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1.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929326

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Perioperative acute kidney injury is commonIt is unclear whether this merely represents a transient increase in creatinine or has prognostic value WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Patients with mild postoperative kidney injury (stage I) after noncardiac surgery had an estimated 2.4 times higher odds of having long-term renal dysfunction compared with patients without postoperative kidney injuryA quarter of patients who had stage I acute kidney injury postoperatively still had stage I kidney injury 1 to 2 yr later, and an additional 11% had even worse renal function BACKGROUND:: Perioperative acute kidney injury is common. However, it is unclear whether this merely represents a transient increase in creatinine or has prognostic value. Therefore, the long-term clinical importance of mild postoperative acute kidney injury remains unclear. This study assessed whether adults who do and do not experience mild kidney injury after noncardiac surgery are at similar risk for long-term renal injury. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort analysis of adults having noncardiac surgery at the Cleveland Clinic who had preoperative, postoperative, and long-term (1 to 2 yr after surgery) plasma creatinine measurements. The exposure (postoperative kidney injury) and outcome (long-term renal injury) were defined and staged according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) initiative criteria. The primary analysis was for lack of association between postoperative kidney injury (stage I vs. no injury) and long-term renal injury. RESULTS: Among 15,621 patients analyzed, 3% had postoperative stage I kidney injury. Long-term renal outcomes were not similar in patients with and without postoperative stage I injury. Specifically, about 26% of patients with stage I postoperative kidney injury still had mild injury 1 to 2 yr later, and 11% had even more severe injury. A full third (37%) of patients with stage I kidney injury therefore had renal injury 1 to 2 yr after surgery. Patients with postoperative stage I injury had an estimated 2.4 times higher odds of having long-term renal dysfunction (KDIGO stage I, II, or III) compared with patients without postoperative kidney injury (odds ratio [95% CI] of 2.4 [2.0 to 3.0]) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: In adults recovering from noncardiac surgery, even small postoperative increases in plasma creatinine, corresponding to stage I kidney injury, are associated with renal dysfunction 1 to 2 yr after surgery. Even mild postoperative renal injury should therefore be considered a clinically important perioperative outcome.

2.
Anesthesiology ; 132(2): 291-306, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial pressure is a complex signal that can be characterized by systolic, mean, and diastolic components, along with pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic pressures). The authors separately evaluated the strength of associations among intraoperative pressure components with myocardial and kidney injury after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors included 23,140 noncardiac surgery patients at Cleveland Clinic who had blood pressure recorded at 1-min intervals from radial arterial catheters. The authors used univariable smoothing and multivariable logistic regression to estimate probabilities of each outcome as function of patients' lowest pressure for a cumulative 5 min for each component, comparing discriminative ability using C-statistics. The authors further assessed the association between outcomes and both area and minutes under derived thresholds corresponding to the beginning of increased risk for the average patient. RESULTS: Out of 23,140 patients analyzed, myocardial injury occurred in 6.1% and acute kidney injury in 8.2%. Based on the lowest patient blood pressure experienced for greater than or equal to 5 min, estimated thresholds below which the odds of myocardial or kidney injury progressively increased (slope P < 0.001) were 90 mmHg for systolic, 65 mmHg for mean, 50 mmHg for diastolic, and 35 mmHg for pulse pressure. Weak discriminative ability was noted between the pressure components, with univariable C-statistics ranging from 0.55 to 0.59. Area under the curve in the highest (deepest) quartile of exposure below the respective thresholds had significantly higher odds of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery and acute kidney injury compared to no exposure for systolic, mean, and pulse pressure (all P < 0.001), but not diastolic, after adjusting for confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Systolic, mean, and pulse pressure hypotension were comparable in their strength of association with myocardial and renal injury. In contrast, the relationship with diastolic pressure was poor. Baseline factors were much more strongly associated with myocardial and renal injury than intraoperative blood pressure, but pressure differs in being modifiable.

