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1.
Hell J Nucl Med ; 24(3): 239-246, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901964

RESUMO

Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) represents a reliable promising tool in treatment response evaluation of new therapies beyond Imatinib in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). This narrative review aims to discuss the literature about the role of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT in evaluating response in new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and radiotherapy (RT) in GIST patients. A comprehensive literature search was performed to retrieve original studies published on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. Eighteen studies including 382 patients with GIST were selected. Main findings of included studies are presented. Fluorine-18-FDG PET/CT may enhance performance in GIST management providing significant information in evaluation of treatment response and representing a strong predictor of clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To combine peripheral blood indices and clinical factors in a prognostic score for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with radium-223 dichloride ([223Ra]RaCl2). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (donor), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), Gleason score (GS) group, number of bone metastases, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), line of therapy, previous chemotherapy, and the presence of lymphadenopathies were collected from seven Italian centers between 2013 and 2020. Lab and clinical data were assessed in correlation with the overall survival (OS). Inflammatory indices were then included separately in the multivariable analyses with the prognostic clinical factors. The model with the highest discriminative ability (c-index) was chosen to develop the BIO-Ra score. RESULTS: Five hundred and nineteen mCRPC patients (median OS: 19.9 months) were enrolled. Higher NLR, dNLR, PLR, and SII and lower LMR predicted worse OS (all with a p < 0.001). The multivariable model including NLR, ECOG PS, number of bone metastases, ALP, and PSA (c-index: 0.724) was chosen to develop the BIO-Ra score. Using the Schneeweiss scoring system, the BIO-Ra score identified three prognostic groups (36%, 27.3%, and 36.6% patients, respectively) with distinct median OS (31, 26.6, and 9.6 months, respectively; hazard ratio: 1.62, p = 0.008 for group 2 vs. 1 and 5.77, p < 0.001 for group 3 vs. 1). CONCLUSIONS: The BIO-Ra score represents an easy and widely applicable tool for the prognostic stratification of mCRPC patients treated with [223Ra]RaCl2 with no additional costs.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574022

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate whether [18F]FDG PET/CT-derived semi-quantitative parameters can predict immunotherapy treatment response in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Secondly, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and lymphoid cell-rich organs activation were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients who underwent [18F]FDG PET/CT scans before and at first restaging therapy with immuno-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) were retrospectively analyzed. PET-based semi-quantitative parameters extracted from both scans were respectively: SUVmax and SUVpeak of the target lesion, whole-body metabolic tumor volume (MTVWB), and whole-body total lesion glycolysis (TLGWB), as well as their interval changes (ΔSUVmaxTL, ΔSUVpeakTL, ΔMTVWB, ΔTLGWB). These PET-derived parameters were correlated to controlled disease (CD) assessed by RECIST 1.1. IrAEs, if present, were also described and correlated with clinical benefit (CB). SUVmax of the spleen and bone marrow at restaging scans were also correlated to CB. RESULTS: The CD was achieved in 54% of patients. Out of 28 eligible patients, 13 (46%) experienced progressive disease (PD), 7 showed SD, 7 had PR, and only in one patient CR was achieved. ΔSUVmaxTL (p = 0.002) and ΔSUVpeakTL (p < 0.001) as well as ΔMTVWB (p < 0.001) and ΔTLGWB (p < 0.005) were significantly associated with PD vs. non-PD. IrAEs and lymphoid cell-rich organs activation did not correlate with CB. CONCLUSIONS: [18F]FDG PET/CT by using interval changes of PET-derived semi-quantitative parameters could represent a reliable tool in immunotherapy treatment response evaluation in NSCLC patients.

4.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441351

RESUMO

Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) represents the most common thyroid cancer histotype. Generally, it exhibits a good prognosis after conventional treatments; nevertheless, about 20% of patients can develop a local recurrence and/or distant metastasis. In one-third of advanced DTC, the metastatic lesions lose the ability to take up iodine and become radioactive iodine-refractory (RAI-R) DTC. In this set of patients, the possibility to perform localized treatments should always be taken into consideration before the initiation of systemic therapy. In the last decade, some multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (MKI) drugs were approved for advanced DTC, impacting on patient's survival rate, but at the same time, these therapies have been associated with several adverse events. In this clinical context, the role of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([18F]FDG PET/CT) in the early treatment response to these innovative therapies was investigated, in order to assess the potentiality of this diagnostic tool in the early recognition of non-responders, avoiding unnecessary therapy. Herein, we aimed to present a critical overview about the reliability of [18F]FDG PET/CT in the early predictive response to MKIs in advanced differentiated thyroid cancer.

