Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 101
Filtrar
1.
Nat Immunol ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833438

RESUMO

FOXP3 deficiency in mice and in patients with immune dysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked (IPEX) syndrome results in fatal autoimmunity by altering regulatory T (Treg) cells. CD4+ T cells in patients with IPEX syndrome and Foxp3-deficient mice were analyzed by single-cell cytometry and RNA-sequencing, revealing heterogeneous Treg-like cells, some very similar to normal Treg cells, others more distant. Conventional T cells showed no widespread activation or helper T cell bias, but a monomorphic disease signature affected all CD4+ T cells. This signature proved to be cell extrinsic since it was extinguished in mixed bone marrow chimeric mice and heterozygous mothers of patients with IPEX syndrome. Normal Treg cells exerted dominant suppression, quenching the disease signature and revealing in mutant Treg-like cells a small cluster of genes regulated cell-intrinsically by FOXP3, including key homeostatic regulators. We propose a two-step pathogenesis model: cell-intrinsic downregulation of core FOXP3-dependent genes destabilizes Treg cells, de-repressing systemic mediators that imprint the disease signature on all T cells, furthering Treg cell dysfunction. Accordingly, interleukin-2 treatment improved the Treg-like compartment and survival.

2.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770165

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Congenital chloride diarrhoea (CLD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the solute family carrier 26 member 3 (SLC26A3) gene. Patients suffer from life-long watery diarrhea and chloride loss. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been reported in individual patients with CLD and in scl26a3-deficient mice. METHODS: We performed an international multicentre analysis to build a CLD cohort and to identify cases with IBD. We assessed clinical and genetic characteristics of subjects and studied the cumulative incidence of CLD-associated IBD. RESULTS: In a cohort of 72 patients with CLD caused by 17 different SLC26A3 mutations, we identified 12 patients (17%) diagnosed with IBD. Nine patients had Crohn's disease, two ulcerative colitis, and one IBD-unclassified (IBD-U). Prevalence of IBD in our cohort of CLD is higher than the highest prevalence of IBD in Europe (p < 0.0001). The age of onset was variable (13.5 years, IQR: 8.5 - 23.5 years). Patients with CLD and IBD had lower z-score for height than those without IBD. 4/12 patients had required surgery (ileostomy formation n=2, ileocaecal resection due to ileocaecal valve stenosis n=1, and colectomy due to stage II transverse colon cancer n=1). At last follow-up, 5/12 were on biologics (adalimumab, infliximab, or vedolizumab), 5/12 on immunosuppressant (azathioprine or mercaptopurine), one on 5-ASA and one off-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of patients with CLD develop IBD. This suggests potential involvement of SL26A3-mediated anion transport in IBD pathogenesis. Patients with CLD-associated IBD may require surgery for treatment failure or colon cancer.

3.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(1): e13888, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The REDUCE-RISK trial was set up to compare the effectiveness of weekly subcutaneously administered methotrexate with daily oral azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine in low-risk Crohn disease (CD) or subcutaneously administered adalimumab (ADA) in high-risk CD in a pediatric population (age 6-17 years). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review to provide input into the research protocol to gather the necessary information to improve the performance of an evidence-based economic evaluation when the trial is finished. METHODS: The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) database, websites of HTA institutes, CRD's National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, MEDLINE (OVID), and Embase databases were consulted to retrieve (reviews of) relevant economic evaluations. Studies were eligible if they included a pediatric or adult population with inflammatory bowel diseases (CD and ulcerative colitis [UC]) treated with ADA (Humira). There were no restrictions on the comparator. Only economic evaluations expressing outcomes in life years gained or quality-adjusted life years gained were selected. RESULTS: A total of 12 primary studies were identified. None of these studies included a pediatric population because of a lack of supporting trials. The economic evaluations identified in our systematic review indicate that ADA is an appropriate intervention for inclusion in such a trial. From a health economic point of view, it is important to make an incremental analysis comparing such an intervention with standard care and not immediately versus another (expensive) biological treatment. Information on the impact of children's school attendance and parents' productivity is currently lacking in economic evaluations, and none of the underlying trials measured quality of life (QoL) using a generic utility instrument. CONCLUSIONS: The review of the economic literature on ADA for the treatment of patients with CD supports the performance of a trial with biologicals in pediatric patients, including making a distinction according to disease severity. Conducting an economic literature review enabled us to decide which variables should be added to the research protocol from an economic point of view. Measurements for children's and parents' QoL (EuroQol 5-Dimension questionnaires), children's school attendance, and parents' productivity (WPAI-CD-CG questionnaire) were added to the research protocol. This will provide support for the calculation of the cost-effectiveness of the interventions evaluated in the REDUCE-RISK trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02852694; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02852694.

