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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 725: 138227, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302827

RESUMO

The composition of atmospheric aerosols is dynamic and influenced by their emission sources, organic and inorganic composition, transport pathways, chemical and physical processes, microorganisms' content and more. Characterization of such factors can improve the ability to evaluate air quality and health risks under different atmospheric scenarios. Here we investigate the microbial composition of the atmospheric particulate matter (<10 µm; PM10), sampled in Bolu, Turkey, and the linkage to the chemical composition changes, and different environmental factors. We show distinct differences between aerosol composition of different sources and air-mass transport patterns, sampled in July-August 2017 and in February 2018. The summer samples had a typical northern component air mass trajectories and higher local wind speed. They were characterized by high PM10 levels, marine and mineral dust tracers and high relative abundance of Ascomycota, suggesting long-range transport of the particles from remote sources. In contrast, samples collected in February were characterized by a dominant contribution of southern air masses, and low wind speed. They had low PM10 values, higher relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes and anthropogenic ions related to local industries and farming, suggesting a dominance of local sources. With the microbiome analyses reported here for the first time for this region, we show good agreement between airborne microbial composition, aerosol mass load, chemistry, and meteorology. These results allow better air quality evaluation and prediction capabilities.

2.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 33(5): 1110-1120, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302097

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM), an important component of air pollution, induces significant adverse health effects. Many of the observed health effects caused by inhaled PM are associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. This association has been linked in particular to the particles' chemical components, especially the inorganic/metal and the organic/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fractions, and their ability to generate reactive oxygen species in biological systems. The transcription factor NF-E2 nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is activated by redox imbalance and regulates the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes. Nrf2 plays a key role in preventing PM-induced toxicity by protecting against oxidative damage and inflammation. This review focuses on specific PM fractions, particularly the dissolved metals and PAH fractions, and their roles in inducing oxidative stress and inflammation in cell and animal models with respect to Nrf2 and mitochondria.

3.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 17(1): 4, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbonaceous aerosols emitted from indoor and outdoor biomass burning are major risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. Wood tar aerosols, namely, tar ball particles, compose a substantial fraction of carbonaceous emissions, especially from biomass smoldering. However, their health-related impacts and toxicity are still not well known. This study investigated the toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of pyrolyzed wood tar aerosols in exposed mice and lung epithelial cells. RESULTS: Mice exposed to water-soluble wood tar aerosols showed increased inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. Bronchial epithelial cells exposed to the same water-soluble wood tar aerosols showed increased cell death with apoptotic characteristics. Alterations in oxidative status, including changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and reductions in the expression of antioxidant genes related to the transcription factor Nrf2, were observed and were confirmed by increased levels of MDA, a lipid peroxidation adduct. Damage to mitochondria was observed as an early event responsible for the aforementioned changes. CONCLUSIONS: The toxicity and health effect-related mechanisms of water-soluble wood tar were investigated for the first time in the context of biomass burning. Wood tar particles may account for major responses such as cell death, oxidative stress, supression of protection mechnaisms and mitochondrial damaged cause by expsoure to biomass burning aerosols.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1395-1405, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730747

RESUMO

Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is an important contributor to the radiative forcing of climate by organic aerosols. Because of the molecular diversity of BrC compounds and their dynamic transformations, it is challenging to predictively understand BrC optical properties. OH radical and O3 reactions, together with photolysis, lead to diminished light absorption and lower warming effects of biomass burning BrC. The effects of night-time aging on the optical properties of BrC aerosols are less known. To address this knowledge gap, night-time NO3 radical chemistry with tar aerosols from wood pyrolysis was investigated in a flow reactor. This study shows that the optical properties of BrC change because of transformations driven by reactions with the NO3 radical that form new absorbing species and lead to significant absorption enhancement over the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) range. The overnight aging increases the mass absorption coefficients of the BrC by a factor of 1.3-3.2 between 380 nm and 650 nm. Nitrated organic compounds, particularly nitroaromatics, were identified as the main products that contribute to the enhanced light absorption in the secondary BrC. Night-time aging of BrC aerosols represents an important source of secondary BrC and can have a pronounced effect on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution.