5.
Clin Transl Imaging ; : 1-41, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277510

RESUMO

Aim: The diagnosis, severity and extent of a sterile inflammation or a septic infection could be challenging since there is not one single test able to achieve an accurate diagnosis. The clinical use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in the assessment of inflammation and infection is increasing worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to achieve an Italian consensus document on [18F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI in inflammatory and infectious diseases, such as osteomyelitis (OM), prosthetic joint infections (PJI), infective endocarditis (IE), prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), cardiac implantable electronic device infections (CIEDI), systemic and cardiac sarcoidosis (SS/CS), diabetic foot (DF), fungal infections (FI), tuberculosis (TBC), fever and inflammation of unknown origin (FUO/IUO), pediatric infections (PI), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), spine infections (SI), vascular graft infections (VGI), large vessel vasculitis (LVV), retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) and COVID-19 infections. Methods: In September 2020, the inflammatory and infectious diseases focus group (IIFG) of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) proposed to realize a procedural paper about the clinical applications of [18F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI in inflammatory and infectious diseases. The project was carried out thanks to the collaboration of 13 Italian nuclear medicine centers, with a consolidate experience in this field. With the endorsement of AIMN, IIFG contacted each center, and the pediatric diseases focus group (PDFC). IIFG provided for each team involved, a draft with essential information regarding the execution of [18F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI scan (i.e., indications, patient preparation, standard or specific acquisition modalities, interpretation criteria, reporting methods, pitfalls and artifacts), by limiting the literature research to the last 20 years. Moreover, some clinical cases were required from each center, to underline the teaching points. Time for the collection of each report was from October to December 2020. Results: Overall, we summarized 291 scientific papers and guidelines published between 1998 and 2021. Papers were divided in several sub-topics and summarized in the following paragraphs: clinical indications, image interpretation criteria, future perspectivess and new trends (for each single disease), while patient preparation, image acquisition, possible pitfalls and reporting modalities were described afterwards. Moreover, a specific section was dedicated to pediatric and PET/MRI indications. A collection of images was described for each indication. Conclusions: Currently, [18F]FDG PET/CT in oncology is globally accepted and standardized in main diagnostic algorithms for neoplasms. In recent years, the ever-closer collaboration among different European associations has tried to overcome the absence of a standardization also in the field of inflammation and infections. The collaboration of several nuclear medicine centers with a long experience in this field, as well as among different AIMN focus groups represents a further attempt in this direction. We hope that this document will be the basis for a "common nuclear physicians' language" throughout all the country. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40336-021-00445-w.

6.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200953

RESUMO

Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a cardiovascular emergency, representing the main cause of mortality, morbidity, and hospitalisation in Europe. We aim to evaluate the economic and healthcare impact of lung perfusion scintigraphy (LPS) used in patients with suspected APE, in the event of non-conclusive or contraindicated computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). We considered two alternative healthcare processes for APE diagnosis, with and without LPS. We performed a cost analysis with the aim of evaluating the average direct healthcare costs for diagnosis, risk assessment, and treatment of APE. We used data from a monocentric trial. Our economic model showed that the strategy with LPS was preferable in terms of costs. The average per-patient costs for the diagnosis and treatment of the acute phase of PE in low-risk patients with a non-conclusive or not-executable CTPA, with and without LPS, are EUR 2145.25 and EUR 4912.45, respectively. LPS is a simple, quick, and economic examination, useful in this setting of patients not only for an early diagnosis but also to exclude APE, demonstrating an advantage in terms of healthcare resources. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to analyse the economic and healthcare impact of the use of LPS in the diagnostic pathway of suspected APE.