4.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 72(3): 456-473, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is important to identify patients with monogenic IBD as management may differ from classical IBD. In this position statement we formulate recommendations for the use of genomics in evaluating potential monogenic causes of IBD across age groups. METHODS: The consensus included paediatric IBD specialists from the Paediatric IBD Porto group of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and specialists from several monogenic IBD research consortia. We defined key topics and performed a systematic literature review to cover indications, technologies (targeted panel, exome and genome sequencing), gene panel setup, cost-effectiveness of genetic screening, and requirements for the clinical care setting. We developed recommendations that were voted upon by all authors and Porto group members (32 voting specialists). RESULTS: We recommend next-generation DNA-sequencing technologies to diagnose monogenic causes of IBD in routine clinical practice embedded in a setting of multidisciplinary patient care. Routine genetic screening is not recommended for all IBD patients. Genetic testing should be considered depending on age of IBD-onset (infantile IBD, very early-onset IBD, paediatric or young adult IBD), and further criteria, such as family history, relevant comorbidities, and extraintestinal manifestations. Genetic testing is also recommended in advance of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We developed a diagnostic algorithm that includes a gene panel of 75 monogenic IBD genes. Considerations are provided also for low resource countries. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic technologies should be considered an integral part of patient care to investigate patients at risk for monogenic forms of IBD.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150502

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Management of inflammatory complications of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is challenging. The aim of this study was to assess safety, with a focus on infections, and effectiveness of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) blockers in CGD patients. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center cohort study of CGD patients treated by anti-TNF-α agents at Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital (Paris, France) and registered at the French National Reference Center for Primary Immunodeficiencies (CEREDIH). RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2019, 14 (X-linked: n = 10, 71.4%; autosomal-recessive: n = 4, 28.6%) CGD patients with gastrointestinal (n = 12, 85.7%), pulmonary (n = 10, 71.4%), cutaneous (n = 3, 21.4%), and/or genitourinary (n = 2, 14.3%) inflammatory manifestations received one or more doses of infliximab because of steroid-dependent (n = 7, 50%), refractory (n = 4, 28.6%) inflammatory disease or as first-line drug (n = 2, 14.3%; missing data, n = 1). All patients received adequate antimicrobial prophylaxis. Infliximab achieved complete (n = 2, 14.3%) or partial (n = 9, 64.3%) response in 11 (78.6%) patients. Seven (50%) patients were switched to adalimumab. During anti-TNF-α treatment, 11 infections (pneumonia, adenitis, invasive candidiasis, each n = 2; intra-abdominal abscess, bacteremic salmonellosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related folliculitis, cat-scratch disease, proven pulmonary mucormycosis, each n = 1) occurred in 7 (50%) patients. All infectious complications had a favorable outcome. Anti-TNF-α treatment was definitively stopped because of infection in two patients. Nine (64.3%) patients finally underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. No death occurred during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TNF-α treatment could improve the outcome of severe inflammatory complications in CGD patients, but increases their risk of infections. We suggest that anti-TNF-α treatment might be of short-term benefit in selected CGD patients with severe inflammatory complications awaiting hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

