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1.
Am J Prev Med ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473065

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle modification, such as healthy diet habits, regular physical activity, and maintaining a normal body weight, must be prescribed to all hypertensive individuals. This study aims to test whether a multicomponent intervention is effective in improving lifestyle and body weight among low-income families. STUDY DESIGN: Cluster randomized trial conducted between June 2013 and October 2016. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,954 uninsured adult patients were recruited in the study within 18 public primary healthcare centers of Argentina. INTERVENTION: Components targeting the healthcare system, providers, and family groups were delivered by community health workers; tailored text messages were sent for 18 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in the proportion of behavioral risk factors and body weight from baseline to end of follow-up. Data were analyzed in 2017. RESULTS: Low fruit and vegetable consumption (fewer than 5 servings per day) decreased from 96.4% at baseline to 92.6% at 18 months in the intervention group, whereas in the control group it increased from 97.0% to 99.9% (p=0.0110). The proportion of low physical activity (<600 MET-minutes/week) decreased from 54.3% at baseline to 46.2% at 18 months in the intervention group and kept constant around 52% (p=0.0232) in the control group. The intervention had no effect on alcohol intake (p=0.7807), smoking (p=0.7607), addition of salt while cooking or at the table (p=0.7273), or body weight (p=0.4000). CONCLUSIONS: The multicomponent intervention was effective for increasing fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity with no effect on alcohol consumption, smoking, addition of salt, or body weight among low-income families in Argentina. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01834131.

2.
Nutrition ; 67-68: 110521, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether dietary patterns (DP) are associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) markers in an Argentinian population. RESEARCH METHODS & PROCEDURES: Cross-sectional study. The sample belonged to 1,983 subjects from two mid-sized cities of Argentina, involved in CESCAS I Study. To define DP, a food-frequency questionnaire was applied. In a subsample randomly selected from the primary cohort, serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble E selectin (sSELE) were determined. Correlations and multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relation between each quartile of DP adherence score and ED markers (Q1 lowest adherence; Q4 highest adherence). RESULTS: Three DPs were identified: Traditional (TDP), Prudent (PDP), and Convenience and processed (CDP). TDP was characterized by higher intake of refined grains, red meat, whole fat dairy products, vegetable oils, and "mate", a traditional South American infused drink; PDP was characterized by higher intake of vegetables, fruit, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, and legumes; and CDP consisted mainly of processed meat, snacks, pizza, and "empanadas", a stuffed bread served baked or fried. Lower scores (Q2, Q3) in TDP were inversely associated to concentrations of sSELE (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively). In PDP, higher scores were inversely associated with hs-CRP, whereas lower scores showed a positive relation with sSELE (P < 0.05). Contrariwise, higher scores in CDP were directly associated with sSELE concentrations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Adherence for each DP identified is differentially related to ED markers in the studied population.

3.
Health Promot Int ; 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302691

RESUMO

The Healthy Municipalities and Communities Strategy (HMCS) was developed by the Pan American Health Organization in 1990. Evaluation and monitoring are fundamental components of health promotion policies. The aim of this study is to explore the indicators used in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries to assess the performance of HMCS. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BVSDE and Google Advanced Search for documents published between January 2000 and April 2016. We included only documents with assessment indicators of the strategy. All articles were independently assessed for eligibility by pairs of reviewers. We classified the indicators with a supporting framework proposed by O'Neill and Simard (Choosing indicators to evaluate Healthy Cities projects: a political task? Health Promot Int 2006, 21, 145-152.). Local level indicators figured far more prominently among countries and were distributed both in projects and specific activities. Regarding the evolution of the HMCS, indicators were reported in the five levels of analysis (local projects and activities, provincial, national and international networks). Empowerment was represented through the presence of active community organizations and different methods of community participation (forums, open hearing and participation maps). Public policies (such as for tobacco cessation) and bylaws adherence and changes in school's curricula regarding healthy eating were frequently mentioned. However, this review demonstrated that impact indicators related to lifestyle changes or built environment are not clearly defined and there is a lack of indicators to measure progress in achieving change in long-term outcomes in LAC. We highlight the importance of designing validated indicators for measuring the impact of health promotion policies in partnership with each country involved.