4.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977517

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Infusion of large volumes of saline causes hyperchloremic metabolic acidosisA recent Cochrane review based on 18 small trials reported that major morbidity and mortality were comparable with perioperative saline or lactated Ringer's use WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: In a large single-center alternating cohort trial of patients having elective colorectal or orthopedic surgery, there was no clinically meaningful difference in the risk of a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative complications including renal, respiratory, infectious, and hemorrhagic complications BACKGROUND:: Both saline and lactated Ringer's solutions are commonly given to surgical patients. However, hyperchloremic acidosis consequent to saline administration may provoke complications. The authors therefore tested the primary hypothesis that a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative complications is less common in patients given lactated Ringer's solution than normal saline. METHODS: The authors conducted an alternating cohort controlled trial in which adults having colorectal and orthopedic surgery were given either lactated Ringer's solution or normal saline in 2-week blocks between September 2015 and August 2018. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative renal, respiratory, infectious, and hemorrhagic complications. The secondary outcome was postoperative acute kidney injury. RESULTS: Among 8,616 qualifying patients, 4,187 (49%) were assigned to lactated Ringer's solution, and 4,429 (51%) were assigned to saline. Each group received a median 1.9 l of fluid. The primary composite of major complications was observed in 5.8% of lactated Ringer's versus 6.1% of normal saline patients, with estimated average relative risk across the components of the composite of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.52; P = 0.261). The secondary outcome, postoperative acute kidney injury, Acute Kidney Injury Network stage I-III versus 0, occurred in 6.6% of lactated Ringer's patients versus 6.2% of normal saline patients, with an estimated relative risk of 1.18 (99.3% CI, 0.99 to 1.41; P = 0.009, significance criterion of 0.007). Absolute differences between the treatment groups for each outcome were less than 0.5%, an amount that is not clinically meaningful. CONCLUSIONS: In elective orthopedic and colorectal surgery patients, there was no clinically meaningful difference in postoperative complications with lactated Ringer's or saline volume replacement. Clinicians can reasonably use either solution intraoperatively.

5.
Anesthesiology ; 132(1): 121-130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with cardiovascular, renal, and infectious risks. Postsurgical patients are susceptible to similar complications, but whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to postoperative complications remains unclear. We tested whether low preoperative vitamin D is associated with cardiovascular events within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We evaluated a subset of patients enrolled in the biobank substudy of the Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) study, who were at least 45 yr with at least an overnight hospitalization. Blood was collected preoperatively, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in stored samples. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular events (death, myocardial injury, nonfatal cardiac arrest, stroke, congestive heart failure) within 30 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes were kidney injury and infectious complications. RESULTS: A total of 3,851 participants were eligible for analysis. Preoperative 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 70 ± 30 nmol/l, and 62% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Overall, 26 (0.7%) patients died, 41 (1.1%) had congestive heart failure or nonfatal cardiac arrest, 540 (14%) had myocardial injury, and 15 (0.4%) had strokes. Preoperative vitamin D concentration was not associated with the primary outcome (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.93 [0.85, 1.01] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P = 0.095). However, it was associated with postoperative infection (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.94 [0.90, 0.98] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.005) and kidney function (estimated mean change in postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [95% CI]: 0.29 [0.11, 0.48] ml min 1.73 m per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative vitamin D was not associated with a composite of postoperative 30-day cardiac outcomes. However, there was a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and a composite of infectious complications and decreased kidney function. While renal effects were not clinically meaningful, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on infectious complications requires further study.