7.
J Radiol Prot ; 41(4)2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The potential for unintended and adverse radiation exposure in radiotherapy (RT) is real and should be studied because RT is a highly complex, multistep process, which requires input from numerous individuals from different areas and steps of the RT workflow. The 'Incident' (I) is an event the consequence of which is not negligible from the point of view of protection or safety. A 'near miss' (NM) is defined as an event that is highly likely to happen but did not occur. The purpose of this work is to show that through systematic reporting and analysis of these adverse events, their occurrence can be reduced. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Staff were trained to report every type of unintended and adverse radiation exposure and to provide a full description of it. RESULTS: By 2018, 110 worksheets had been collected, with an average of 6.1 adverse events per year (with 780 patients treated per year, meaning an average incident rate of 0.78%). In 2001-2009, 37 events were registered (13 I and 24 NM), the majority of them were in the decision phase (12/37), while in 2010-2013, there were 42 (1 I and 41 NM) in both the dose-calculation and transfer phase (19/42). In 2014-2018, 31 events (1 I and 30 NM) were equally distributed across the phases of the RT process. In 9/15 cases of I, some checkpoint was introduced. CONCLUSION: The complexity of the RT workflow is prone to errors, and this must be taken into account by encouraging a safety culture. The aim of this paper is to present the collected incidents and near misses and to show how organization and practice were modified by the acquired knowledge.

8.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(6): 465-469, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128939

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess compliance with guidelines recommendations in the follow-up of patients with breast cancer. In this setting of patients we analyzed the appropriateness of the imaging exams recommended by different specialists in the management of follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2019 to December 2019 we analyzed the clinical data and the results of the imaging exams of 146 asymptomatic patients followed for follow-up in different regional radiotherapy centers. A logistic regression analysis was performed taking into account the advanced pathological stage, the absence of surgical staging of the lymph nodes, the dubious results from previous basic imaging tests, correlating them to the excessive use of advanced imaging. The association was expressed in terms of odds ratio (OR) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: For 96% of patients, a frequent prescription of at least one basic imaging exam (complete abdomen ETG and chest X-ray 2p) was observed in contrast to the guidelines. A finding of a large number of bone scans suggested their use as routine surveillance A positive correlation with advanced imaging (OR <1) was seen in patients with borderline basic imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up with intensive imaging is poorly effective both for the early diagnosis of relapses and for any remote localizations.

9.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802392

RESUMO

Canine gastric disorders are common in veterinary clinical practice and among these neoplasms require rapid identification and characterization. Standard ultrasound (US) is the imaging modality of choice for gastric wall assessment. The aim of this prospective study is to describe the specific B-mode and contrast enhanced US (CEUS) features of normal, inflammatory, and neoplastic gastric wall in dogs. B-mode US and CEUS of the stomach were performed in anesthetized dogs with or without gastric disorders. Gastric wall qualitative and quantitative parameters were evaluated on B-mode US and CEUS examination. A total of 41 dogs were included: 6 healthy (HEA) as the control group; 9 gastritis (INF); 8 adenocarcinoma (AC); 8 alimentary lymphoma (AL); 4 leiomyosarcoma (LEIS); 2 gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST); 2 leiomyoma; 1 undifferentiated sarcoma; 1 metastatic gastric hemangiosarcoma. Gastric tumors appear as a marked wall thickness with absent layers definition and possible regional lymphadenopathy (AC and AL) and steatitis (AC) while gastritis generally shows no/mild thickening and no other alterations on B-mode US. On CEUS, neoplasm shows a higher and faster wash in if compared to that of gastritis. B-mode and CEUS assessment may be useful in the evaluation of canine gastric disorders in the distinction between gastritis and gastric neoplasms, even if there are no specific features able to discriminate between the different tumor histotypes.

10.
J Pers Med ; 11(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803667

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic strategy both for solid and hematologic tumors, such as in Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In particular, immune-checkpoint inhibitors, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, are increasingly used for the treatment of refractory/relapsed HL. At the same time, evidence of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell immunotherapy efficacy mostly in NHL is growing. In this setting, the challenge is to identify an appropriate imaging method to evaluate immunotherapy response. The role of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), especially in early evaluation, is under investigation in order to guide therapeutic strategies, taking into account the possible atypical responses (hyperprogression and pseudoprogression) and immune-related adverse events that could appear on PET images. Herein, we aimed to present a critical overview about the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating treatment response to immunotherapy in lymphoma patients.

