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1.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936161

RESUMO

The mode of action of Pt- and Pd-based anticancer agents (cisplatin and Pd2Spm) was studied by characterising their impact on DNA. Changes in conformation and mobility at the molecular level in hydrated DNA were analysed by quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering techniques (QENS and INS), coupled to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and microRaman spectroscopies. Although INS, FTIR and Raman revealed drug-triggered changes in the phosphate groups and the double helix base pairing, QENS allowed access to the nanosecond motions of the biomolecule's backbone and confined hydration water within the minor groove. Distinct effects were observed for cisplatin and Pd2Spm, the former having a predominant effect on DNA´s spine of hydration, whereas the latter had a higher influence on the backbone dynamics. This is an innovative way of tackling a drug´s mode of action, mediated by the hydration waters within its pharmacological target (DNA).

2.
Nat Mater ; 19(1): 86-93, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844281

RESUMO

The efficient production of light olefins from renewable biomass is a vital and challenging target to achieve future sustainable chemical processes. Here we report a hetero-atomic MFI-type zeolite (NbAlS-1), over which aqueous solutions of γ-valerolactone (GVL), obtained from biomass-derived carbohydrates, can be quantitatively converted into butenes with a yield of >99% at ambient pressure under continuous flow conditions. NbAlS-1 incorporates simultaneously niobium(V) and aluminium(III) centres into the framework and thus has a desirable distribution of Lewis and Brønsted acid sites with optimal strength. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy show that there is cooperativity between Nb(V) and the Brønsted acid sites on the confined adsorption of GVL, whereas the catalytic mechanism for the conversion of the confined GVL into butenes is revealed by in situ inelastic neutron scattering, coupled with modelling. This study offers a prospect for the sustainable production of butene as a platform chemical for the manufacture of renewable materials.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(2): 896-904, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844858

RESUMO

Nanosized MoO2 can be prepared by different protocols, which yield different morphologies of the nanoparticles. Among their many properties, they can serve as catalysts for styrene oxidation (among other olefins), which is an industrially relevant transformation. In this work, we prepared MoO2 nanosized catalysts by two slightly different hydrothermal protocols using ethylenediamine and either Fe2O3 or hydroquinone. When used in catalysis, kinetic data evidenced that depending on the synthesis protocol of MoO2, induction periods occur (for the catalyst prepared with hydroquinone) with obvious different kinetic profiles and, in addition, product selectivity was also affected. To gain some insight on what is behind these results of the catalytic activity, a combined approach of studies has been conducted. DRIFT and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) techniques were used to assess the adsorbed species at the surface of both the fresh (DRIFT and INS) and recovered (INS) catalysts. Results from this study showed that when hydroquinone was used, an organic shell coated the MoO2 nanoparticles, which negatively influenced the catalytic performance.

4.
Nat Mater ; 18(12): 1358-1365, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611671

RESUMO

Emissions of SO2 from flue gas and marine transport have detrimental impacts on the environment and human health, but SO2 is also an important industrial feedstock if it can be recovered, stored and transported efficiently. Here we report the exceptional adsorption and separation of SO2 in a porous material, [Cu2(L)] (H4L = 4',4‴-(pyridine-3,5-diyl)bis([1,1'-biphenyl]-3,5-dicarboxylic acid)), MFM-170. MFM-170 exhibits fully reversible SO2 uptake of 17.5 mmol g-1 at 298 K and 1.0 bar, and the SO2 binding domains for trapped molecules within MFM-170 have been determined. We report the reversible coordination of SO2 to open Cu(II) sites, which contributes to excellent adsorption thermodynamics and selectivities for SO2 binding and facile regeneration of MFM-170 after desorption. MFM-170 is stable to water, acid and base and shows great promise for the dynamic separation of SO2 from simulated flue gas mixtures, as confirmed by breakthrough experiments.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4466, 2019 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578368