4.
Am J Prev Med ; 57(1): 95-105, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128958

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Statins are essential drugs for high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management; however, there is still low adherence to good clinical practice guidelines for statin use at the primary care level in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to test whether a complex intervention targeting physicians improves treatment and control of hypercholesterolemia among patients with moderate to high CVD risk in Argentina. STUDY DESIGN: Cluster RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Ten primary care centers from the public healthcare system of Argentina. INTERVENTION: Primary care physicians in the intervention group received an educational program with three main components: (1) an intensive 2-day training workshop; (2) educational outreach visits; and (3) a mobile health application installed on the physician's smartphones. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reduction in mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, reduction in mean Framingham risk score, proportion of patients receiving an appropriate statin dose, and mean annual number of primary care center visits. RESULTS: Data were analyzed in 2017-2018. Between April 2015 and April 2016, a total of 357 participants were enrolled (179 patients in the intervention group and 178 in the control group). The global follow-up rate was 97.2%. At the end of the follow-up period, there was no difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in any of the follow-up points among the groups. Mean CVD risk had a significant net difference in the first 6 months in the intervention group versus the control group (-4.0, 95% CI = -6.5, -1.5). At the end of follow-up, there was an absolute 41.5% higher rate of participants receiving an appropriate statin dose in the intervention group versus the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Although the intervention did not reach a reduction in cholesterol levels, it had a significant positive impact on the promotion of adequate use of clinical practice guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02380911.

5.
J Hypertens ; 37(9): 1813-1821, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective is to describe hypertension (HTN) prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in urban and rural communities in Latin America to inform public and policy-makers. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from urban (n = 111) and rural (n = 93) communities including 33 276 participants from six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Uruguay) were included. HTN was defined as self-reported HTN on blood pressure (BP) medication or average BP over 140/90 mmHg, awareness as self-reported HTN, and controlled as those with BP under 140/90 mmHg. RESULTS: Mean age was 52 years, 60% were Female and 32% belonged to rural communities. HTN prevalence was 44.0%, with the lowest rates in Peru (17.7%) and the highest rates in Brazil (52.5%). 58.9% were aware of HTN diagnosis and 53.3% were receiving treatment. Prevalence of HTN were higher in urban (44.8%) than rural (42.1%) communities in all countries. Most participants who were aware of HTN were receiving medical treatment (90.5%), but only 37.6% of patients receiving medical treatment had their BP controlled (<140/<90 mmHg), with the rates being higher in urban (39.6%) than in rural (32.4%) communities. The rate of use of two or more drugs was low [36.4%, lowest in Argentina (29.6%) and highest in Brazil (44.6%)]. Statin use was low (12.3%), especially in rural areas (7.0%). Most modifiable risk factors were higher in people with HTN than people without HTN. CONCLUSION: HTN prevalence is high but BP control is low in Latin America, with marked differences between countries and between urban and rural settings. There is an urgent need for systematic approaches for better detection, treatment optimization and risk factor modification among those with HTN in Latin America.

6.
Transl Behav Med ; 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947329

RESUMO

Despite efforts to improve detection and treatment of adults with hypertension and diabetes in Argentina, many public healthcare system users remain undiagnosed or face barriers in managing these diseases. The purpose of this study is to identify health system, provider, and user-related factors that may hinder detection and treatment of hypertension and diabetes using a traditional and behavioral economics approach. We did qualitative research using in-depth semistructured interviews and focus groups with healthcare providers and adult users of Public Primary Care Clinics. Health system barriers included inadequate care accessibility; poor integration between primary care clinics and local hospitals; lack of resources; and gender bias and neglect of adult chronic disease. Healthcare provider-related barriers were inadequate training; lack of availability or reluctance to adopt Clinical Practice Guidelines; and lack of counseling prioritization. From a behavioral economics perspective, bottlenecks were related to inertia and a status quo, overconfidence, and optimism biases. User-related barriers for treatment adherence included lack of accurate information; resistance to adopt lifelong treatment; affordability; and medical advice mistrust. From a behavioral economics perspective, the most significant bottlenecks were overconfidence and optimism, limited attention, and present biases. Based on these findings, new interventions that aim to improve prevention and control of chronic conditions can be proposed. The study provides empirical evidence regarding the barriers and bottlenecks in managing chronic conditions in primary healthcare settings. Results may contribute to the design of behavioral interventions targeted towards healthcare provision for the affected population.