11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669822

RESUMO

Tonsillar carcinoma is the second most common malignancy of the head and neck region, with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (TSCC) as the most common histological type (>90%). For the advanced stage of TSCC, radiotherapy with or without platinum-based chemotherapy is the only therapeutic option. Immuno-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), in particular Nivolumab, considerably improves clinical management of these patients, but the response can be unpredictable. Difficulties can be encountered in evaluating response to immunotherapy, especially with morphological imaging, which can show an atypical response, such as pseudo-progression, leading to a premature discontinuation. Conversely, metabolic imaging can guide a more properly therapeutic decision. We present a case of a 71-year-old man affected by TSCC, treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and Nivolumab as the last line of treatment. Pre- and post-immunotherapy 18F-FDG PET/CT showed an impressive response, avoiding early drug discontinuation and ensuring better management of this patient.

12.
Biomedicines ; 9(3)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669104

RESUMO

Hyperparathyroidism is a metabolic disorder characterized by the excessive production of the parathyroid hormone. The diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory data. In most cases the only treatment is surgery and a correct preoperatory localization of the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland(s) is essential. Currently, ultrasonography combined with [99mTc]Tc-MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy, optionally associated with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), represent the standard preoperative imaging. In recent years, a number of studies have evaluated the potential role of choline positron emission tomography (PET) in hyperparathyroidism with promising results. Most of the recent evidence underlined its higher sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy in the localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands. Choline PET has a higher spatial resolution that is useful for the detection of smaller parathyroid glands and it also has shorter examination times and favorable radiation exposure. These are just a few of the aspects that support it to overcome traditional imaging. Moreover, from the preliminary data, the choline uptake mechanism seems to also have an impact on its better performance. For these reasons, if first used as second level imaging in patients with negative or inconclusive traditional imaging results, several authors have supported its use as a first line investigation. This comprehensive overview aims to provide an accurate description of the preliminary results available in the literature about the use of choline PET/CT in hyperparathyroidism and to compare these results with the performance of traditional imaging methods.

13.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(9): 2871-2882, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560453

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the presence and pattern of incidental interstitial lung alterations suspicious of COVID-19 on fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) ([18F]FDG PET/CT) in asymptomatic oncological patients during the period of active COVID-19 in a country with high prevalence of the virus. METHODS: This is a multi-center retrospective observational study involving 59 Italian centers. We retrospectively reviewed the prevalence of interstitial pneumonia detected during the COVID period (between March 16 and 27, 2020) and compared to a pre-COVID period (January-February 2020) and a control time (in 2019). The diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia was done considering lung alterations of CT of PET. RESULTS: Overall, [18F]FDG PET/CT was performed on 4008 patients in the COVID period, 19,267 in the pre-COVID period, and 5513 in the control period. The rate of interstitial pneumonia suspicious for COVID-19 was significantly higher during the COVID period (7.1%) compared with that found in the pre-COVID (5.35%) and control periods (5.15%) (p < 0.001). Instead, no significant difference among pre-COVID and control periods was present. The prevalence of interstitial pneumonia detected at PET/CT was directly associated with geographic virus diffusion, with the higher rate in Northern Italy. Among 284 interstitial pneumonia detected during COVID period, 169 (59%) were FDG-avid (average SUVmax of 4.1). CONCLUSIONS: A significant increase of interstitial pneumonia incidentally detected with [18F]FDG PET/CT has been demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic. A majority of interstitial pneumonia were FDG-avid. Our results underlined the importance of paying attention to incidental CT findings of pneumonia detected at PET/CT, and these reports might help to recognize early COVID-19 cases guiding the subsequent management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Itália , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(1): 362-366, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33489183

RESUMO

Linac-based STereotactic Arrhythmia Radioablation (STAR) is a safety and effective approach for selected patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