6.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to provide an evidence-supported update of the ECCO-ESPGHAN guideline on the medical management of paediatric Crohn's disease [CD]. METHODS: We formed 10 working groups and formulated 17 PICO-structured clinical questions [Patients, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome]. A systematic literature search from January 1, 1991 to March 19, 2019 was conducted by a medical librarian using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central databases. A shortlist of 30 provisional statements were further refined during a consensus meeting in Barcelona in October 2019 and subjected to a vote. In total 22 statements reached ≥ 80% agreement and were retained. RESULTS: We established that it was key to identify patients at high risk of a complicated disease course at the earliest opportunity, to reduce bowel damage. Patients with perianal disease, stricturing or penetrating behaviour, or severe growth retardation should be considered for up-front anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF] agents in combination with an immunomodulator. Therapeutic drug monitoring to guide treatment changes is recommended over empirically escalating anti-TNF dose or switching therapies. Patients with low-risk luminal CD should be induced with exclusive enteral nutrition [EEN], or with corticosteroids when EEN is not an option, and require immunomodulator-based maintenance therapy. Favourable outcomes rely on close monitoring of treatment response, with timely adjustments in therapy when treatment targets are not met. Serial faecal calprotectin measurements or small bowel imaging [ultrasound or magnetic resonance enterography] are more reliable markers of treatment response than clinical scores alone. CONCLUSIONS: We present state-of-the-art guidance on the medical treatment and long-term management of children and adolescents with CD.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059040

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the highly infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents most often with mild clinical symptoms, but the severe forms are of major concern.1 SARS-CoV-2 enters human cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, expressed on epithelial and endothelial cells.2 Because the highest angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression is in the terminal ileum and colon, and up-regulated further during inflammation, and many COVID-19 patients experience gastrointestinal symptoms, longitudinal data are necessary to determine whether inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at risk for severe or complicated COVID-19. A recent analysis in IBD patients from the Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) registry showed older age, steroid medication, and comorbidities as risk factors for severe evolution, and the same study showed that the 29 IBD patients younger than age 20 had only mild disease courses.3 This report describes the disease course of COVID-19 in an expanded sample of pediatric IBD patients from 2 international databases.

