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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757683
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2032095, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394003

RESUMO

Importance: There is little evidence to support patient-centered outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Objective: To derive patient-defined adverse cardiovascular and noncardiovascular events (PACE) through a consensus-based process. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pan-Canadian, consensus-based, qualitative study used an iterative Delphi method to achieve consensus within a 35-member panel consisting of patients with cardiovascular diseases and their caregivers and clinicians. The process included 4 rounds of online questionnaires, followed by an in-person final consensus meeting. Data analysis was performed in September 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Defining PACE as a 5-item composite outcome. Results: Thirty-five potential panelists consented to participate, including 11 clinicians (8 men [73%]) and 24 patients and caregivers (13 men [54%]). Twenty-nine (83%), 28 (80%), 26 (74%), and 23 (66%) of the panelists participated in each of respective the online rounds. A shortlist of 11 patient-defined items was further refined at the in-person meeting, which 20 of the panelists attended. The PACE definition that was decided through the consensus process was a composite of severe stroke necessitating hospitalization for 14 days or longer or inpatient rehabilitation, ventilator dependence, new onset or worsening heart failure, nursing home admission, or new onset dialysis. Conclusions and Relevance: This study defined PACE as a versatile, patient-centered outcome through a consensus process with input from patients, caregivers, and clinicians. Given the paucity of patient-centered outcomes in cardiovascular research, PACE may be considered as a potential outcome after methodological evaluation of its reliability.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Cuidadores , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
5.
6.
Can J Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307163

RESUMO

Hospitals and ambulatory facilities significantly reduced cardiac care delivery in response to the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The deferral of elective cardiovascular procedures led to a marked reduction in healthcare delivery with a significant impact on optimal cardiovascular care. International and Canadian data have reported dramatically increased wait-times for diagnostic tests and cardiovascular procedures, as well as associated increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the wake of the demonstrated ability to rapidly create critical care and hospital ward capacity, we advocate a different approach during the second and possible subsequent COVID-19 pandemic waves. We suggest an approach, informed by local data and experience, which balances the need for an expected rise in demand for healthcare resources to ensure appropriate COVID-19 surge capacity, with continued delivery of essential cardiovascular care. Incorporating cardiovascular care leaders into pandemic planning and operations will help healthcare systems minimize cardiac care delivery disruptions, while maintaining critical care and hospital ward surge capacity and continuing measures to reduce transmission risk in healthcare settings. Specific recommendations targeting the main pillars of cardiovascular care are presented: ambulatory, inpatient, procedural, diagnostic, surgical and rehabilitation.

7.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 35(6): 657, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038120
8.
J Card Surg ; 35(10): 2734-2736, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: To evaluate the publication rate of articles related to cardiac surgery in the four main cardiovascular journals over the last 5 years. METHODS: A bibliometric review of all full-length articles published between January 2014 and March 2020 in the top four cardiovascular journals (Circulation, European Heart Journal (EHJ), Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC), and JAMA Cardiology) was conducted. For each eligible article in the four journals, the journal of publication, study design, area of interest, country of origin, and type of intervention tested (for cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology studies) were extracted. The affiliations of all editorial board members were identified from journal websites or from online searches and recorded as from cardiac surgery, cardiology, or another discipline. Correlations between variables were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 4835 articles were reviewed. Cardiac surgery studies amounted to 6.2% (104) of total research publications in JACC, 4.4% (74) in Circulation, 3.6% (13) in JAMA Cardiology, and 2.0% (22) in EHJ (P < .001). The percentage of cardiac surgery publications was significantly less than interventional cardiology publications (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac surgery studies represent only a small minority of the articles published in the top cardiovascular journals over the last 5 years, with significant differences between individual journals. Cardiac surgery studies were more often observational and this may constitute one important reason for their under-representation.


Assuntos
Bibliografias como Assunto , Cardiologia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Cardiologia/organização & administração , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(12): 1638-1646, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044497