Assuntos
Carbono , Compostos Orgânicos , Aerossóis , Biomassa , Madeira
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(2): 707-713, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865702

RESUMO

Organic nitrates (ONs) are an important component of secondary organic aerosols that play significant roles in atmospheric chemical processes such as ozone formation and as a reservoir of nitrogen oxides (NOx). However, hindered by the availability of analytical techniques, characteristics of ON molecules remain unclear in regions influenced by anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pollution. In this study, we achieved isomeric identification of particle-phase ONs in such regions. Using gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry with an electron capture negative ionization source, we established a systematic procedure for screening unknown ONs in fine particulate matter (PM) collected in Beijing based primarily on the characteristic fragment ions of NO2- and [M-NO2]-/[M-NO2-H2]-. We found 78 ON candidates, 12 of which were confirmed using synthesized standards. Seventy-three of these detected ONs might originate from anthropogenic VOC precursors especially alkenes. Significantly, we observed two isomers generated from straight-chain 1-alkenes, namely, 2-hydroxy-1-nitrate and 1-hydroxy-2-nitrate. The signal ratios of the two isomers suggested that these hydroxy nitrates are mainly produced photochemically rather than through nighttime reactions. This study provides a promising method for identifying ONs in atmospheric PM and elucidating their formation pathways.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Nitratos , Aerossóis , Pequim , Elétrons , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas , Material Particulado
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(23): 13949-13958, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652049

RESUMO

It has been hypothesized that the cytotoxicity of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) is mediated through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the exposed cells. Here, lung epithelial cells (A549) residing at the air-liquid interface were exposed to proxies of anthropogenic and biogenic SOA that were photochemically aged under varying nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations in an oxidation flow reactor. The total organic peroxides and ROS radical content in the SOA were quantified by the iodometric spectrophotometric method and by continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance. The effect of the exposure was evaluated by measuring cell viability and cellular ROS production following the exposure. The results demonstrate that SOA that aged in the absence of NOx contained more ROS than fresh SOA and were more toxic toward the cells, while varying NOx conditions had no significant influence on levels of the ROS content in fresh SOA and their toxicity. Analysis of ROS in the exposed cells using flow cytometry showed a similar trend with the total ROS content in the SOA. This study provides a first and direct observation of such association.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
7.
Biomolecules ; 9(10)2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557956

RESUMO

Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) are found in many organisms, such as fish and hexapods, plants, and bacteria that need to cope with low temperatures. Ice nucleation and thermal hysteresis are two attributes of IBPs. While ice nucleation is promoted by large proteins, known as ice nucleating proteins, the smaller IBPs, referred to as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), inhibit the growth of ice crystals by up to several degrees below the melting point, resulting in a thermal hysteresis (TH) gap between melting and ice growth. Recently, we showed that the nucleation capacity of two types of IBPs corresponds to their size, in agreement with classical nucleation theory. Here, we expand this finding to additional IBPs that we isolated from snow fleas (the arthropod Collembola), collected in northern Israel. Chemical analyses using circular dichroism and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy data suggest that these IBPs have a similar structure to a previously reported snow flea antifreeze protein. Further experiments reveal that the ice-shell purified proteins have hyperactive antifreeze properties, as determined by nanoliter osmometry, and also exhibit low ice-nucleation activity in accordance with their size.

8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(20): 12054-12061, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513393

RESUMO

Consumer-level 3D printers emit ultrafine and fine particles, though little is known about their chemical composition or potential toxicity. We report chemical characteristics of the particles in comparison to raw filaments and assessments of particle toxicity. Particles emitted from polylactic acid (PLA) appeared to be largely composed of the bulk filament material with mass spectra similar to the PLA monomer spectra. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), extruded at a higher temperature than PLA, emitted vastly more particles and their composition differed from that of the bulk filament, suggesting that trace additives may control particle formation. In vitro cellular assays and in vivo mice exposure all showed toxic responses when exposed to PLA and ABS-emitted particles, where PLA-emitted particles elicited higher response levels than ABS-emitted particles at comparable mass doses. A chemical assay widely used in ambient air-quality studies showed that particles from various filament materials had comparable particle oxidative potentials, slightly lower than those of ambient particulate matter (PM2.5). However, particle emissions from ABS filaments are likely more detrimental when considering overall exposure due to much higher emissions. Our results suggest that 3D printer particle emissions are not benign and exposures should be minimized.


