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1.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CDI has been associated with morbidity and mortality after cardiac operations. The present study examined incidence, predictors, and impact of CDI on inpatient mortality and resource utilization. METHODS: An analysis of adult patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or valvular operations from 2005 to 2016 was performed using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS). Trends in CDI were assessed using a modified Cochran-Armitage analysis. Multivariable multi-level regressions were utilized to identify predictors of CDI and propensity-matched pairs were generated using Mahalanobis 1-to-1 matching to compare mortality, Length of Stay (LOS), and costs of CDI patients with the non- CDI cohort. RESULTS: The overall rate of CDI for an estimated 2,026,267 patients who underwent elective major cardiac surgery, was 0.5% with no change in incidence (P-for-trend=0.99). Predictors of CDI included advanced age (AGE≥65: AOR 1.88, 95%CI 1.58-2.24), female gender (AOR 1.29, 95%CI 1.15-1.44), heart failure (AOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.40-1.76) and combined CABG/valve operations (AOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.24-2.08). Neither region nor bedsize were associated with CDI. In contrast, CDI mortality was lower at teaching hospitals compared to rural. Among the matched pairs, CDI was independently associated with higher mortality, LOS and GDP-adjusted costs. CONCLUSIONS: CDI occurs in less than 1% of all elective, major cardiac operations. Patient predictors included advanced age, female gender, and several chronic comorbidities. Teaching institutions had the highest odds of CDI but lowest odds of case fatality. Further investigation of factors contributing to CDI is warranted to disseminate institutional best practices.

2.
Clin Transplant ; : e13863, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221993

RESUMO

Heart transplantation guidelines recommend against matching donors with significant weight but not height discrepancies. This study analyzed the impact of donor-recipient height mismatch on mortality among heart transplant recipients. We retrospectively analyzed all adult patients in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry undergoing heart transplantation from 1990 to September 2016. Moderate and severe height mismatch were classified as >10% and >15% difference in donor height from recipient height, respectively. The primary outcome was 1-year mortality. Adjusted Cox hazards regression was performed, and Kaplan-Meier estimates illustrated 10-year survival. Of 44 877 transplants, 4822 (10.7%) were moderately height mismatched. Height-mismatched recipients were more frequently female (41.6% vs 21.8%, P < .001), sex mismatched (53.8% vs 24.9%, P < .001), and weight mismatched (4.9% vs 1.9%, P < .001). After adjustment, recipients of moderately (HR = 1.15 [1.02-1.30]) and severely (HR = 1.38 [1.10-1.74]) taller donor hearts were at increased risk of mortality at 1 year relative to height-matched recipients. Furthermore, of 1042 (21.6%) severe mismatches, recipients with taller (HR = 1.39 [1.11-1.74]) but not shorter (HR = 0.79 [0.44-1.43]) donors faced increased 10-year mortality. The effect was pronounced among re-transplant candidates (HR = 1.96 [1.07-3.59]). In conclusion, matching with moderately or severely taller donors is an independent predictor of mortality among primary and re-transplant candidates.

3.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 102(1): 52-59, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to identify preoperative risk factors for primary total hip arthroplasty have amplified with its increasing incidence. The international normalized ratio (INR) is 1 measure that may influence postoperative outcomes. This study of a national database assessed whether there exists an association between preoperative INR and postoperative bleeding and mortality among patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 17,567 adult patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) between 2005 and 2016. Patients were stratified by preoperative INR into 4 groups: INR <1.0, 1.0 to <1.25, 1.25 to <1.5, and ≥1.5. Bleeding necessitating transfusion was the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes included mortality, infection, and readmission. Multivariable logistic regressions controlled for baseline differences. RESULTS: Among the patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty, 20.5% had INR <1.0, 73.6% had INR 1.0 to <1.25, 4.2% had INR 1.25 to <1.5, and 1.8% had INR ≥1.5. Mortality increased incrementally from 0.3% for INR <1.0 to 4.9% for INR ≥1.5 (p < 0.001), and bleeding risk increased from 13.2% for INR <1.0 to 29.3% for INR ≥1.5 (p < 0.001). After adjustment, bleeding risk was increased for INR 1.25 to <1.5 (odds ratio [OR], 1.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26 to 1.92]) and INR ≥1.5 (OR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.15 to 2.08]) compared with INR <1.0. The only group associated with increased mortality was INR ≥1.5 (OR, 2.69 [95% CI, 1.07 to 6.76]). The length of stay significantly increased with increasing INR, from 3.6 to 6.3 days (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study found a significant, independent effect between increased preoperative INR and increased bleeding and mortality. Bleeding risk becomes evident at INR ≥1.25, and those patients with INR ≥1.5 are at significantly increased risk of mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