RESUMO

Incorporation of mesopores and active sites into metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to uncover new efficient catalysts is a highly desirable but challenging task. We report the first example of a mesoporous MOF obtained by templated electrosynthesis using an ionic liquid as both electrolyte and template. The mesoporous Cu(II)-MOF MFM-100 has been synthesised in 100 seconds at room temperature, and this material incorporates crystal defects with uncoupled Cu(II) centres as evidenced by confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. MFM-100 prepared in this way shows exceptional catalytic activity for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols to produce aldehydes in near quantitative yield and selectivity under mild conditions, as well as having excellent stability and reusability over repeated cycles. The catalyst-substrate binding interactions have been probed by inelastic neutron scattering. This study offers a simple strategy to create mesopores and active sites simultaneously via electrochemical formation of crystal defects to promote efficient catalysis using MOFs.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(28): 15463-15470, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257373

RESUMO

Effective treatment of disorders of the central nervous system can often be achieved using bioactive molecules of similar moieties to those known to be tolerable. A better understanding of the solid-state characteristics of such molecules could thereby create new opportunities for research on pharmaceutical preparations and drug prescriptions, while information about their rich intramolecular dynamics may well add an important aspect in the field of in silico drug discovery. We have therefore investigated three different antipsychotic drugs: haloperidol (C21H23ClFNO2, HAL), aripiprazole (C23H27Cl2N3O2, APZ) and quetiapine hemifumarate (C21H25N3O2S·0.5C4H4O4, QTP) based on similarities either in their structures, hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties, or in their modes of action, typical or atypical. Our aim was to test the structural and molecular stability of these three different antipsychotics. To this end, we compared the molecular vibrations observed by inelastic neutron spectroscopy of these systems with those from theoretical periodic calculations of the crystalline antipsychotics using the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP). While most of the observed features in the lattice region were reasonably well represented by the calculations, the overall spectra were relatively complex, and hence traditional assignment procedures for the approximately 600 normal modes in the unit cell were not possible. These results indicate that in the search for new drug candidates, not only analysis of the flexibility of the receptor, but also the dynamics of the active molecules play a role in improving the prediction of binding affinities.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/química , Conformação Molecular , Ligações de Hidrogênio
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8704, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213625

RESUMO

Water mobility in cancer cells could be a powerful parameter to predict the progression or remission of tumors. In the present descriptive work, new insight into this concept was achieved by combining neutron scattering and thermal analyses. The results provide the first step to untangle the role played by water dynamics in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) after treatment with a chemotherapy drug. By thermal analyses, the cells were probed as micrometric reservoirs of bulk-like and confined water populations. Under this perspective we showed that the drug clearly alters the properties of the confined water. We have independently validated this idea by accessing the cellular water dynamics using inelastic neutron scattering. Finally, analysis of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering data allows us to hypothesize that, in this particular cell line, diffusion increases in the intracellular water in response to the action of the drug on the nanosecond timescale.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 999, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824710

RESUMO

Stimuli-responsive behaviors of flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make these materials promising in a wide variety of applications such as gas separation, drug delivery, and molecular sensing. Considerable efforts have been made over the last decade to understand the structural changes of flexible MOFs in response to external stimuli. Uniform pore deformation has been used as the general description. However, recent advances in synthesizing MOFs with non-uniform porous structures, i.e. with multiple types of pores which vary in size, shape, and environment, challenge the adequacy of this description. Here, we demonstrate that the CO2-adsorption-stimulated structural change of a flexible MOF, ZIF-7, is induced by CO2 migration in its non-uniform porous structure rather than by the proactive opening of one type of its guest-hosting pores. Structural dynamics induced by guest migration in non-uniform porous structures is rare among the enormous number of MOFs discovered and detailed characterization is very limited in the literature. The concept presented in this work provides new insights into MOF flexibility.