Assuntos
Acrilonitrila , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Animais , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado , Impressão Tridimensional , Estireno
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(17): 10479-10486, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397158

RESUMO

Nowadays, knowledge regarding component-specific inflammatory effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is limited. In this study, an omics approach based on time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established to identify the key hydrophobic components of PM2.5 associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines released by macrophages after in vitro exposure. Of 764 compounds, 62 components were robustly screened with firmly identified 37 specific chemicals. In addition to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their methylated congeners, novel oxygen- and nitrogen-containing PAHs and, especially, oxygenated PAHs (Oxy-PAHs) were identified. Interleukin (IL)-6 was associated with Oxy-PAHs of 1,8-naphthalic anhydride, xanthone, and benzo[h]quinolone, especially, whereas IL-1ß and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were associated with most species. Most species were related to IL-1ß, which was significantly higher in the heating season, with a monotonic dose-response pattern mainly for Oxy-PAHs and a U-shaped dose-response pattern for primary species. On the basis of the identified components, four sources of pollution (coal combustion, traffic emissions, biomass burning, and secondary formation, traced by Oxy-PAHs such as 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and quinones) were resolved by the positive matrix factorization model. TNF-α was associated with primary sources, whereas IL-1ß and IL-6 were associated with both primary and secondary sources, suggesting different inflammatory effects between primary and secondary sources when assessing the toxicity-driven disparities of known and unknown PM2.5 components.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , China , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado
10.
Anal Chem ; 91(15): 10282-10288, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251028

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic organic trace components in atmospheric aerosols that have impacts on climate and human health. They are bound to airborne particles and transported over long distances. Observations of their distribution, transport pathways, and degradation are crucial for risk assessment and mitigation. Such estimates would benefit from online detection of PAHs along with analysis of the carrying particles to identify the source. Typically, laser desorption/ionization (LDI) in a bipolar mass spectrometer reveals the inorganic constituents and provides limited molecular information. In contrast, two-step ionization approaches produce detailed PAH mass spectra from individual particles but without the source-specific inorganic composition. Here we report a new technique that yields the single-particle PAH composition along with both positive and negative inorganic ions via LDI. Thus, the complete particle characterization and source apportionment from conventional bipolar LDI-analysis becomes possible, combined with a detailed PAH spectrum for the same particle. The key idea of the method is spatiotemporal matching of the ionization laser pulse to the transient component distribution in the particle plume after laser desorption. The technique is robust and field-deployable with only slightly higher costs and complexity compared to two-step approaches. We demonstrate its capability to reveal the PAH-distribution on different particle types in combustion aerosols and ambient air.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 669: 303-313, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878937

RESUMO

Nrf2 is an important transcription factor implicated in the oxidative stress response, which has been reported to play an important role in the way by which air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5) induces adverse health effects. This study investigates the mechanism by which Nrf2 exerts its protective effect in PM2.5 induced toxicity in lung cells. Lung cells silenced for Nrf2 (shNrf2) demonstrated diverse susceptibility to various PM extracts; water extracts containing high levels of dissolved metals exhibited higher capacity to generate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence increased oxidative stress levels. Organic extracts containing high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increased mortality and reduced ROS production in the silenced cells. shNrf2 cells exhibited a higher basal mitochondrial respiration rate compared to the control cells. Following exposure to water extracts, the mitochondrial respiration increased, which was not observed with the organic extracts. shNrf2 cells exposed to the organic extracts showed lower mitochondrial membrane potential and lower mtDNA copy number. Nrf2 may act as a signaling mediator for the mitochondria function following PM2.5 exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Células A549 , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(5): 966-972, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742446

RESUMO

Several types of natural molecules interact specifically with ice crystals. Small antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to particular facets of ice crystals, thus inhibiting their growth, whereas larger ice-nucleating proteins (INPs) can trigger the formation of new ice crystals at temperatures much higher than the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature of pure water. It has been proposed that both types of proteins interact similarly with ice and that, in principle, they may be able to exhibit both functions. Here we investigated two naturally occurring antifreeze proteins, one from fish, type-III AFP, and one from beetles, TmAFP. We show that in addition to ice growth inhibition, both can also trigger ice nucleation above the homogeneous freezing temperature, providing unambiguous experimental proof for their contrasting behavior. Our analysis suggests that the predominant difference between AFPs and INPs is their molecular size, which is a very good predictor of their ice nucleation temperature.