4.
Clin Transplant ; 34(2): e13762, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808192

RESUMO

Organ donor contraindications are frequently reassessed for impact on recipient outcomes in attempt to meet demand for transplantation. This study retrospectively analyzed the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry for adult heart transplants from 1987 to September 2016 to characterize the impact of donor malignancy history in heart transplantation. Kaplan-Meier estimates illustrated 10-year survival. Propensity score matching was utilized for 1:1 matching of donors with and without history of malignancy, and Cox proportional hazards and logistic regressions were used to analyze the matched population. Of 38 781 heart transplants, 622 (1.6%) had a donor history of malignancy. Cox regressions demonstrated that donor malignancy predicted increased 10-year mortality (HR = 1.16 [1.01-1.33]), but this difference did not persist when conditioned upon 1 year post-transplant survival (log-rank = 0.643). Cox regressions of the propensity score-matched population (455 pairs) found no association between donor malignancy and 10-year mortality (HR = 1.02 [0.84-1.24]). Older age and higher rates of hypertension were observed in donors with a history of malignancy whose recipients died within the first year post-transplant. Therefore, increased recipient mortality is likely due to donor characteristics beyond malignancy, creating the potential for expanded donor selection.

5.
Am J Surg ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mortality, morbidity, and readmissions associated with management of grade 3 cholecystitis in the elderly, vulnerable population. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of non-elective admissions for acute cholecystitis from 2010 to 2015 using the nationwide readmissions database for adults ≥ 65 years with evidence of end-organ dysfunction (grade 3) who underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC), laparoscopic (LC) or open cholecystectomy (OC). Index and readmission outcomes were analyzed using logistic regression and inverse probability treatment weight analysis. RESULTS: Of the estimated 358,624 patients, 14.9% underwent PC, 15.7% OC, and 69.4% LC. PC had significantly higher odds of mortality (AOR 5.8, 95%CI 5.1-6.6), composite morbidity (AOR 3.8, 95%CI 3.5-4.1), early (AOR 1.9, 95%CI 1.7-2.0) and intermediate (AOR 2.2, 95%CI 2.0-2.5) readmission compared to LC and OC. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing cholecystostomy had higher mortality, complications, and readmission rates warranting revaluation of criteria for cholecystostomy at initial presentation.

6.
Am J Surg ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the association of preoperative serum albumin with outcomes for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was retrospectively analyzed from 2005 to 2016 for adult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were stratified into four groups: <3.0 g/dL (Severe Malnutrition), 3.0-<3.5 (Moderate Malnutrition), 3.5-<4.0 (Mild Malnutrition), and ≥4.0 g/dL (Normal Nutrition). The primary outcome of 30-day mortality was evaluated with multivariable regression. RESULTS: Of 131,855 patients, 14.0% had Severe, 22.8% Moderate, and 29.7% Mild Malnutrition, with 33.5% classified as Normal Nutrition. Adjusted multivariable regressions demonstrated that relative to Normal Nutrition, mortality risk was increased for Severe (OR = 3.09 [95% Confidence Interval: 2.09-4.56]) and Moderate (OR = 1.83 [1.24-2.72]) Malnutrition. Severe (OR = 2.45 [1.67-3.61]) and Moderate (OR = 1.52 [1.04-2.24]) Malnutrition were also associated with increased risk of postoperative septic shock. CONCLUSIONS: Even in less invasive laparoscopic cholecystectomy, reduced preoperative serum albumin is strongly associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

7.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1184-1188, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657321