9.
Chem Sci ; 10(4): 1098-1106, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774907

RESUMO

In order to develop new porous materials for applications in gas separations such as natural gas upgrading, landfill gas processing and acetylene purification it is vital to gain understanding of host-substrate interactions at a molecular level. Herein we report a series of six isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for selective gas adsorption. These materials do not incorporate open metal sites and thus provide an excellent platform to investigate the effect of the incorporation of ligand functionality via amide and alkyne groups on substrate binding. By reducing the length of the linker in our previously reported MFM-136, we report much improved CO2/CH4 (50 : 50) and CO2/N2 (15 : 85) selectivity values of 20.2 and 65.4, respectively (1 bar and 273 K), in the new amide-decorated MOF, MFM-126. The CO2 separation performance of MFM-126 has been confirmed by dynamic breakthrough experiments. In situ inelastic neutron scattering and synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy were employed to elucidate dynamic interactions of adsorbed CO2 molecules within MFM-126. Upon changing the functionality to an alkyne group in MFM-127, the CO2 uptake decreases but the C2H2 uptake increases by 68%, leading to excellent C2H2/CO2 and C2H2/CH4 selectivities of 3.7 and 21.2, respectively. Neutron powder diffraction enabled the direct observation of the preferred binding domains in MFM-126 and MFM-127, and, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first example of acetylene binding to an alkyne moiety in a porous material, with over 50% of the acetylene observed within MFM-127 displaying interactions (<4 Å) with the alkyne functionality of the framework.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(27): 3868-3871, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801075

RESUMO

A facile mechanochemical method was employed to accomplish one-pot encapsulation of anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU as guest) in a metal-organic framework (HKUST-1 as host). Vibrational spectroscopy via inelastic neutron scattering was applied to probe guest-host interactions arising from nanoscale confinement. We compare 5-FU@HKUST-1 derived from in situ and ex situ encapsulation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Fluoruracila/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Porosidade , Vibração
11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(46): 29061-29069, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430160

RESUMO

As initiation of an energetic material requires rupture of a covalent bond, and therefore population of antibonding electronic states, consideration of the electronic band gap has dominated initiation mechanisms for solid state materials. Most prominent are models based on metallisation, where static mechanical perturbation leads to closing of the electronic band gap. This work explores an alternative mechanism for the dynamic metallisation of a model energetic material, where vibrational excitation resulting from mechanical impact is found to induce transient metallisation of α-NaN3. The normal coordinates associated with bending the azido anion close the electronic band gap, facilitating the formation of highly reactive species important for initiation of energetic materials. The DFT simulated vibrational spectrum of α-NaN3 exhibits excellent reproduction of the experimental low-temperature inelastic neutron scattering spectrum (INS).

12.
Chem Sci ; 9(13): 3401-3408, 2018 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780471

RESUMO

Fine tuning of host-guest supramolecular interactions in porous systems enables direct control over the properties of functional materials. We report here a modification of hydrogen bonding and its effect on guest binding in a pair of redox-active metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Oxidation of MFM-300(VIII) {[VIII2(OH)2(L)], LH4 = biphenyl-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid} is accompanied by deprotonation of the bridging hydroxyl groups to afford isostructural MFM-300(VIV), [VIV2O2(L)]. The precise role of the hydroxyl groups, O-carboxylate centres and π-π interactions in the supramolecular binding of C2 hydrocarbons in these materials has been determined using neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering, coupled with DFT modelling. The hydroxyl protons are observed to bind to adsorbed unsaturated hydrocarbons preferentially in MFM-300(VIII), particularly to C2H2, which is in a sharp contrast to MFM-300(VIV) where interactions with O-carboxylate centres and π-π interactions predominate. This variation in structure and redox leads to notably higher separation selectivity for C2H2/CH4 and C2H4/CH4 in MFM-300(VIII) than in MFM-300(VIV). Significantly, owing to the specific host-guest interactions, MFM-300(VIII) shows a record packing density for adsorbed C2H2 at 303 K and 1 bar, demonstrating its potential for use in portable acetylene stores.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(45): 16289-16296, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020767