8.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A better understanding of prognostic factors in ulcerative colitis (UC) could improve patient management and reduce complications. We aimed to identify evidence-based predictors for outcomes in pediatric UC, which may be used to optimize treatment algorithms. METHODS: Potential outcomes worthy of prediction in UC were determined by surveying 202 experts in pediatric UC. A systematic review of the literature, with selected meta-analysis, was performed to identify studies that investigated predictors for these outcomes. Multiple national and international meetings were held to reach consensus on evidence-based statements. RESULTS: Consensus was reached on 31 statements regarding predictors of colectomy, acute severe colitis (ASC), chronically active pediatric UC, and cancer or mortality. At diagnosis, disease extent (6 studies, n = 627; P = .035), Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index score (4 studies, n = 318; P < .001), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and albumin may predict colectomy. In addition, family history of UC (2 studies, n = 557; P = .0004), extraintestinal manifestations (4 studies, n = 526; P = .048), and disease extension over time may predict colectomy, whereas primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) may be protective. Acute severe colitis may be predicted by disease severity at onset and hypoalbuminemia. Higher Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index score and C-reactive protein on days 3 and 5 of hospital admission predict failure of intravenous steroids. Risk factors for malignancy included concomitant diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis, longstanding colitis (>10 years), male sex, younger age at diagnosis, and thiopurine use. CONCLUSIONS: These evidence-based consensus statements offer predictions to be considered for a personalized medicine approach in treating pediatric UC.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A better understanding of prognostic factors within the heterogeneous spectrum of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) should improve patient management and reduce complications. We aimed to identify evidence-based predictors of outcomes with the goal of optimizing individual patient management. METHODS: A survey of 202 experts in pediatric CD identified and prioritized adverse outcomes to be avoided. A systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis, when possible, was performed to identify clinical studies that investigated predictors of these outcomes. Multiple national and international face-to-face meetings were held to draft consensus statements based on the published evidence. RESULTS: Consensus was reached on 27 statements regarding prognostic factors for surgery, complications, chronically active pediatric CD, and hospitalization. Prognostic factors for surgery included CD diagnosis during adolescence, growth impairment, NOD2/CARD15 polymorphisms, disease behavior, and positive anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody status. Isolated colonic disease was associated with fewer surgeries. Older age at presentation, small bowel disease, serology (anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody, antiflagellin, and OmpC), NOD2/CARD15 polymorphisms, perianal disease, and ethnicity were risk factors for penetrating (B3) and/or stenotic disease (B2). Male sex, young age at onset, small bowel disease, more active disease, and diagnostic delay may be associated with growth impairment. Malnutrition and higher disease activity were associated with reduced bone density. CONCLUSIONS: These evidence-based consensus statements offer insight into predictors of poor outcomes in pediatric CD and are valuable when developing treatment algorithms and planning future studies. Targeted longitudinal studies are needed to further characterize prognostic factors in pediatric CD and to evaluate the impact of treatment algorithms tailored to individual patient risk.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Crohn disease (CD) can affect patient's quality of life (QOL) with physical, social, and psychological impacts. This study aimed to investigate the QOL of children with CD and its relationship with patient and disease characteristics. METHODS: Children ages from 10 to 17 years with diagnosed CD for more than 6 months were eligible to this cross-sectional study conducted in 35 French pediatric centers. QOL was assessed by the IMPACT-III questionnaire. Patient and disease characteristics were collected. RESULTS: A total of 218 children (42% of girls) were included at a median age of 14 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 13--16). Median duration of CD was 3.2 years (IQR: 1.7-5.1) and 63% of children were in clinical remission assessed by wPCDAI. Total IMPACT-III score was 62.8 (±11.0). The lowest score was in "emotional functioning" subdomain (mean: 42.8 ±â€Š11.2). Clinical remission was the main independent factor associated with QOL of children with CD (5.74 points higher compared with those "with active disease", 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.77--8.70, P < 0.001). Age of patient at the evaluation was found negatively correlated with QOL (-0.76 per year, 95% CI: -1.47 to -0.06, P = 0.009). Presence of psychological disorders was associated with a lower QOL (-9.6 points lower to those without, 95% CI: -13.34 to -5.86, P < 0.0001). Total IMPACT-III and its subdomains scores were not related to sex, disease duration, or treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These results not only confirm that clinical remission is a major issue for the QOL of patients, but also highlights the importance of psychological care.

12.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e034892, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611737

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immunomodulators such as thiopurines (azathioprine (AZA)/6-mercaptopurine (6MP)), methotrexate (MTX) and biologics such as adalimumab (ADA) are well established for maintenance of remission within paediatric Crohn's disease (CD). It remains unclear, however, which maintenance medication should be used first line in specific patient groups. AIMS: To compare the efficacy of maintenance therapies in newly diagnosed CD based on stratification into high and low-risk groups for severe CD evolution; MTX versus AZA/6MP in low-risk and MTX versus ADA in high-risk patients. Primary end point: sustained remission at 12 months (weighted paediatric CD activity index ≤12.5 and C reactive protein ≤1.5 fold upper limit) without relapse or ongoing requirement for exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN)/steroids 12 weeks after treatment initiation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: REDUCE-RISK in CD is an international multicentre open-label prospective randomised controlled trial funded by EU within the Horizon2020 framework (grant number 668023). Eligible patients (aged 6-17 years, new-onset disease receiving steroids or EEN for induction of remission for luminal ± perianal CD are stratified into low and high-risk groups based on phenotype and response to induction therapy. Participants are randomised to one of two treatment arms within their risk group: low-risk patients to weekly subcutaneous MTX or daily oral AZA/6MP, and high-risk patients to weekly subcutaneous MTX or fortnightly ADA. Patients are followed up for 12 months at prespecified intervals. Electronic case report forms are completed prospectively. The study aims to recruit 312 participants (176 low risk; 136 high risk). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: (NCT02852694), authorisation and approval from local ethics committees have been obtained prior to recruitment. Individual informed consent will be obtained prior to participation in the study. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal with open access. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02852694; Pre-results.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e035538, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611739