15.
Curr Radiopharm ; 14(1): 64-69, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is of primary importance. The delayed (3-4 h after injection) Iodine-123-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-mIBG) scintigraphy has been proven to be effective in early differential diagnosis for Lewy body disease. But early imaging (15-30 min after injection) has only been marginally studied for its possible diagnostic role. In this prospective study, a threshold for the early Heart-to-Mediastinum (H/M) count ratio has been investigated, obtaining a diagnostic accuracy analogous to conventional, delayed imaging. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with suspected Parkinson's disease (PD) were acquired after 15 and 240 minutes from the injection of 150-185 MBq of 123I-mIBG. The early and late H/M (He/Me and Hl/Ml) were evaluated by drawing Region-of-Interests on the heart and the upper half of the mediastinum. Optimal threshold (Youden index) and overall predictive performance were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve, classifying tentatively patients having an Hl/Ml lower than 1.6 as suffering from PD. RESULTS: He/Me was not significantly different from Hl/Ml (p-value=0.835). The Area-under-curve was 0.935 (95%CI: 0.845-1.000). The He/Me optimal threshold was 1.66, with sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of 95.5%, 85.7 and 90.7% respectively. CONCLUSION: The He/Me Ratio is almost as accurate as the widely used delayed 123I-mIBG imaging, reducing the burden of delayed imaging but preserving the diagnostic accuracy of the method. Moreover the differential diagnosis in Parkinson's disease can be made in just 25 minutes against the 4 hours currently needed, lowering costs of the healthcare system and improving patients compliance.


Assuntos
3-Iodobenzilguanidina , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cintilografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Clin Exp Med ; 21(1): 49-62, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026580

RESUMO

Takayasu arteritis (TAK) is a rare granulomatous vasculitis of unknown etiology that mainly affects the aorta and its major branches. The aim is to describe the clinical features, diagnostic procedures, pathogenesis, and management of TAK in a longitudinal cohort of patients recruited within a single region of southern Italy. The cohort included 43 patients who were diagnosed with TAK and followed up according to a standard protocol, in a collaboration between four university tertiary referral centers and a regional hospital. Clinical and imaging classification criteria were those established by the American College of Rheumatology. Thirty-five patients (81.4%) were female, and the mean age at disease onset was 32.6 (range 16-54) years. Angiographic assessment of the vascular involvement allowed disease classification in five different types. Clinical features ranged from constitutional symptoms in the early inflammatory stage of the disease to cardiovascular ischemic symptoms in the late, chronic stage. Noninvasive imaging techniques were employed to assess the extent and severity of the arterial wall damage and to monitor the clinical course and response to therapy. Medical treatment, based on pathogenetic insights into the roles of humoral and cell-mediated immune mechanisms, included glucocorticoids mostly combined with steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents and, in patients with relapsing/refractory disease, biologic drugs. Significant clinical and angiographic differences have been detected in TAK patients from different geographic areas. Patients with life-threatening cardiovascular and neurologic manifestations as well as sight-threatening ophthalmologic signs and symptoms should be promptly diagnosed, properly treated, and closely followed up to avoid potentially severe consequences.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Arterite de Takayasu/tratamento farmacológico , Arterite de Takayasu/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arterite de Takayasu/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm ; 36(2): 123-132, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551915