RESUMO

During nuclear waste disposal process, radioactive iodine as a fission product can be released. The widespread implementation of sustainable nuclear energy thus requires the development of efficient iodine stores that have simultaneously high capacity, stability and more importantly, storage density (and hence minimized system volume). Here, we report high I2 adsorption in a series of robust porous metal-organic materials, MFM-300(M) (M = Al, Sc, Fe, In). MFM-300(Sc) exhibits fully reversible I2 uptake of 1.54 g g-1, and its structure remains completely unperturbed upon inclusion/removal of I2. Direct observation and quantification of the adsorption, binding domains and dynamics of guest I2 molecules within these hosts have been achieved using XPS, TGA-MS, high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction, pair distribution function analysis, Raman, terahertz and neutron spectroscopy, coupled with density functional theory modeling. These complementary techniques reveal a comprehensive understanding of the host-I2 and I2-I2 binding interactions at a molecular level. The initial binding site of I2 in MFM-300(Sc), I2I, is located near the bridging hydroxyl group of the [ScO4(OH)2] moiety [I2I···H-O = 2.263(9) Å] with an occupancy of 0.268. I2II is located interstitially between two phenyl rings of neighboring ligand molecules [I2II···phenyl ring = 3.378(9) and 4.228(5) Å]. I2II is 4.565(2) Å from the hydroxyl group with an occupancy of 0.208. Significantly, at high I2 loading an unprecedented self-aggregation of I2 molecules into triple-helical chains within the confined nanovoids has been observed at crystallographic resolution, leading to a highly efficient packing of I2 molecules with an exceptional I2 storage density of 3.08 g cm-3 in MFM-300(Sc).

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(25): 255502, 2017 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28696751

RESUMO

We show clear experimental evidence of cooperative terahertz (THz) dynamics observed below 3 THz (∼100 cm^{-1}), for a low-symmetry Zr-based metal-organic framework structure, termed MIL-140A [ZrO(O_{2}C-C_{6}H_{4}-CO_{2})]. Utilizing a combination of high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and synchrotron radiation far-infrared spectroscopy, we measured low-energy vibrations originating from the hindered rotations of organic linkers, whose energy barriers and detailed dynamics have been elucidated via ab initio density functional theory calculations. The complex pore architecture caused by the THz rotations has been characterized. We discovered an array of soft modes with trampolinelike motions, which could potentially be the source of anomalous mechanical phenomena such as negative thermal expansion. Our results demonstrate coordinated shear dynamics (2.47 THz), a mechanism which we have shown to destabilize the framework structure, in the exact crystallographic direction of the minimum shear modulus (G_{min}).

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(13): 9064-9074, 2017 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28304035

RESUMO

We apply a unique sequence of structural and dynamical neutron-scattering techniques, augmented with density-functional electronic-structure calculations, to establish the degree of polymorphism in an archetypal hydrogen-bonded system - crystalline formic acid. Using this combination of experimental and theoretical techniques, the hypothesis by Zelsmann on the coexistence of the ß1 and ß2 phases above 220 K is tested. Contrary to the postulated scenario of proton-transfer-driven phase coexistence, the emerging picture is one of a quantitatively different structural change over this temperature range, whereby the loosening of crystal packing promotes temperature-induced shearing of the hydrogen-bonded chains. The presented work, therefore, solves a fifty-year-old puzzle and provides a suitable framework for the use neutron-Compton-scattering techniques in the exploration of phase polymorphism in condensed matter.