RESUMO

Guidelines suggest targeting a preoperative international normalized ratio (INR) < 1.5. We examined and compared the predictive value of INR relative to the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD). We reviewed the American College of Surgeons NSQIP from 2005 to 2016 for adult patients undergoing open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients with a preoperative INR were stratified into groups: ≤1, >1 to ≤1.5, >1.5 to ≤2, and >2. Thirty day postoperative mortality was the primary outcome. Multivariable logistic regressions controlled for baseline differences. Of 58,177 cholecystectomy patients, 15.2 per cent had INR ≤ 1, 80.4 per cent had INR > 1 to ≤1.5, 3.7 per cent had INR > 1.5 to ≤2, and 0.7 per cent had INR > 2. Patients with INR > 2 were older and more likely to have diabetes and hypertension (P < 0.001). Multivariable regression demonstrated a stepwise increase in mortality for INR > 1 to ≤1.5 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.50 [1.10-2.05]), INR > 1.5 to ≤2 (OR = 2.96 [1.97-4.45]), and INR > 2 (OR = 3.21 [1.64-6.31]) relative to INR ≤ 1. C-statistic for INR (0.910) and MELD (0.906) models indicated a similar value in predicting mortality. INR groups also faced an incremental, increased risk of bleeding. Although unable to track preoperative correction of INR, this analysis identifies that INR remains an excellent predictor of postoperative mortality and bleeding after both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomies and is comparable to MELD.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
8.
Surgery ; 166(6): 1142-1147, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occasionally, lung transplant candidates improve to the point where they are removed from the transplant list. We sought to determine the characteristics and outcomes of lung transplant candidates who improved to delisting both before and after implementation of the lung allocation score. METHODS: Using the United Network for Organ Sharing database, we reviewed all adult patients listed for lung transplant between 1987 and 2012. The last permanent status change was classified into transplanted, improved to delisting (improved), or deteriorated to delisting (deteriorated). Survival time was calculated using the linked date of death from the Social Security Administration. Survival analysis was performed via the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted multivariable logistic regressions identified characteristics predicting improvement to delisting. RESULTS: Of 13,688 candidates, 12,188 (89.0%) were transplanted, 454 (3.3%) improved, and 1,046 (7.6%) deteriorated. The 5-year mortality was greater in improved (hazard ratio = 1.21 [1.07-1.38], P = .002) and deteriorated (hazard ratio = 3.36 [3.11-3.64], P < .001) candidates relative to those transplanted; however, 1-year survival was greater in improved versus transplanted candidates (75.9% vs 67.2%, log rank P < .001). Older, female patients listed for primary pulmonary hypertension and retransplantation were more likely to improve to delisting. The proportion of improved patients varied by hospital quartile volume (P < .001) and the United Network for Organ Sharing geographic region (P < .001). The number of patients improving to delisting decreased after implementation of the lung allocation score. CONCLUSION: Lung transplant candidates improving to delisting faced less short-term but greater long-term mortality relative to transplanted candidates. Given that the improved population decreased dramatically after implementation of the lung allocation score, redefining patient listing criteria appears to have improved patient appropriateness for transplant.


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Listas de Espera/mortalidade , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Transplante de Pulmão/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
J Surg Res ; 244: 146-152, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is among several factors considered when assessing the suitability of donated organs for transplantation. Lungs from diabetic donors (LDD) are not contraindicated for use as allografts, despite established evidence of diabetes-mediated parenchymal damage. The present study used a national database to assess the impact of donor diabetes on the longevity of lung transplant recipients. METHODS: This retrospective study of the United Network for Organ Sharing database analyzed all adult lung transplant recipients from June 2005 through September 2016. Donor and recipient demographics including the presence of diabetes were used to create a multivariable model. The primary outcome was 5-y mortality, with hazard ratios (HRs) assessed using multivariable Cox regression analysis. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Of the 17,839 lung transplant recipients analyzed, 1203 (6.7%) received LDD. Recipients of LDD were more likely to be female (44.1% versus 40.2%, P < 0.01) and have mismatched race (47.5% versus 42.2%, P < 0.01). Diabetic donors were more likely to have hypertension (74.6% versus 19.0%, P < 0.01). Multivariable analysis revealed LDD to be an independent predictor of mortality at 5 y (HR 1.16 [1.04-1.29], P < 0.01). However, among the subgroup of diabetic recipients, transplantation of LDD showed no independent association with 5-y mortality (HR 0.81 [0.63-1.06], P = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Recipients of LDD had a lower 5-y post lung transplantation survival compared with recipients of lungs from nondiabetic donors. LDD allografts did not influence the survival of diabetic recipients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Transplante de Pulmão/estatística & dados numéricos , Doadores de Tecidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Seleção do Doador/normas , Seleção do Doador/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(2): 205-210, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104778