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with paediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) may develop a complicated disease course, including growth failure, bowel resection at young age and treatment-related adverse events, all of which can have significant and lasting effects on the patient's development and quality of life. Unfortunately, we are still not able to fully explain the heterogeneity between patients and their disease course and predict which patients will respond to certain therapies or are most at risk of developing a more complicated disease course. To investigate this, large prospective studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Currently, no such European or Asian international cohorts exist. In this international cohort, we aim to evaluate disease course and which patients are most at risk of therapy non-response or development of complicated disease based on patient and disease characteristics, immune pathology and environmental and socioeconomic factors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this international prospective observational study, which is part of the PIBD Network for Safety, Efficacy, Treatment and Quality improvement of care (PIBD-SETQuality), children diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease <18 years are included at diagnosis. The follow-up schedule is in line with standard PIBD care and is intended to continue up to 20 years. Patient and disease characteristics, as well as results of investigations, are collected at baseline and during follow-up. In addition, environmental factors are being assessed (eg, parent's smoking behaviour, dietary factors and antibiotic use). In specific centres with the ability to perform extensive immunological analyses, blood samples and intestinal biopsies are being collected and analysed (flow cytometry, plasma proteomics, mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry) in therapy-naïve patients and during follow-up. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Medical ethical approval has been obtained prior to patient recruitment for all sites. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed scientific publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03571373.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 159(2): 481-491.e3, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown. We sought to characterize the clinical course of COVID-19 among patients with IBD and evaluate the association among demographics, clinical characteristics, and immunosuppressant treatments on COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) is a large, international registry created to monitor outcomes of patients with IBD with confirmed COVID-19. We calculated age-standardized mortality ratios and used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with severe COVID-19, defined as intensive care unit admission, ventilator use, and/or death. RESULTS: 525 cases from 33 countries were reported (median age 43 years, 53% men). Thirty-seven patients (7%) had severe COVID-19, 161 (31%) were hospitalized, and 16 patients died (3% case fatality rate). Standardized mortality ratios for patients with IBD were 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-2.6), 1.5 (95% CI, 0.7-2.2), and 1.7 (95% CI, 0.9-2.5) relative to data from China, Italy, and the United States, respectively. Risk factors for severe COVID-19 among patients with IBD included increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02), ≥2 comorbidities (aOR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1-7.8), systemic corticosteroids (aOR, 6.9; 95% CI, 2.3-20.5), and sulfasalazine or 5-aminosalicylate use (aOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.7). Tumor necrosis factor antagonist treatment was not associated with severe COVID-19 (aOR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.4-2.2). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing age, comorbidities, and corticosteroids are associated with severe COVID-19 among patients with IBD, although a causal relationship cannot be definitively established. Notably, tumor necrosis factor antagonists do not appear to be associated with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/mortalidade , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema de Registros , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Sulfassalazina/efeitos adversos
15.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(6): 727-733, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443020