7.
COPD ; 16(1): 58-65, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032662

RESUMO

The relationship of body mass index (BMI) with lung function and COPD has been previously described in several high-income settings. However, few studies have examined this relationship in resource-limited settings where being underweight is more common. We evaluated the association between BMI and lung function outcomes across 14 diverse low- and middle-income countries. We included data from 12,396 participants aged 35-95 years and used multivariable regressions to assess the relationship between BMI with either COPD and lung function while adjusting for known risk factors. An inflection point was observed at a BMI of 19.8 kg/m2. Participants with BMI < 19.8 kg/m2 had a 2.28 greater odds (95% CI 1.83-2.86) of having COPD and had a 0.21 (0.13-0.30) lower FEV1 and 0.34 (0.27-0.41) lower FEV1/FVC z-score compared to those with BMI ≥ 19.8 kg/m2. The association with lung function remained even after excluding participants with COPD. Individuals with lower BMI were more likely to have COPD and had lower lung function compared to those in higher BMI. The association with lung function remained positive even after excluding participants with COPD, suggesting that being underweight may also play a role in having worse lung function.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649400

RESUMO

Background: Using data from general adult population, this study aims to describe epidemiology of alcohol consumption patterns and their association with cardiovascular risk. Methods: CESCAS I is a population-based study from four mid-sized cities in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Associations between diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and history of CVD and drinking patterns were assessed using crude prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted OR. Results: A total of 37.2% of the studied population never drank and 18.3% reported to be former drinkers. Among current drinkers, moderate drinking was the most frequent pattern (24.2%). For women with light and moderate consumption, the odds of having >20% CVD risk was ~40% lower than that of never drinkers. The odds of having a history of CVD was 50% lower in those with moderate consumption. For men with heavy consumption, the odds of having >20% CVD risk was about twice as high as for never drinkers. Conclusions: A harmful association was observed between heavy drinking and having >20% CVD risk for men. However, for women, an apparently protective association was observed between light and moderate drinking and having >20% CVD risk and between moderate drinking and having a history of CVD.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646502

RESUMO

Background: Obesogenic environments promote sedentary behavior and high dietary energy intake. The objective of the study was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation and impact evaluation of projects oriented to promote physical activity and healthy diet at community level. We analyzed experiences of the projects implemented within the Healthy Municipalities and Communities Program (HMCP) in Argentina. Methods: A mixed methods approach included (1) in-depth semi-structured interviews, with 44 stakeholders; and (2) electronic survey completed by 206 individuals from 96 municipalities across the country. Results: The most important barriers included the lack of: adequate funding (43%); skilled personnel (42%); equipment and material resources (31%); technical support for data management and analysis (20%); training on project designs (12%); political support from local authorities (17%) and acceptance of the proposed intervention by the local community (9%). Facilitators included motivated local leaders, inter-sectorial participation and seizing local resources. Project evaluation was mostly based on process rather than outcome indicators. Conclusions: This study contributes to a better understanding of the difficulties in the implementation of community-based intervention projects. Findings may guide stakeholders on how to facilitate local initiatives. There is a need to improve project evaluation strategies by incorporating process, outcome and context specific indicators.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Exercício , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Value Health ; 21(12): 1357-1364, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent cluster randomized trial evaluating a multicomponent intervention showed significant reductions in blood pressure in low-income hypertensive subjects in Argentina. OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. METHODS: A total of 1432 hypertensive participants were recruited from 18 primary health care centers. The intervention included home visits led by community health workers, physician education, and text messaging. Resource use and quality of life data using the three-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire were prospectively collected. The study perspective was that of the public health care system, and the time horizon was 18 months. Intention-to-treat analysis was used to analyze cost and health outcomes (systolic blood pressure [SBP] change and quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]). A 1 time gross domestic product per capita per QALY was used as the cost-effectiveness threshold (US $14,062). RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in the two arms. QALYs significantly increased by 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.09) in the intervention group, and SBP net difference favored the intervention group: 5.3 mm Hg (95% CI 0.27-10.34). Mean total costs per participant were higher in the intervention arm: US $304 in the intervention group and US $154 in the control group (adjusted difference of US $140.18; 95% CI US $75.41-US $204.94). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $3299 per QALY (95% credible interval 1635-6099) and US $26 per mm Hg of SBP (95% credible interval 13-46). Subgroup analysis showed that the intervention was cost-effective in all prespecified subgroups (age, sex, cardiovascular risk, and body mass index). CONCLUSIONS: The multicomponent intervention was cost-effective for blood pressure control among low-income hypertensive patients.