RESUMO

Readmission following cardiac surgery is associated with poor outcomes and increased healthcare expenditure. However, a nationwide understanding of the incidence, cost, causes, and predictors of 30-day readmission following coronary artery bypass grafting is limited. The Nationwide Readmissions Database was used to identify all adult patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with no other concomitant surgery between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was all-cause readmission within 30 days of discharge after surgery. Risk-adjusted multivariable analyses were used to develop a model of readmission risk. Of 855,836 patients, 95,504 (11.2%) had an emergent 30-day readmission following CABG. The most common causes of readmission were related to respiratory complications (17.1%), infection (13.5%), and heart failure (11.9%). Readmission cost an average of $13,392 per patient, accounting for an estimated annual cost of over $250 million. Independent predictors of 30-day readmission encompassed female gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24 to 1.31), emergent index admission (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.25 to 1.33), and preoperative co-morbidities, including atrial fibrillation (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.28), liver disease (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.41), renal failure (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.34 to 1.43), among others. CABG performed at a high CABG volume hospital was protective of readmission (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99). In conclusion, we characterized using a national sample the incidence, causes, costs, and predictors of 30-day readmission following CABG. Targeting modifiable risk factors for readmission should be a priority to reduce rates of readmission and decrease healthcare expenditure.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Custos e Análise de Custo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil ; 10: 2151459319841741, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069127

RESUMO

Introduction: Hip fractures in the elderly individuals are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and outcomes are directly related to prompt surgical intervention with either total hip arthroplasty (THA) or hemiarthroplasty. Minority hip fracture patients have increased delays to surgical intervention and poorer functional outcomes. This study explored racial biases in the surgical treatment decision between THA and hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures as well as racial disparities in postoperative complications, readmission rates, and 30-day mortality. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) from 2006 to 2014. Patients were identified using diagnosis code for transcervical femoral neck fractures and Current Procedural Terminology codes for THA or hemiarthroplasty. A multivariable regression analysis was conducted including race, demographic information, and medical comorbidities. Results: Of 11 408 patients, race was recorded in 8538 individuals. Most patients were white (88.3%), followed by Hispanic (4.7%), African American (4.1%), and Asian/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/American Indian/Alaska Native (2.9%). No differences were observed in the likelihood of receiving a THA versus hemiarthroplasty among racial groups. Only younger age and steroid use were independent risk factors for receiving a THA. Race was significantly associated with postoperative mortality (P = .014) and major postoperative complications for the Asian cohort (P = .013). Discussion: The NSQIP data do not support a racial bias in the selection of patients for THA versus hemiarthroplasty. However, this study found racial disparities in postoperative mortality and complications. The reasons underlying the differences in postoperative outcomes are uncertain but may be the result of specific challenges to accessing care. Conclusion: There was no racial bias in the treatment of femoral neck fractures. However, there were racial disparities in postoperative mortality and complication rates. Further research is warranted to elucidate the true causes of these observed disparities.

13.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(6): 514-522, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consensus guidelines recommend use of the international normalized ratio (INR) to predict the risk of perioperative bleeding in orthopaedic surgery. However, current recommendations for targeting an INR of <1.5 are based on studies across all surgical disciplines. This study examined the impact of the INR on perioperative bleeding, mortality, postoperative infections, length of hospital stay (LOS), and readmissions following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database for adult patients who underwent primary TKA from 2010 to 2016. Patients for whom an INR had been recorded within 1 day before the surgery were stratified and analyzed for perioperative bleeding, mortality within 30 days, deep wound and superficial infections, LOS, and readmissions. Multivariable regressions were utilized to adjust for differences in demographics and comorbidities among INR groups. RESULTS: Of 21,239 patients, 57.2% had an INR of ≤1.0; 38.1% had an INR of >1.0 to 1.25, 3.9% had an INR of >1.25 to 1.5, and 0.8% had an INR of >1.5. After adjustment, a progressively increased bleeding risk was found with an INR of >1.0 to 1.25 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07 to 1.31, p = 0.001), an INR of >1.25 to 1.5 (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.63, p = 0.033), and an INR of >1.5 (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.29 to 3.14, p = 0.002) relative to an INR of ≤1.0. Patients with an INR of >1.5 were at increased risk for infection (OR = 5.34, 95% CI = 2.45 to 11.68, p < 0.001), but only patients with an INR of >1.25 to 1.5 were at increased risk for mortality (OR = 3.37, 95% CI = 1.31 to 8.63, p = 0.011) relative to those with an INR of ≤1.0. Overall and TKA-related readmission rates and LOS were significantly increased for patients with an INR of >1.25 to 1.5 or an INR of >1.5. CONCLUSIONS: An INR of >1.25 to 1.5 was associated with increased bleeding, infection, and mortality rates following TKA, and an INR of >1.5 was associated with increased bleeding and infection rates. Current INR target recommendations in consensus guidelines should be reconsidered. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia do Joelho/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(10): 1675-1680, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850212