RESUMO

Importance: Mortality is a common outcome in trials comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Controversy exists regarding whether all-cause mortality or cardiac mortality is preferred as a study end point, because noncardiac mortality should be unrelated to the treatment. Objective: To evaluate the difference in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing PCI with CABG for the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. Data Sources: MEDLINE (1946 to the present), Embase (1974 to the present), and the Cochrane Library (1992 to the present) databases were searched on November 24, 2019. Reference lists of included articles were also searched, and additional studies were included if appropriate. Study Selection: Articles were considered for inclusion if they were in English, were RCTs comparing PCI with drug-eluting or bare-metal stents and CABG for the treatment of coronary artery disease, and reported mortality and/or cause-specific mortality. Trials of PCI involving angioplasty without stenting were excluded. For each included trial, the publication with the longest follow-up duration for each outcome was selected. Data Extraction and Synthesis: For data extraction, all studies were reviewed by 2 independent investigators, and disagreements were resolved by a third investigator in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guideline. Data were pooled using fixed- and random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were all-cause and cause-specific (cardiac vs noncardiac) mortality. Subgroup analyses were performed for PCI trials using drug-eluting vs bare-metal stents and for trials involving patients with left main disease. Results: Twenty-three unique trials were included involving 13 620 unique patients (6829 undergoing PCI and 6791 undergoing CABG; men, 39.9%-99.0% of study populations; mean age range, 60.0-71.0 years). The weighted mean (SD) follow-up was 5.3 (3.6) years. Compared with CABG, PCI was associated with a higher rate of all-cause (incidence rate ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.29) and cardiac (incidence rate ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.45) mortality but also noncardiac mortality (incidence rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.00-1.41). Conclusions and Relevance: Percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with higher all-cause, cardiac, and noncardiac mortality compared with CABG at 5 years. The significantly higher noncardiac mortality associated with PCI suggests that even noncardiac deaths after PCI may be procedure related and supports the use of all-cause mortality as the end point for myocardial revascularization trials.

10.
J Card Surg ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose atorvastatin did not improve 1-year vein graft patency in the recent Aggressive Cholesterol Therapy to Inhibit Vein Graft Events trial. However, it remains unknown whether high-intensity statins may impact graft disease in the years that follow. METHODS: In the trial, patients (N = 173) were randomized to receive atorvastatin 10 or 80 mg for 1 year after coronary bypass surgery (CABG). Beyond 1 year, the choice of statin was left to the patient's physician. In this study of participants who agreed to follow-up (N = 76), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were measured and graft patency was assessed 3 years after surgery. RESULTS: The rate of vein graft disease 3 years after surgery was not significantly reduced with atorvastatin 80 mg during the first postoperative year or the use of open-label high-intensity statin thereafter (p = NS). However, a trend was observed between higher LDL levels during the first postoperative year and a greater incidence of vein graft disease at 3 years (p = .12). Among patients who had LDL levels more than 90 mg/dl in the first year after CABG, 38.5% had vein graft disease at 3 years, compared to 19.0% for those with LDL levels less than 90 mg/dl (p = .15). Higher mean LDL levels during the first postoperative year were associated with a higher rate of vein disease 3 years after surgery both at the graft level (p = .03) and at the patient level (p = .03) in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher LDL levels during the first postoperative year were associated with significantly greater vein graft disease 3 years after CABG.

14.
Circulation ; 142(14): 1342-1350, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equipoise exists between the use of leaflet resection and preservation for surgical repair of mitral regurgitation caused by prolapse. We therefore performed a randomized, controlled trial comparing these 2 techniques, particularly in regard to functional mitral stenosis. METHODS: One hundred four patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation surgically amenable to either leaflet resection or preservation were randomized at 7 specialized cardiac surgical centers. Exclusion criteria included anterior leaflet or commissural prolapse, as well as a mixed cause for mitral valve disease. Using previous data, we determined that a sample size of 88 subjects would provide 90% power to detect a 5-mm Hg difference in mean mitral valve gradient at peak exercise, assuming an SD of 6.7 mm with a 2-sided test with α=5% and 10% patient attrition. The primary end point was the mean mitral gradient at peak exercise 12 months after repair. RESULTS: Patient age, proportion who were female, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score were 63.9±10.4 years, 19%, and 1.4±2.8% for those who were assigned to leaflet resection (n=54), and 66.3±10.8 years, 16%, and 1.9±2.6% for those who underwent leaflet preservation (n=50). There were no perioperative deaths or conversions to replacement. At 12 months, moderate mitral regurgitation was observed in 3 subjects in the leaflet resection group and 2 in the leaflet preservation group. The mean transmitral gradient at 12 months during peak exercise was 9.1±5.2 mm Hg after leaflet resection and 8.3±3.3 mm Hg after leaflet preservation (P=0.43). The participants had similar resting peak (8.3±4.4 mm Hg versus 8.4±2.6 mm Hg; P=0.96) and mean resting (3.2±1.9 mm Hg versus 3.1±1.1 mm Hg; P=0.67) mitral gradients after leaflet resection and leaflet preservation, respectively. The 6-minute walking distance was 451±147 m for those in the leaflet resection versus 481±95 m for the leaflet preservation group (P=0.27). CONCLUSIONS: In this adequately powered randomized trial, repair of mitral prolapse with either leaflet resection or leaflet preservation was associated with similar transmitral gradients at peak exercise at 12 months postoperatively. These data do not support the hypothesis that a strategy of leaflet resection (versus preservation) is associated with a risk of functional mitral stenosis. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier NCT02552771.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(21): e017847, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990156