Assuntos
Proteínas Anticongelantes/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Gelo
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(20): 11670-11681, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215246

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a leading risk factor for the global burden of disease. However, uncertainty remains about PM2.5 sources. We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulation for 2014, constrained by satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 to interpret globally dispersed PM2.5 mass and composition measurements from the ground-based surface particulate matter network (SPARTAN). Measured site mean PM2.5 composition varies substantially for secondary inorganic aerosols (2.4-19.7 µg/m3), mineral dust (1.9-14.7 µg/m3), residual/organic matter (2.1-40.2 µg/m3), and black carbon (1.0-7.3 µg/m3). Interpretation of these measurements with the GEOS-Chem model yields insight into sources affecting each site. Globally, combustion sectors such as residential energy use (7.9 µg/m3), industry (6.5 µg/m3), and power generation (5.6 µg/m3) are leading sources of outdoor global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations. Global population-weighted organic mass is driven by the residential energy sector (64%) whereas population-weighted secondary inorganic concentrations arise primarily from industry (33%) and power generation (32%). Simulation-measurement biases for ammonium nitrate and dust identify uncertainty in agricultural and crustal sources. Interpretation of initial PM2.5 mass and composition measurements from SPARTAN with the GEOS-Chem model constrained by satellite-based PM2.5 provides insight into sources and processes that influence the global spatial variation in PM2.5 composition.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerossóis , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental
14.
iScience ; 6: 327-335, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240623

RESUMO

Sea spray aerosols (SSA), have a profound effect on the climate; however, the contribution of oceanic microbial activity to SSA is not fully established. We assessed aerosolization of the calcite units (coccoliths) that compose the exoskeleton of the cosmopolitan bloom-forming coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi. Airborne coccolith emission occurs in steady-state conditions and increases by an order of magnitude during E. huxleyi infection by E. huxleyi virus (EhV). Airborne to seawater coccolith ratio is 1:108, providing estimation of airborne concentrations from seawater concentrations. The coccoliths' unique aerodynamic structure yields a characteristic settling velocity of ∼0.01 cm s-1, ∼25 times slower than average sea salt particles, resulting in coccolith fraction enrichment in the air. The calculated enrichment was established experimentally, indicating that coccoliths may be key contributors to coarse mode SSA surface area, comparable with sea salt aerosols. This study suggests a coupling between key oceanic microbial interactions and fundamental atmospheric processes like SSA formation.

15.
Environ Pollut ; 239: 532-543, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684880

RESUMO

Obesity and exposure to particular matter (PM) have become two leading global threats to public health. However, the exact mechanisms and tissue-specificity of their health effects are largely unknown. Here we investigate whether a metabolic challenge (early nutritional obesity) synergistically interacts with an environmental challenge (PM exposure) to alter genes representing key response pathways, in a tissue-specific manner. Mice subjected to 7 weeks obesogenic nutrition were exposed every other day during the final week and a half to aqueous extracts of PM collected in the city of London (UK). The expression of 61 selected genes representing key response pathways were investigated in lung, liver, white and brown adipose tissues. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed distinct patterns of expression changes between the 4 tissues, particularly in the lungs and the liver. Surprisingly, the lung responded to the nutrition challenge. The response of these organs to the PM challenge displayed opposite patterns for some key genes, in particular, those related to the Nrf2 pathway. While the contribution to the variance in gene expression changes in mice exposed to the combined challenge were largely similar among the tissues in PCA1, PCA2 exhibited predominant contribution of inflammatory and oxidative stress responses to the variance in the lungs, and a greater contribution of autophagy genes and MAP kinases in adipose tissues. Possible involvement of alterations in DNA methylation was demonstrated by cell-type-specific responses to a methylation inhibitor. Correspondingly, the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a2 increased in the lungs but decreased in the liver, demonstrating potential tissue-differential synergism between nutritional and PM exposure. The results suggest that urban PM, containing dissolved metals, interacts with obesogenic nutrition to regulate diverse response pathways including inflammation and oxidative stress, in a tissue-specific manner. Tissue-differential effects on DNA methylation may underlie tissue-specific responses to key stress-response genes such as catalase and Nrf2.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Animais , Cidades , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Londres , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metais/análise , Camundongos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Environ Pollut ; 237: 592-600, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525626