RESUMO

Patients with autoimmune connective tissue disease (CTD) are at higher risk for developing aortic valve pathology, but the safety and value of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in this population has not been investigated. This study evaluated mortality, complication, and readmission rates along with length of stay and total costs after TAVI in patients with CTD. We retrospectively reviewed 47,216 patients who underwent TAVI from the National Readmissions Database between January 2011 and September 2015. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune CTD comprised the cohort. The primary outcome was mortality at index hospitalization. The 2,557 CTD patients (5.4%) had a higher Elixhauser co-morbidity index (7.1 vs 6.1, p <0.001) than non-CTD patients. CTD and non-CTD patients had similar mortality (2.8 vs 4.1%, p = 0.052), 30-day readmission (19.3 vs 17.0%, p = 0.077), length of stay (8.2 vs 8.3 days, p = 0.615), and total adjusted costs ($57,202 vs $58,309, p = 0.196), respectively. However, CTD patients were more frequently readmitted for postoperative infection (9.4 vs 5.6%, p = 0.042) and septicemia (8.2 vs 4.5%, p = 0.019). After multivariable adjustment, CTD patients faced lower mortality at index hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 0.56 [0.38 to 0.82], p = 0.003) but were more frequently readmitted for septicemia (OR = 1.95 [1.10 to 3.45], p = 0.023) and postoperative infection (OR = 3.10 [1.01 to 9.52], p = 0.048) relative to non-CTD patients. In conclusion, CTD is not a risk factor for in-hospital mortality but is an independent risk factor for infectious complications post-TAVI.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/mortalidade , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Surgery ; 165(6): 1228-1233, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignancy is a relative contraindication in transplant candidates, given the increased neoplastic risk accompanying posttransplant immunosuppression. However, the number of patients receiving a lung transplant despite pretransplant malignancy is rising, and their outcomes remain unclear. Our purpose was to examine the outcomes of lung transplant recipients with pretransplant malignancy in the modern era. METHODS: We evaluated the United Network for Organ Sharing registry for adult lung transplants that were completed between June 2005 and September 2016. Transplant recipients were stratified by pretransplant malignancy, with subgroup analysis by sex and active malignancy. The primary outcome was 5-year survival and the secondary outcome was cause of death. Kaplan-Meier estimates illustrated 5-year survival and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressions controlled for demographics and comorbidities. RESULTS: Of 18,032 transplant patients, 1,321 transplant recipients (7.3%) possessed a pretransplant malignancy. Patients with pretransplant malignancy faced significantly greater mortality within 5 years (36.0% vs 32.8%, P = .017), an effect greatest in men with pretransplant malignancy (39.2% vs 33.7%, P = .002). Patients with pretransplant malignancy also faced greater risk of death from posttransplant malignancy (15.6% vs 9.4%, P < .001), particularly for those with active malignancy at transplant (34.8% vs 9.8%, P < .001). Pretransplant malignancy remained a significant predictor of 5-year mortality in adjusted Cox regressions (hazard ratio: 1.16 [1.05-1.27], P = .003). CONCLUSION: Patients with pretransplant malignancy, and particularly men with pretransplant malignancy and those with active malignancy at transplant, are at an increased risk of 5-year mortality and posttransplant death from malignancy. Balancing individual risk of posttransplant malignancy with immunosuppressive care is necessary to optimize outcomes for pretransplant malignancy patients.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão/mortalidade , Neoplasias/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias/complicações , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Período Pré-Operatório , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(5): 559-570, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rising rates of hospitalization for infective endocarditis (IE) have been increasingly tied to rising injection drug use (IDU) associated with the opioid epidemic. OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed recent trends in IDU-IE hospitalization and characterized outcomes and readmissions for IDU-IE patients. METHODS: The authors evaluated the National Readmissions Database (NRD) for IE cases between January 2010 and September 2015. Patients were stratified by IDU status and surgical versus medical management. Primary outcome was 30-day readmission and cause, with secondary outcomes including mortality, length of stay (LOS), adjusted costs, and 180-day readmission. The Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests were used to analyze baseline differences by IDU status. Multivariable regressions were used to analyze mortality, readmissions, LOS, and adjusted costs. RESULTS: The survey-weighted sample contained 96,344 (77.8%) non-IDU-IE and 27,432 (22.2%) IDU-IE cases. IDU-IE increased from 15.3% to 29.1% of IE cases between 2010 and 2015 (p < 0.001). At index hospitalization, IDU-IE was associated with reduced mortality (6.8% vs. 9.6%; p < 0.001) but not 30-day readmission (23.8% vs. 22.9%; p = 0.077) relative to non-IDU-IE. Medically managed IDU-IE patients had higher LOS (ß = 1.36 days; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 2.01), reduced costs (ß = -$4,427; 95% CI: -$7,093 to -$1,761), and increased readmission for endocarditis (18.1% vs. 5.6%; p < 0.001), septicemia (14.0% vs. 7.3%; p < 0.001), and drug abuse (4.3% vs. 0.7%; p < 0.001) compared with medically managed non-IDU-IE. Surgically managed IDU-IE patients had increased LOS (ß = 4.26 days; 95% CI: 2.73 to 5.80) and readmission for septicemia (15.6% vs. 5.2%; p < 0.001) and drug abuse (7.3% vs. 0.9%; p < 0.001) compared with non-IDU-IE. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of IDU-IE continues to rise nationally. Given the increased readmission for endocarditis, septicemia, and drug abuse, IDU-IE presents a serious challenge to current management of IE.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Endocardite , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite/etiologia , Endocardite/mortalidade , Endocardite/cirurgia , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Clin Transplant ; 33(2): e13462, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548687