RESUMO

Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) is an aggressive neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT), and/or surgery, according to disease status. Despite the availability of multimodal therapeutic strategies, local recurrence is frequently observed. Immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach that is currently highly investigated in association to standard therapies, including RT, with the aim to improve patients' outcomes. Materials and Methods: A PubMed search was performed with the following keywords in all fields: "esophageal cancer" and "radiotherapy" and "radiation" and "immunotherapy" and "PD-1" and "PD L1." For an overview of ongoing trials, an additional search on ClinicalTrials.gov website was performed using the keywords "esophageal cancer" and "immunotherapy" and "PD-L1" and "CTLA-4" and "radiation" and "radiotherapy." Emerging data from preclinical and clinical studies are suggesting a synergistic effect between immunotherapy and RT. With the aim to update the knowledge of this synergistic immune-mediated antitumor activity and discuss current challenges, the authors summarize published data concerning the basic mechanisms and the effectiveness and tolerance of the combination between immunotherapy and RT for patients with EC, followed by an overview of ongoing clinical trial. Conclusions: Published results encourage the use of personalized therapeutic approaches for EC patients in the future; results from ongoing studies will help to identify the optimal strategies for patient selection and treatment response evaluation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Humanos , Prognóstico
18.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(3): 651-658, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radium-223 prolongs overall survival (OS) and delays time to the first symptomatic skeletal events in patients with symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). There is a lack of evidence on the safety and efficacy of Radium-223 treatment in the very elderly population. AIMS: Aim of this multicentre study is to analyze mCRPC patients treated with Radium-223 in terms of OS and to assess whether there are differences between young and elderly, as well as to verify efficacy and safety in patients ≥ 75 years of age. METHODS: 430 mCRPC patients of six Italian Centres were analyzed in this multicenter retrospective study. At baseline and after each cycle were collected clinical and diagnostic patients' parameters. The whole cohort was divided into two groups based on the age of the patients (< 75 years old and ≥ 75 years old). RESULTS: 47% of the patients were < 75 years old and 53% were ≥ 75 years old. The primary outcome, OS, does not show significant differences between the two subgroups if other basal parameters are considered. Considering clinical covariates in univariate models (p < 0.05) several clinical aspects have an impact on OS, except for age (p = 0.072). Age continues to have no significant impact on the OS (p = 0.274) even in multivariate models in the two groups. The toxic effects are similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Radium-223 prolongs survival in both younger and older patients at the same baseline condition and is a good option in the symptomatic mCRPC setting compared to other agents.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/radioterapia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/radioterapia , Rádio (Elemento) , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Hell J Nucl Med ; 23(3): 264-271, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whole body low dose computed tomography (WBLDCT) is the first-choice imaging modality to identify bone involvement in multiple myeloma (MM). Because the unenhanced LDCT co-registered to positron emission tomography (PET) (LDCT/PET) has similar technical characteristics to WBLDCT, we aimed to assess its reliability in the detection of bone disease, for employing fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT as unique multimodality imaging method in MM patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty three consecutive MM patients were prospectively enrolled and evaluated with WBLDCT to assess bone involvement. In addition, patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT using a disease-tailored optimized LDCT protocol. To compare both methods, skeletal anatomical regions were identified and a per-region and per-patient analysis were performed using Cohen's k test. Low dose computed tomography/PET sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were also calculated. RESULTS: The two imaging modalities resulted highly concordant considering both patient-based (k=0.841) and region-based analysis; some discrepancies were observed in dorsal spine (k=0.809) and thorax (k=0.756). Low dose computed tomography/PET sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 89.4%, 98.3% and 93.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Low dose computed tomography co-registered PET has comparable performance to WBLDCT. If confirmed on a lager sample, these encouraging results suggest the possibility to use this multimodal hybrid imaging as the only method for MM evaluation, rather than both exams, providing both morphologic and metabolic information in one session with impact on patient compliance, health care spending and especially radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/complicações , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Mieloma Múltiplo/complicações , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Doses de Radiação , Imagem Corporal Total , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Front Oncol ; 10: 590707, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224885

RESUMO

Bevacizumab plus FOLFOX-4 regimen represents the first-line therapy in patients affected by metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Hyperthermia has been considered an effective ancillary treatment for cancer therapy through several anti-tumor mechanisms, sharing with Bevacizumab the inhibition of angiogenesis. Up to now, scientific literature offers very few clinical data on the combination of bevacizumab plus oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with deep electro-hyperthermia (DEHY) for metastatic colon cancer (mCC) patients. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the efficacy of this combination based on the possible interaction between the DEHY and bevacizumab anti-tumor mechanisms. We conducted a retrospective analysis on 40 patients affected by mCC treated with the combination of bevacizumab plus FOLFOX-4 (fluorouracil/folinic acid plus oxaliplatin) and DEHY (EHY2000), between January 2017 and May 2020. DEHY treatment was performed weekly, with capacitive electrodes at 80-110 W for 50 min, during and between subsequent bevacizumab administrations, on abdomen for liver or abdominal lymph nodes metastases and thorax for lung metastases. Treatment response assessment was performed according to the Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors (RECIST). The primary endpoints were disease control rate (DCR) and progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoint was overall survival (OS). DCR, counted as the percentage of patients who had the best response rating [complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD)], was assessed at 90 days (timepoint-1) and at 180 days (timepoint-2). DCR was 95% and 89.5% at timepoint-1 and timepoint-2, respectively. The median PFS was 12.1 months, whereas the median OS was 21.4 months. No major toxicity related to DEHY was registered; overall, this combination regimen was safe. Our results suggest that the combined treatment of DEHY with bevacizumab plus FOLFOX-4 as first-line therapy in mCC is feasible and effective with a favorable disease control, prolonging PFS of 2.7 months with respect to standard treatment without DEHY for mCC patients. Further studies will be required to prove its merit and explore its potentiality, especially if compared to conventional treatment.

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