16.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14212, 2017 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28194014

RESUMO

Hydrogen bonds dominate many chemical and biological processes, and chemical modification enables control and modulation of host-guest systems. Here we report a targeted modification of hydrogen bonding and its effect on guest binding in redox-active materials. MFM-300(VIII) {[VIII2(OH)2(L)], LH4=biphenyl-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid} can be oxidized to isostructural MFM-300(VIV), [VIV2O2(L)], in which deprotonation of the bridging hydroxyl groups occurs. MFM-300(VIII) shows the second highest CO2 uptake capacity in metal-organic framework materials at 298 K and 1 bar (6.0 mmol g-1) and involves hydrogen bonding between the OH group of the host and the O-donor of CO2, which binds in an end-on manner, =1.863(1) Å. In contrast, CO2-loaded MFM-300(VIV) shows CO2 bound side-on to the oxy group and sandwiched between two phenyl groups involving a unique ···c.g.phenyl interaction [3.069(2), 3.146(3) Å]. The macroscopic packing of CO2 in the pores is directly influenced by these primary binding sites.

17.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(22): 4701-4709, 2016 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27804302

RESUMO

High-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and extensive first-principles calculations have been used to explore the low-temperature phase of the hybrid solar-cell material methylammonium lead iodide up to the well-known phase transition to the tetragonal phase at ca. 160 K. Contrary to original expectation, we find that the Pnma structure for this phase can only provide a qualitative description of the geometry and underlying motions of the organic cation. A substantial lowering of the local symmetry inside the perovskite cage leads to an improved atomistic model that can account for all available spectroscopic and thermodynamic data, both at low temperatures and in the vicinity of the aforementioned phase transition. Further and detailed analysis of the first-principles calculations reveals that large-amplitude distortions of the inorganic framework are driven by both zero-point-energy fluctuations and thermally activated cation motions. These effects are significant down to liquid-helium temperatures. For this important class of technological materials, this work brings to the fore the pressing need to bridge the gap between the long-range order seen by crystallographic methods and the local environment around the organic cation probed by neutron spectroscopy.

18.
Adv Mater ; 28(39): 8705-8711, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27529671

RESUMO

Selective adsorption of SO2 is realized in a porous metal-organic framework material, and in-depth structural and spectroscopic investigations using X-rays, infrared, and neutrons define the underlying interactions that cause SO2 to bind more strongly than CO2 and N2 .

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(29): 9119-27, 2016 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27410670

RESUMO

The key requirement for a portable store of natural gas is to maximize the amount of gas within the smallest possible space. The packing of methane (CH4) in a given storage medium at the highest possible density is, therefore, a highly desirable but challenging target. We report a microporous hydroxyl-decorated material, MFM-300(In) (MFM = Manchester Framework Material, replacing the NOTT designation), which displays a high volumetric uptake of 202 v/v at 298 K and 35 bar for CH4 and 488 v/v at 77 K and 20 bar for H2. Direct observation and quantification of the location, binding, and rotational modes of adsorbed CH4 and H2 molecules within this host have been achieved, using neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering experiments, coupled with density functional theory (DFT) modeling. These complementary techniques reveal a very efficient packing of H2 and CH4 molecules within MFM-300(In), reminiscent of the condensed gas in pure component crystalline solids. We also report here, for the first time, the experimental observation of a direct binding interaction between adsorbed CH4 molecules and the hydroxyl groups within the pore of a material. This is different from the arrangement found in CH4/water clathrates, the CH4 store of nature.

20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(26): 17272-80, 2016 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27118507

RESUMO

Styrene oxidation mediated by a Mo-based mesoporous catalyst can yield selectively styrene oxide or benzaldehyde. Kinetic data evidenced that styrene oxide is the initial single-product formed by the catalytic Mo-mediated process. However, after some hours of reaction benzaldehyde yield rises while that of the epoxide decreases concomitantly. The mechanistic proposal pointed to a surface assisted acid-base mechanism by which styrene oxide is interconverted into benzaldehyde through over-oxidation and cleavage of the C-C bond and releases formaldehyde as well. In an attempt to gain some insight into whether this mechanistic proposal is realistic we have conducted a combined DRIFT and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) study to assess the adsorbed species at the catalyst's surface and confirm the mechanistic proposal. INS and DRIFT provided complementary insight into surface-adsorbed species by probing donor (INS) and acceptor (DRIFT) species. INS also allowed for an estimation of product selectivity by means of a Job method stressing the power of the technique.

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