RESUMO

Employment status may capture elements of patients' physical strength, mental resilience, and socioeconomic status to better prognosticate transplant outcomes. This study characterized the effect of working status on thoracic transplant outcomes by evaluating the United Network for Organ Sharing registry for adult lung or heart transplants from 2005 to 2016. Kaplan-Meier estimates illustrated 5-year and 10-year survival by working status at transplant, while multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressions controlled for baseline differences, including functional and socioeconomic status. Of 17 778 lung transplant recipients, 1700 (9.6%) worked at transplant and experienced significantly lower 5-year mortality than nonworking recipients (38.6% vs 45.5%, P < 0.001). Of 21 394 heart transplant recipients, 1289 (6.0%) were employed and experienced significantly lower 10-year mortality than nonworking recipients (34.1% vs 40.2%, P < 0.001). Adjusted Cox regressions demonstrated that employment significantly reduced mortality independent of functional status for both lung (HR: 0.86 [0.78-0.95], P = 0.003) and heart (HR: 0.84 [0.72-0.97], P = 0.023) recipients. After accounting for insurance status, the effect of working status persisted only in lung transplantation (HR: 0.89 [0.81-0.98], P = 0.023). Since heart and lung transplant candidates employed at transplant face lower long-term mortality, working status must encompass a broad set of physical, psychological, and socioeconomic variables that may prognosticate post-transplant outcomes.

