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1.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349685

RESUMO

Oleander (Nerium oleander) is an ornamental plant common in tropical and sub-tropical regions that is becoming increasingly widespread, even in temperate regions. Oleander poisoning may occur in animals and humans. The main active components contained in the plant are cardiac glycosides belonging to the class of cardenolides that are toxic to many species, from human to insects. This work describes a case of oleander poisoning that occurred on a small cattle farm and resulted in the fatality of all six resident animals. Furthermore, the investigation of the poisonous agent is described, with particular focus on the characterization of the oleandrin toxin that was recovered from the forage and rumen contents. The innovation of this study is the first description of the detection and quantification of the oleandrin toxin by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) in rumen.

2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11577, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068967

RESUMO

Mass strandings of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are rare in the Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, in 2014 a pod of 7 specimens stranded alive along the Italian coast of the Central Adriatic Sea: 3 individuals died on the beach after a few hours due to internal damages induced by prolonged recumbency; the remaining 4 whales were refloated after great efforts. All the dead animals were genetically related females; one was pregnant. All the animals were infected by dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and the pregnant whale was also affected by a severe nephropathy due to a large kidney stone. Other analyses ruled out other possible relevant factors related to weather conditions or human activities. The results of multidisciplinary post-mortem analyses revealed that the 7 sperm whales entered the Adriatic Sea encountering adverse weather conditions and then kept heading northward following the pregnant but sick leader of the pod, thereby reaching the stranding site. DMV infection most likely played a crucial role in impairing the health condition and orientation abilities of the whales. They did not steer back towards deeper waters, but eventually stranded along the Central Adriatic Sea coastline, a real trap for sperm whales.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Cachalote , Animais , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/patologia
3.
Forensic Sci Int ; 290: e19-e23, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025595

RESUMO

Fishing activities are considered one of the most relevant threats for cetaceans and sea turtles conservation since these animals are sometimes found dead entangled in fishing gears. Currently, postmortem diagnosis is based mainly on the presence of nets and lines on the body and the related marks and injuries evident at gross examination. A more detailed and objective evidence is needed to clarify doubts cases and the diatoms technique, used in forensic human medicine, could support drowning diagnosis also in this field. Diatoms' investigation was implemented to be applied in marine vertebrate on 8 striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and 1 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins and 5 sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded along the Italian coastlines with a likely cause of death hypothized on necropsies carried out by veterinary pathologists. Diatoms were microscopically searched in the bone marrow collected from long bones implementing protocols used in human medicine and their presence was observed in 4 cetaceans and 2 sea turtles. Despite a clear relation between diatoms' presence and amount and the likely cause of death was not proved due to the poor number of samples, the higher burden of diatoms was found in 3 animals deemed to be death for the interaction with human activity. Despite more studied are necessary to identify the possible relation between the cause of death and diatoms' findings, the present study implemented this technique to be adapted to marine animals, confirming its possible application also in veterinary forensic medicine.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Afogamento/diagnóstico , Stenella , Tartarugas , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Afogamento/veterinária , Ciências Forenses , Projetos Piloto
4.
Vet Ital ; 54(2): 175-180, 2018 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019334

RESUMO

The present case study concerns a case of predation of 4 individuals of captive pink flamingo in Emilia Romagna Region, Northeastern Italy. The pink flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) is a species included in the Red List of Threatened Species established by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) which lists species in danger of extinction. During the Winter of 2013, 4 flamingos (2 in the Comacchio area, and 2 from Argenta and Codigoro oases - Ferrara province) were found dead some of them headless, with their bodies severely bitten. At first, a fox (Vulpes vulpes) was suspected to be the predator responsible for the killing and the birds were taken to the laboratory for further investigations. The investigations included: field observations, study of the predator behaviour, necropsy examinations, assessment of the intercanine distance, and genetic analysis on the predator's traces. The intercanine distance indicated that the predator could not have been a fox. The analysis of salivary DNA samples enabled us to establish that the predator was in fact a dog. This case highlights the importance of co-operation among the various branches of forensic sciences and the great usefulness of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in solving crime.


Assuntos
Aves/lesões , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Cães , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Ciências Forenses , Itália , Comportamento Predatório , Medicina Veterinária
5.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 52(2): 277-80, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27364404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salmonella is a ubiquitous pathogen that can infect host species, like wild birds, rodents, and/or arthropods, which may transmit infection to domestic animals and human population. AIM: In order to assess the related risk, a cross-sectional study was performed on 1114 carcasses of wild animals from a north-eastern area of the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During post mortem examination, intestine samples were cultured. A statistical analysis demonstrated that there is no correlation between the presence of sub-clinically infected animals and greater human population density. In contrast, a significant correlation between the number of carcasses positive for Salmonella spp. and greater spatial density of pig, poultry, and cattle farms was observed (p < 0.01). RESULTS: The results of the present study show that wild animals with omnivorous feeding habits are particularly exposed to Salmonella colonization and, consequently, to spreading the organism. Regarding drug resistance, this study confirms the resistance to antimicrobials is increasing in commensal and environmental isolates.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Aves , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mamíferos , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Suínos
6.
Toxicon ; 55(2-3): 280-8, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19660488

RESUMO

This paper reports on the determination of toxin profile of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in November-December 2003 along the Emilia Romagna coasts (Italy) when a high concentration of Alexandrium ostenfeldii cells was detected in seawater. Detailed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses were performed on the crude extracts in both selected ion monitoring (SIM) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. They revealed that M. galloprovincialis had accumulated the three major spirolides produced by the alga, namely 13-desMethyl spirolide C, 13,19-didesMethyl spirolide C and 27-hydroxy-13,19-didesMethyl spirolide C, which fully accounted for toxicity of lipophilic extracts shown in mouse bioassay. Interestingly, yessotoxin (YTX) and its analogues were still present in mussel polar extracts but YTX itself was not the major toxin contained in mussels. The presence of pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (PTX-2sa) and its putative epimer was also assessed. The presence of azaspiracids, never reported from the Adriatic sea, as well as of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins and OA esters) and domoic acid, long known as contaminants of Adriatic mussels, was also investigated.


Assuntos
Toxinas Marinhas/química , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Mytilus/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Eutrofização , Furanos/química , Furanos/toxicidade , Hidrólise , Indicadores e Reagentes , Itália , Espectrometria de Massas , Mar Mediterrâneo , Camundongos , Ácido Okadáico/química , Ácido Okadáico/toxicidade , Oxocinas/química , Oxocinas/toxicidade , Fitoplâncton/química , Piranos/química , Piranos/toxicidade , Estações do Ano , Solventes , Compostos de Espiro/química , Compostos de Espiro/toxicidade
7.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 39(1): 97-104, 2003.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12820575

RESUMO

The "Istituti Zooprofilattici" are an important network whose main function is the monitoring of animal health as well as food. As a result of the recent improvements in aquaculture technology interest in the safety of seafood is increasing. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to set up diagnostic methods for the detection of virus contamination, as well as the use of in vitro techniques able to identify the different toxins. The results have allowed the development of molecular biology assays which, together with the isolation in cell cultures, can detect contaminations/infections by the hepatitis A virus and the most common enteroviruses. Moreover, specific selected cell lines have led to the detection of different toxins. These laboratory methods will be used in order to control seafood safety.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Alimentos Marinhos/virologia , Academias e Institutos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Enterovirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Hepatite A/virologia , Humanos , Itália , Biologia Marinha
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