11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(Suppl 3): e001092, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483414

RESUMO

Task-shifting to non-physician health workers (NPHWs) has been an effective model for managing infectious diseases and improving maternal and child health. There is inadequate evidence to show the effectiveness of NPHWs to manage cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In 2012, the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases funded eight studies which focused on task-shifting to NPHWs for the management of hypertension. We report the lessons learnt from the field. From each of the studies, we obtained information on the types of tasks shifted, the professional level from which the task was shifted, the training provided and the challenges faced. Additionally, we collected more granular data on 'lessons learnt ' throughout the implementation process and 'design to implementation' changes that emerged in each project. The tasks shifted to NPHWs included screening of individuals, referral to physicians for diagnosis and management, patient education for lifestyle improvement, follow-up and reminders for medication adherence and appointments. In four studies, tasks were shifted from physicians to NPHWs and in four studies tasks were shared between two different levels of NPHWs. Training programmes ranged between 3 and 7 days with regular refresher training. Two studies used clinical decision support tools and mobile health components. Challenges faced included system level barriers such as inability to prescribe medicines, varying skill sets of NPHWs, high workload and staff turnover. With the acute shortage of the health workforce in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), achieving better health outcomes for the prevention and control of CVD is a major challenge. Task-shifting or sharing provides a practical model for the management of CVD in LMICs.

12.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 6(11): e10226, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The uptake of an intervention aimed at improving health-related lifestyles may be influenced by the participant's stage of readiness to change behaviors. OBJECTIVE: We conducted secondary analysis of the Grupo de Investigación en Salud Móvil en América Latina (GISMAL) trial according to levels of uptake of intervention (dose-response) to explore outcomes by country, in order to verify the consistency of the trial's pooled results, and by each participant's stage of readiness to change a given lifestyle at baseline. The rationale for this secondary analysis is motivated by the original design of the GISMAL study that was independently powered for the primary outcome-blood pressure-for each country. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a mobile health (mHealth) multicountry trial conducted in Argentina, Guatemala, and Peru. The intervention consisted of monthly motivational phone calls by a trained nutritionist and weekly tailored text messages (short message service), over a 12-month period, aimed to enact change on 4 health-related behaviors: salt added to foods when cooking, consumption of high-fat and high-sugar foods, consumption of fruits or vegetables, and practice of physical activity. Results were stratified by country and by participants' stage of readiness to change (precontemplation or contemplation; preparation or action; or maintenance) at baseline. Exposure (intervention uptake) was the level of intervention (<50%, 50%-74%, and ≥75%) received by the participant in terms of phone calls. Linear regressions were performed to model the outcomes of interest, presented as standardized mean values of the following: blood pressure, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, and the 4 health-related behaviors. RESULTS: For each outcome of interest, considering the intervention uptake, the magnitude and direction of the intervention effect differed by country and by participants' stage of readiness to change at baseline. Among those in the high intervention uptake category, reductions in systolic blood pressure were only achieved in Peru, whereas fruit and vegetable consumption also showed reductions among those who were at the maintenance stage at baseline in Argentina and Guatemala. CONCLUSIONS: Designing interventions oriented toward improving health-related lifestyle behaviors may benefit from recognizing baseline readiness to change and issues in implementation uptake. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01295216; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01295216 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/72tMF0B7B).

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) represents the confluence of bronchial airway hyperreactivity and chronic airflow limitation and has been described as leading to worse lung function and quality of life than found with either singular disease process. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors for ACO among adults across 6 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We compiled cross-sectional data for 11,923 participants aged 35 to 92 years from 4 population-based studies in 12 settings. We defined COPD as postbronchodilator FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio below the lower limit of normal, asthma as wheeze or medication use in 12 months or self-reported physician diagnosis, and ACO as having both. RESULTS: The prevalence of ACO was 3.8% (0% in rural Puno, Peru, to 7.8% in Matlab, Bangladesh). The odds of having ACO were higher with household exposure to biomass fuel smoke (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% CI, 0.98-2.23), smoking tobacco (OR, 1.28 per 10 pack-years; 95% CI, 1.22-1.34), and having primary or less education (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.70) as compared to nonobstructed nonasthma individuals. ACO was associated with severe obstruction (FEV1 %, <50; 31.6% of ACO vs 10.9% of COPD alone) and severe spirometric deficits compared with participants with asthma (-1.61 z scores FEV1; 95% CI, -1.48 to -1.75) or COPD alone (-0.94 z scores; 95% CI, -0.78 to -1.10). CONCLUSIONS: ACO may be as prevalent and more severe in LMICs than has been reported in high-income settings. Exposure to biomass fuel smoke may be an overlooked risk factor, and we favor diagnostic criteria for ACO that include environmental exposures common to LMICs.

