. Although the majority of markers were disomic, many markers were polysomic for certain species. Surprisingly, we found no relationship between genome size and the number of polysomic markers. As expected, markers developed for a given species amplified better for closely related species than for more distant relatives. Finally, the markers developed from the transcriptome were more likely to work successfully and to be disomic than those developed from the genome, suggesting that consensus transcriptomes are likely to be conserved across species. Our findings suggest that the transcriptome, particularly consensus sequences from multiple species, can be a valuable source of molecular markers for taxa with complex, duplicated genomes.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/classificação , Crustáceos/genética , Genoma , Repetições de Microssatélites , Transcriptoma , Animais
20.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 1(4): 96, 2017 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28812668

RESUMO

Animal social organization varies from complex societies where reproduction is dominated by a single individual (eusociality) to those where reproduction is more evenly distributed among group members (communal breeding). Yet, how simple groups transition evolutionarily to more complex societies remains unclear. Competing hypotheses suggest that eusociality and communal breeding are alternative evolutionary endpoints, or that communal breeding is an intermediate stage in the transition towards eusociality. We tested these alternative hypotheses in sponge-dwelling shrimps, Synalpheus spp. Although species varied continuously in reproductive skew, they clustered into pair-forming, communal and eusocial categories based on several demographic traits. Evolutionary transition models suggested that eusocial and communal species are discrete evolutionary endpoints that evolved independently from pair-forming ancestors along alternative paths. This 'family-centred' origin of eusociality parallels observations in insects and vertebrates, reinforcing the role of kin selection in the evolution of eusociality and suggesting a general model of animal social evolution.

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