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, concerns have been raised about the risk to children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We aimed to collate global experience and provide provisional guidance for managing paediatric IBD (PIBD) in the era of COVID-19. METHODS: An electronic reporting system of children with IBD infected with SARS-CoV-2 has been circulated among 102 PIBD centres affiliated with the Porto and Interest-group of ESPGHAN. A survey has been completed by major PIBD centres in China and South-Korea to explore management during the pandemic. A third survey collected current practice of PIBD treatment. Finally, guidance points for practice have been formulated and voted upon by 37 PIBD authors and Porto group members. RESULTS: Eight PIBD children had COVID-19 globally, all with mild infection without needing hospitalization despite treatment with immunomodulators and/or biologics. No cases have been reported in China and South Korea but biologic treatment has been delayed in 79 children, of whom 17 (22%) had exacerbation of their IBD. Among the Porto group members, face-to-face appointments were often replaced by remote consultations but almost all did not change current IBD treatment. Ten guidance points for clinicians caring for PIBD patients in epidemic areas have been endorsed with consensus rate of 92% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data for PIBD patients during COVID-19 outbreak are reassuring. Standard IBD treatments including biologics should continue at present through the pandemic, especially in children who generally have more severe IBD course on one hand, and milder SARS-CoV-2 infection on the other.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(6): 841-848, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Neurological adverse effects (NAEs) induced by biotherapies have been reported in the literature mainly in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatic diseases, or psoriasis. There are scant data in children. Aims of this study are to report and describe noninfective NAE associated with anti-TNFα antibodies in pediatric IBD, and to evaluate their incidence. METHODS: We retrospectively collected all reports of NAE in pediatric IBD treated with anti-TNFα antibodies recorded in the French Pharmacovigilance Database. To estimate the national incidence of NAEs, we extrapolated data from the French regional inception population-based cohort EPIMAD. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2018, 231 adverse events in pediatric IBD exposed to anti-TNFα antibodies were reported to this Database. Seventeen NAEs (7.36%) were collected: 8 severe NAE (1 demyelinating neuropathy, 1 optic neuritis, 1 acute transverse myelitis, 1 polyradiculoneuritis, 1 sensorineural hearing loss, 1 seizure, 1 stroke, and 1 glioma), 7 moderate NAE (headaches), and 2 neuropsychic events. The median delay between anti-TNFα start and NAE occurrence was 6 months (range: 13 days to 26 months). In 10 of 17 patients, anti-TNFα antibodies were stopped. Nine of 17 patients had a complete resolution (including 2 severe NAE) and 8 of 17 a partial resolution (including 6 severe NAE). We estimate the incidence of severe NAE in pediatric IBD treated with anti-TNFα antibodies at 1 case for 10,000 patients-year in France. CONCLUSIONS: NAE associated with anti-TNFα antibodies in pediatric IBD are rare. In severe NAE, we recommend to discontinue anti-TNFα therapy and to consider alternative treatment.

17.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 23: 100581, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300528

RESUMO

Glycogenosis type Ib (GSD1B) causes not only hypoglycemia but also infections and "Crohn's disease like" inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can significantly impair patient's quality of life. We retrospectively evaluated infectious and digestive complications in 9 French patients (3 girls, 6 boys) diagnosed at 0.8 years on average, with a mean follow-up of 19.1 years. Infections occurred earlier than IBD, at mean ages of 1.7 and 3.8 years, respectively. The number of acute hospitalizations was 0.7/year due to infectious (0.4/year) or digestive symptoms (0.4/year). Clinical presentations allowed separating patients into mild (n = 5) and severe (n = 4) intestinal involvement. Patients in the severe group had more serious digestive symptoms but also earlier neutropenia (median 0.3 vs. 1.5 years, p =0 .046) with a tendency to a lower neutrophil count (NC) during follow-up, and a higher number of acute hospitalizations (median 1.3/year vs. 0.2/year, p =0 .014) due to digestive symptoms (median 0.6/year vs. 0.05/year, p = 0,012) and infections (median 0.8/year vs. 0.2/year, p =0 .014). Treatments included G-CSF and cotrimoxazole (n = 7), 5-aminosalicylic acid (n = 2), and a polymeric solution enriched in the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-ß (n = 4, "severe" group), and immunomodulatory treatment (n = 1). In conclusion, infections and IBD are rare but severe complications in GSD1B. Neutropenia tended to be more prevalent in the severe IBD group than in the mild IBD group. Dietetic treatment with specific anti-inflammatory solutions seems particularly appropriate in these patients.