15.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42, sep. 2018. Special Issue Alma-Ata.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49465

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Explorar las motivaciones y expectativas de los usuarios del Programa de Estaciones Saludables en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y evaluar su potencial impacto sanitario. Métodos. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad (n = 34) y una encuesta autoadministrada (n = 605) a usuarios del programa. Se desarrolló un modelo epidemiológico para estimar el impacto del programa sobre los eventos cardiovasculares y los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD). Resultados. Los principales factores motivadores para el uso de las estaciones saludables fueron la accesibilidad geográfica, económica (servicios gratuitos) y la satisfacción con la atención recibida. El 14,4% (intervalos de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 10,3–18,5%) de los usuarios hipertensos y el 24,8% (IC95% 17,6–32,0%) de los diabéticos informó haberse enterado de sus valores alterados en las estaciones saludables. Más de la mitad de los encuestados reportó alguna mejora de conocimientos sobre los beneficios de realizar actividad física y una alimentación saludable; esto fue más frecuente entre los usuarios más jóvenes, de menor nivel educativo, usuarios del sistema público de salud, usuarios de estaciones saludables de la zona sur y los que tenían algún factor de riesgo cardiometabólico (p<0.05). Se estimó que debido a la existencia de estaciones saludables se evitarían 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares por año en la población asistida (4,75 eventos/100 000 personas) y 47,75 AVAD por estas causas. Conclusiones. Las estaciones saludables resultan un espacio propicio para la implementación de acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención, contribuyendo en la detección y facilitando el monitoreo de los factores de riesgo, con potencialidad para prevenir eventos cardiovasculares y sus consecuencias.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To explore the motivations and expectations of the users of the Program for Healthy Centers in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and to evaluate its potential health impact. Methods. In-depth interviews were conducted (n = 34) and a self-administered survey was sent to users of the program (n = 605). An epidemiological model was developed to estimate the impact of the program on cardiovascular events (CVE) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results. The main motivating factors for using the healthy centers were geographic and economic accessibility (free services) and satisfaction with the care received. 14.4% (95% CI, 10.3-18.5%) of hypertensive users and 24.8% (95% CI, 17.6-32.0%) of diabetic users reported having learned of their altered values in the healthy center. More than half of the respondents reported some improvement in their knowledge about the benefits of physical activity and healthy eating; this was more frequent among those who were younger, of lower educational level, users of the public health system, users of a healthy center in the South zone and those who had a cardiometabolic risk factor (p<0.05). It was estimated that the healthy centers would prevent 12.5 cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events per year in the assisted population (4.75 events/100 000) and 47.75 DALYs due to these causes. Conclusions. The healthy centers are a favorable space for the implementation of health promotion and prevention actions, contributing to the detection of and facilitating the monitoring of risk factors, with a potential to prevent cardiovascular events and its consequences.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Explorar as motivações e expectativas dos usuários do Programa Estações Saudáveis na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires e avaliar seu impacto potencial na saúde. Métodos. Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade (n = 34) e uma pesquisa auto-administrada (n = 605) a usuários do programa. Um modelo epidemiológico foi desenvolvido para estimar o impacto do programa em eventos cardiovasculares e anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (DALY). Resultados. Os principais fatores motivadores para o uso do estações saudáveis foram a acessibilidade geográfica, econômica (serviços gratuitos) e a satisfação com o atendimento recebido. 14,4% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 10,3-18,5%) de usuários hipertensos e 24,8% (IC95% 17,6-32,0%) dos diabéticos relataram ter aprendido sobre seus valores alterados na estação saudável. Mais da metade dos entrevistados relataram alguma melhora no conhecimento sobre os benefícios da atividade física e da alimentação saudável, com maior freqüência entre os mais jovens, de menor escolaridade, usuários do sistema público de saúde, usuários de estações saudáveis na zona sul e aqueles que apresentaram algum fator de risco cardiometabólico (p<0,05). Estimou-se que, devido à existência de estações saudáveis, 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares e cerebrovasculares por ano seriam evitados na população atendida (4,75 eventos/100 000) e 47,75 DALY por essas causas. Conclusões. As estações saudáveis são um espaço propício para a implementação de ações de promoção e prevenção da saúde, contribuindo para a detecção e facilitação do monitoramento dos fatores de risco, com potencial para prevenir os eventos cardiovasculares e suas consequências.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde , Argentina , Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde
16.
Health Syst Reform ; 4(3): 203-213, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067439