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution poses a major risk to human health worldwide, and absorbed chemicals play a key role in determining the toxicity of PM2.5. After inhalation and entry into the lungs, PM2.5 components induce pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin (IL)-1ß) in pulmonary cells. To test whether PM2.5 components induce IL-1ß through signing pathways that include the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κ-gene binding (NF-κB), nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3), we exposed the mouse macrophage cell-line RAW264.7 to both water and organic extracts of PM2.5 sampled over a 1-year period in Beijing, China. Varying degrees of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses were induced following exposure, while organic extracts of PM2.5 collected during the heating season induced more significant responses. This response is attributed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from coal combustion and biomass burning for domestic heating. The inhibition of signaling molecules suggested that increased IL-1ß was associated with the TLR4/NF-κB pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, with a slightly difference between water and organic extracts exposure groups, which was likely the result of different chemical components. Our study elucidated a potentially important mechanism by which PM2.5 components could trigger pulmonary inflammation, thus improving our understanding of the deleterious effects of this important and prevalent form of air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Animais , Pequim , Linhagem Celular , China , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Estações do Ano , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(6): 3456-3465, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461820

RESUMO

The wavelength-dependence of the complex refractive indices (RI) in the visible spectral range of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are rarely studied, and the evolution of the RI with atmospheric aging is largely unknown. In this study, we applied a novel white light-broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy to measure the changes in the RI (400-650 nm) of ß-pinene and p-xylene SOA produced and aged in an oxidation flow reactor, simulating daytime aging under NO x-free conditions. It was found that these SOA are not absorbing in the visible range, and that the real part of the RI, n, shows a slight spectral dependence in the visible range. With increased OH exposure, n first increased and then decreased, possibly due to an increase in aerosol density and chemical mean polarizability for SOA produced at low OH exposures, and a decrease in chemical mean polarizability for SOA produced at high OH exposures, respectively. A simple radiative forcing calculation suggests that atmospheric aging can introduce more than 40% uncertainty due to the changes in the RI for aged SOA.


Assuntos
Refratometria , Aerossóis , Compostos Orgânicos , Oxirredução
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 626: 147-155, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335169

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollution can induce oxidative stress, inflammation and adverse health effects. To understand how seasonal and chemical variations drive health impacts, we investigated indications for oxidative stress and inflammation in mice exposed to water and organic extracts from urban fine particles/PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) collected in Beijing, China. Higher levels of pollution components were detected in heating season (HS, winter and part of spring) PM2.5 than in the non-heating season (NHS, summer and part of spring and autumn) PM2.5. HS samples were high in metals for the water extraction and high in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for the organic extraction compared to their controls. An increased inflammatory response was detected in the lung and liver following exposure to the organic extracts compared to the water extracts, and mostly in the HS PM2.5. While reduced antioxidant response was observed in the lung, it was activated in the liver, again, more in the HS extracts. Nrf2 transcription factor, a master regulator of stress response that controls the basal oxidative capacity and induces the expression of antioxidant response, and its related genes were induced. In the liver, elevated levels of lipid peroxidation adducts were measured, correlated with histologic analysis that revealed morphologic features of cell damage and proliferation, indicating oxidative and toxic damage. In addition, expression of genes related to detoxification of PAHs was observed. Altogether, the study suggests that the acute effects of PM2.5 can vary seasonally with stronger health effects in the HS than in the NHS in Beijing, China and that some secondary organs may be susceptible for the exposure damage. Specifically, the liver is a potential organ influenced by exposure to organic components such as PAHs from coal or biomass burning and heating.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Pequim , China , Fígado/fisiologia , Camundongos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Medicina Estatal
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(20): 11561-11570, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28759227

RESUMO

Lag Ba'Omer, a nationwide bonfire festival in Israel, was chosen as a case study to investigate the influence of a major biomass burning event on the light absorption properties of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC). The chemical composition and optical properties of BrC chromophores were investigated using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) platform coupled to photo diode array (PDA) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) detectors. Substantial increase of BrC light absorption coefficient was observed during the night-long biomass burning event. Most chromophores observed during the event were attributed to nitroaromatic compounds (NAC), comprising 28 elemental formulas of at least 63 structural isomers. The NAC, in combination, accounted for 50-80% of the total visible light absorption (>400 nm) by solvent extractable BrC. The results highlight that NAC, in particular nitrophenols, are important light absorption contributors of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), suggesting that night time chemistry of •NO3 and N2O5 with particles may play a significant role in atmospheric transformations of BrC. Nitrophenols and related compounds were especially important chromophores of BBOA. The absorption spectra of the BrC chromophores are influenced by the extraction solvent and solution pH, implying that the aerosol acidity is an important factor controlling the light absorption properties of BrC.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Carbono , Biomassa , Israel , Espectrometria de Massas
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