18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(1): 133-140.e1, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mucosal healing (MH) has become a goal of therapy for Crohn's disease (CD), but frequent endoscopies are not feasible. We aimed to develop and validate a non-invasive index to assess mucosal inflammation in children with CD. METHODS: We collected data from the multi-center prospective ImageKids study, in which children with CD underwent ileocolonoscopy with magnetic resonance enterography. We investigated the association of pediatric CD activity index (PCDAI) items and laboratory test results with the simple endoscopic score for CD (SESCD). We used these data in a blended mathematical judgmental clinimetric approach to develop a weighted categorized index to identify children with CD who have MH, which we called the MINI index. We validated the index using data from 3 independent patient cohorts. The derivation and validation cohorts included 154 and 168 children, respectively (age 14.1 ± 2.5 years and 14.2 ± 3.9 years), of whom 16% and 36% had MH (defined as SESCD<3). RESULTS: In multivariable models, the stooling item of the PCDAI, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and level of fecal calprotectin were associated with SESCD (all P < .05). We added data on level of C-reactive protein to develop the MINI index. MINI scores below 8 identified children with MH with 88% sensitivity and 85% specificity in the derivation cohort and with 84% sensitivity and 87% specificity in the validation cohorts. Ninety percent of the patients in the validation cohort with scores of 8 or more had active mucosal inflammation, yet 78% of patients with scores below 8 had MH. Scores below 6 increase the positive predictive value to 86%. CONCLUSIONS: We developed an index to non-invasively assess mucosal inflammation in children with CD. This index, identifies children with MH with high sensitivity and specificity. The added benefit of MINI over measurement of fecal calprotectin was small but significant, especially for patients with concentrations of fecal calprotectin from 100 to 599 µg/g. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT01881490.

19.
Gut ; 69(1): 32-41, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979718

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The optimal trial design for assessing novel therapies in paediatric IBD (PIBD) is a subject of intense ongoing global discussions and debate among the different stakeholders. However, there is a consensus that the current situation in which most medications used in children with IBD are prescribed as off-label without sufficient paediatric data is unacceptable. Shortening the time lag between adult and paediatric approval of drugs is of the upmost importance. In this position paper we aimed to provide guidance from the global clinical research network (Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Network, PIBDnet) for designing clinical trials in PIBD in order to facilitate drug approval for children. METHODS: A writing group has been established by PIBDnet and topics were assigned to different members. After an iterative process of revisions among the writing group and one face-to-face meeting, all statements have reached consensus of >80% as defined a priori. Next, all core members of PIBDnet voted on the statements, reaching consensus of >80% on all statements. Comments from the members were incorporated in the text. RESULTS: The commentary includes 18 statements for guiding data extrapolation from adults, eligibility criteria to PIBD trials, use of placebo, dosing, endpoints and recommendations for feasible trials. Controversial issues have been highlighted in the text. CONCLUSION: The viewpoints expressed in this paper could assist planning clinical trials in PIBD which are both of high quality and ethical, while remaining pragmatic.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Aprovação de Drogas/métodos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 12: 1756284819890534, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803252

RESUMO

Environmental factors, particularly diet, are the focus of current research as potential triggers of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Epidemiological cohort data showing a rapid increase of IBD in western countries and the emergence of IBD in developing countries paralleling the introduction of a western diet are indirect arguments linking food and food behaviour to intestinal inflammation. The successful use of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN), now considered as first-line induction therapy for paediatric Crohn's disease (CD), is the strongest argument for a link between diet and IBD. Mechanistic studies revealed that EEN impacts intestinal microbiota composition and together with the exclusion of potentially harmful food ingredients this allows the control of intestinal inflammation and induces mucosal healing. However, the exclusivity character of EEN is a major drawback. Based on the data of EEN, the search for more tolerable and still effective diets has begun. Recent reports on the new CD exclusion diet (CDED), CD-TREAT, as well as the specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) provide the first promising results, further underlining the potential of diet to control inflammation in patients with CD by excluding certain food components. Ongoing research is trying to combine nutritional interventions with analyses of intestinal microbiota and their metabolic functions with the aim of correcting the intestinal dysbiosis that characterizes IBD. This research is promising and gives new hope to patients that have been looking for decades for nutritional interventions with the aim of stabilizing their disease course. There might even be potential for disease prevention in high-risk patients by excluding potentially harmful food components.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...