RESUMO

The reform of a health care system requires attention to specific components but also to the creation of an environment that supports change. Argentina has achieved nominal universal health coverage (UHC) but it still needs to work on achieving effective universal health coverage, especially with regard to quality and equity. Nominal coverage means that everyone has been enrolled and has the right to access, and effective coverage means that people have actually received prioritized health care services. In this article, we present our proposals to advance UHC in Argentina. The article includes an overview of Argentina's health system, then introduces the driving forces for reform, and finally analyzes four key issues where we provide our action plan to implement health reform for moving Argentina forward. Overall, our ultimate goal is to provide actual UHC and not aspirational UHC in Argentina by strengthening provincial health systems through enforcing public insurance schemes; utilizing an explicit priority-setting approach to make decisions on health coverage; reducing health disparities in coverage and outcomes, at least on prioritized health problems; and building a primary care-oriented health care system.

18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 392-400, jun. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950017

RESUMO

El tabaquismo es considerado la principal causa de muerte prevenible en el mundo. La mayoría de los fumadores inician esta adicción durante edades tempranas, especialmente, durante la adolescencia. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar los determinantes de consumo adolescente y evaluar el impacto de una intervención educativa en la prevalencia del tabaquismo. Métodos. Estudio antes-después controlado, realizado durante los años 2010-2012 en dos colegios secundarios de la ciudad de La Plata. En ambos, se realizó una encuesta basal seguida de dos mediciones posteriores; en uno de ellos, se implementó una intervención educativa dirigida a jóvenes de 12 y 13 años. Se utilizaron modelos de regresión múltiple para identificar las variables asociadas al tabaquismo y evaluar el impacto de la intervención. Resultados. Se incluyeron 1911 encuestas (Colegio A: 617; Colegio B: 1294). Las variables asociadas al tabaquismo adolescente fueron la tenencia de un hermano fumador (odds ratio -OR- 2,55), madre fumadora (OR 2,32), años de edad (OR 1,92) y el sexo femenino (OR 1,75). El OR ajustado por dichos determinantes para ser fumador actual en el colegio intervención versus el control fue 0,54 (intervalo de confianza -IC- del 95%: 0,35-0,83) en el primer año de seguimiento y 0,98 (IC 95%: 0,60-1,61) en el segundo año. Conclusiones. La tenencia de una madre o un hermano fumador, la edad y el sexo femenino se correlacionaron fuertemente con el consumo de cigarrillos. La intervención educativa tuvo un efecto positivo en el primer año de seguimiento, pero luego no se mantuvo.


Smoking is considered the main cause of preventable death worldwide. Most smokers start using tobacco at an early age, especially during adolescence. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of adolescent use of tobacco and assess the impact of an educational intervention on the prevalence of smoking. Methods. Controlled, before and after study conducted between 2010 and 2012 at two secondary schools in the city of La Plata. A baseline survey was administered at both schools followed by two subsequent measurements; an educational intervention aimed at youth aged 12 and 13 years was implemented in one of the schools. Multiple regression models were used to identify the outcome measures associated with smoking and assess the impact of the intervention. Results. A total of 1911 surveys were included (school A: 617; school B: 1294). The outcome measures associated with adolescent smoking were having a sibling who smokes (odds ratio -amp;#91;OR-amp;#93;: 2.55), a mother who smokes (OR: 2.32), age (OR: 1.92), and female sex (OR: 1.75). The OR adjusted for these determinants to be a current smoker at the intervention school versus the control school was 0.54 (95% confidence interval -amp;#91;CI-amp;#93;: 0.35-0.83) in the first year of follow-up and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.60-1.61) in the second year. Conclusions. Having a mother or a sibling who smokes, age, and female sex were strongly correlated to cigarette smoking. The educational intervention had a positive effect in the first year of follow-up, which was not maintained over time.

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