18.
Clin Orthop Surg ; 10(4): 398-406, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30505406

RESUMO

Background: Hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin < 3.5 g/dL) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, costs associated with hypoalbuminemia remain unknown. This study investigated the effect of serum albumin on direct treatment costs, length of stay (LOS), and readmissions for primary and revision THA and TKA patients. Methods: All adult patients at a single institution undergoing primary or revision THA or TKA between January 2014 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were stratified by preoperative serum albumin level. The primary outcome was total direct costs at index hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included LOS and readmission within 30 days. Multivariable regressions were utilized to adjust for demographics and comorbidities. Results: Of 3,785 patients, 114 (3.0%) had hypoalbuminemia. After adjustment, hypoalbuminemia was associated with a 16.2% increase in costs (ß = 0.162; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.112 to 0.213; p < 0.001), representing an average cost increase of $3,383 (95% CI, $2,281 to $4,485) relative to costs for serum albumin > 4.5 g/dL. The increased total costs were significantly higher in revision ($4,322, p = 0.034) than in primary ($3,446, p < 0.001) procedures. In adjusted regression, each 1.0 g/dL increase in serum albumin yielded a 6.6% reduction in costs (ß = -0.066; 95% CI, -0.090 to -0.042]; p < 0.001), for average savings of $1,282 (95% CI, $759 to $1,806) per unit albumin. Adjusted regressions demonstrated that a 1-point increase in serum albumin reduced readmissions by 53% (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31-0.73; p = 0.001) and LOS by 0.6 days (ß = -0.60; 95% CI, -0.76 to -0.44; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Hypoalbuminemia is associated with increased total direct costs, LOS, and readmissions following primary and revision THA and TKA. Future efforts to predict and address total costs should take into consideration the patient's preoperative serum albumin levels.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/economia , Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Albumina Sérica/análise , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Arthroplast Today ; 4(2): 210-215, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896555

RESUMO

Background: As procedure rates and expenditures for total hip arthroplasty (THA) rise, hospitals are developing models to predict discharge location, a major determinant of total cost. The predictive value of existing illness rating systems such as the American Society for Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Classification System, Severity of Illness (SOI) scoring system, or Mallampati (MP) rating scale on discharge location remains unclear. This study explored the predictive role of ASA, SOI, and MP scores on discharge location, lengths of stay, and total costs for THA patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing elective primary or revision THA was conducted at a single institution. Multivariable regressions were utilized to assess the significant predictive factors for lengths of stay, total costs, and discharge to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), rehabilitation centers, and home. Controls included demographic factors, insurance coverage, and the type of procedure. Results: ASA scores ≥3 are the only significant predictors of discharge to SNFs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69, confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-2.74) and home (OR = 0.57, CI = 0.34-0.98). Medicaid coverage (OR = 2.61, CI = 1.37-4.96) and African-American race (OR = 2.60, CI = 1.59-4.25) were additional significant predictors of discharge to SNF. SOI scores are the only significant predictors of length of stay (ß = 1.36 days, CI = 0.53-2.19) and total cost for an episode (ß = $6,234, CI = $3577-$8891). MP scores possess limited predictive power over lengths of stay only. Conclusions: These findings suggest that although ASA classifications predict discharge location and SOI scores predict length of stay and total costs, other factors beyond illness rating systems remain stronger predictors of discharge for THA patients.

20.
Surgery ; 164(2): 300-305, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thoracic aortic injuries have traditionally been associated with high morbidity and mortality. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair has emerged as a suitable alternative to open repair, but its impact at a national level remains ill defined. This study aimed to analyze the national trends of patient characteristics, outcomes, and resource utilization in the treatment of thoracic aortic injuries. METHODS: Patients admitted with thoracic aortic injuries from 2005-2014 were identified in the National Inpatient Sample. Patients were identified as undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair, open surgery, or nonoperative management. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, while secondary outcomes included complications and costs. Multivariate regressions accounting for characteristics of the patients and injury characteristics were used to determine predictors of mortality and changes in cost. RESULTS: Of the 11,257 patients admitted for thoracic aortic injuries, 33% received thoracic endovascular aortic repair, 8% open surgery, and 59% nonoperative management. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair had the great largest growth in case volume (P < .001). Compared to open surgery, thoracic endovascular aortic repair patients had greater rates of concomitant brain (17 vs 26%, P = .01), pulmonary (21 vs 33%, P < .001), and splenic injuries (2 vs 4%, P = .031). In-hospital mortality was greater for open surgery (odds ratio = 3.06, P = .003) and nonoperative management (odds ratio = 4.33, P < .001) than thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Over time, mortality rates for thoracic endovascular aortic repair decreased (P = .002), but increased for open surgery (P = .04). Interestingly, total costs with thoracic endovascular aortic repair increased (P = .004), while they decreased for open surgery (P = .031). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate the rapid adoption of thoracic endovascular aortic repair over open surgery for management of thoracic aortic injuries. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair is associated with lower mortality rates, but it has greater costs not otherwise explained by other patient factors.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/lesões , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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