RESUMO

Background Across the globe, elective surgeries have been postponed to limit infectious exposure and preserve hospital capacity for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the ramp down in cardiac surgery volumes may result in unintended harm to patients who are at high risk of mortality if their conditions are left untreated. To help optimize triage decisions, we derived and ambispectively validated a clinical score to predict intensive care unit length of stay after cardiac surgery. Methods and Results Following ethics approval, we derived and performed multicenter valida tion of clinical models to predict the likelihood of short (≤2 days) and prolonged intensive care unit length of stay (≥7 days) in patients aged ≥18 years, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic, mitral, and tricuspid value surgery in Ontario, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression with backward variable selection was used, along with clinical judgment, in the modeling process. For the model that predicted short intensive care unit stay, the c-statistic was 0.78 in the derivation cohort and 0.71 in the validation cohort. For the model that predicted prolonged stay, c-statistic was 0.85 in the derivation and 0.78 in the validation cohort. The models, together termed the CardiOttawa LOS Score, demonstrated a high degree of accuracy during prospective testing. Conclusions Clinical judgment alone has been shown to be inaccurate in predicting postoperative intensive care unit length of stay. The CardiOttawa LOS Score performed well in prospective validation and will complement the clinician's gestalt in making more efficient resource allocation during the COVID-19 period and beyond.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triagem
17.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 35(6): 658-663, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941193

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to review the current literature on the management of stable ischemic heart disease in light of findings from the International Study of Comparative Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) trial. RECENT FINDINGS: Compared with optimal medical therapy, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been shown to improve survival and incidence of myocardial infarction in patients with stable ischemic heart disease whereas percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not. The ISCHEMIA trial compared an initial conservative management strategy with optimal medical therapy with an initial invasive strategy with coronary angiogram followed by revascularization and found no difference in survival and myocardial infarction between the two groups. However, the trial was conducted under the assumption that patients would be referred to the most efficacious revascularization therapy; it was apparent that CABG was underutilized in many appropriate patients in the ISCHEMIA trial. The study highlighted the importance of optimizing medical therapy in stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) patients but does not answer whether revascularization or conservative management is better for patients with SIHD. SUMMARY: Optimal medical therapy is an important element and should be included in the Heart Team discussion, and also applied after revascularization from PCI or CABG. Cardiac surgeons need to continue to advocate for the appropriate use of CABG based on the current available evidence.

18.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941195
19.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current data on cardiac surgical practices for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are lacking. We hypothesized that cardiac surgeons would consider people living with HIV as candidates for the full scope of cardiac surgery, including heart transplant for these patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective survey of 155 cardiac surgeons across Canada to evaluate their current clinical perceptions regarding cardiac surgery in people living with HIV. Specifically, we evaluated their assessment of eligibility toward a wide scope of cardiac surgeries by using representative clinical scenarios. RESULTS: A total of 63 surgeon responses (40.6%) were completed. The majority of surgeons agreed that a 50-year-old man with HIV and no other comorbidities, who had been receiving combination antiretroviral therapy for 5 years with an undetectable viral load since starting therapy and a CD4 count greater than 350 cells/µL, would be a candidate for valve replacement (73%), valve repair surgery (74.6%), or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (79.4%). Few surgeons believed that this patient would be eligible for cardiac transplantation (7.9%) or could be a cardiac transplant donor (1.6%). There was clinical equipoise over the eligibility for ventricular assist device surgery. CONCLUSIONS: A majority of cardiac surgeons would perform coronary artery bypass graft surgery or valve surgery on patients with controlled HIV, but most consider HIV status as a prohibitive risk factor for cardiac transplantation. Although this may represent an opportunity for continuing medical education for cardiac surgeons, it also highlights the need for contemporary, high-quality evidence in this patient population.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11274, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647145

RESUMO

3D printing was used to develop an open access device capable of simultaneous electrical and mechanical stimulation of human induced pluripotent stem cells in 6-well plates. The device was designed using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and 3D printed with autoclavable, FDA-approved materials. The compact design of the device and materials selection allows for its use inside cell incubators working at high humidity without the risk of overheating or corrosion. Mechanical stimulation of cells was carried out through the cyclic deflection of flexible, translucent silicone membranes by means of a vacuum-controlled, open-access device. A rhythmic stimulation cycle was programmed to create a more physiologically relevant in vitro model. This mechanical stimulation was coupled and synchronized with in situ electrical stimuli. We assessed the capabilities of our device to support cardiac myocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, confirming that cells cultured under electromechanical stimulation presented a defined/mature cardiomyocyte phenotype. This 3D printed device provides a unique high-throughput in vitro system that combines both mechanical and electrical stimulation, and as such, we foresee it finding applications in the study of any electrically responsive tissue such as muscles and nerves.

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