6.
Anesthesiology ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789639

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Arterial pressure is a complex signal that is characterized by three primary components - systolic, diastolic, and mean pressure, along with a derived component, pulse pressure (systolic minus diastolic pressure)Each blood pressure component reflects distinct hemodynamic variables, and therefore presumably differently influences perfusion of various organsPrevious work identifies associations between intraoperative systolic and mean hypotension with myocardial and kidney injury WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: For each blood pressure component, the authors report significant and clinically meaningful associations between the lowest pressure sustained for 5 min and myocardial and kidney injuryAbsolute population risk thresholds were similar for myocardial and kidney injury, being roughly 90 mmHg for systolic, 65 mmHg for mean, 50 mmHg for diastolic, and 35 mmHg for pulse pressuresThe odds for myocardial and kidney injury progressively increased with duration and severity of hypotension below each threshold, even after adjusting for potential baseline confounding factors BACKGROUND:: Arterial pressure is a complex signal that can be characterized by systolic, mean, and diastolic components, along with pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic pressures). The authors separately evaluated the strength of associations among intraoperative pressure components with myocardial and kidney injury after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors included 23,140 noncardiac surgery patients at Cleveland Clinic who had blood pressure recorded at 1-min intervals from radial arterial catheters. The authors used univariable smoothing and multivariable logistic regression to estimate probabilities of each outcome as function of patients' lowest pressure for a cumulative 5 min for each component, comparing discriminative ability using C-statistics. The authors further assessed the association between outcomes and both area and minutes under derived thresholds corresponding to the beginning of increased risk for the average patient. RESULTS: Out of 23,140 patients analyzed, myocardial injury occurred in 6.1% and acute kidney injury in 8.2%. Based on the lowest patient blood pressure experienced for greater than or equal to 5 min, estimated thresholds below which the odds of myocardial or kidney injury progressively increased (slope P < 0.001) were 90 mmHg for systolic, 65 mmHg for mean, 50 mmHg for diastolic, and 35 mmHg for pulse pressure. Weak discriminative ability was noted between the pressure components, with univariable C-statistics ranging from 0.55 to 0.59. Area under the curve in the highest (deepest) quartile of exposure below the respective thresholds had significantly higher odds of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery and acute kidney injury compared to no exposure for systolic, mean, and pulse pressure (all P < 0.001), but not diastolic, after adjusting for confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Systolic, mean, and pulse pressure hypotension were comparable in their strength of association with myocardial and renal injury. In contrast, the relationship with diastolic pressure was poor. Baseline factors were much more strongly associated with myocardial and renal injury than intraoperative blood pressure, but pressure differs in being modifiable.

7.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880630

RESUMO

Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) differs from myocardial infarction in being defined by troponin elevation apparently from cardiac ischemia with or without signs and symptoms. Such myocardial injury is common, silent, and strongly associated with mortality. MINS is usually asymptomatic and only detected by routine troponin monitoring. There is currently no known safe and effective prophylaxis for perioperative myocardial injury. However, appropriate preoperative screening may help guide proactive postoperative preventative actions. Intraoperative hypotension is associated with myocardial injury, acute kidney injury, and death. Hypotension is common and largely undetected in the postoperative general care floor setting, and independently associated with myocardial injury and mortality. Critical care patients are especially sensitive to hypotension, and the risk appears to be present at blood pressures previously regarded as normal. Tachycardia appears to be less important. Available information suggests that clinicians would be prudent to avoid perioperative hypotension.

9.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative hyperoxia has been recommended by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the prevention of surgical site infections. Based on animal studies and physiological concerns, the kidneys and heart may be at risk from hyperoxia. We therefore conducted 2 unplanned subanalyses of a previous alternating cohort trial in which patients having colorectal surgery were assigned to either 30% or 80% inspired intraoperative oxygen. Specifically, we tested 2 coprimary hypotheses: (1) hyperoxia increases the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) within 7 postoperative days (PODs); and (2) hyperoxia worsens a composite of myocardial injury, in-hospital cardiac arrest, and 30-day mortality. METHODS: The underlying controlled trial included 5749 colorectal surgeries in 4481 patients, with the exposure alternating between 30% and 80% fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) during general anesthesia at 2-week intervals over a period of 39 months. AKI was defined as a 1.5-fold increase in creatinine from the preoperative level to the highest value measured during the initial 7 PODs. Myocardial injury was defined by fourth-generation troponin-T level >0.03 ng/mL. We assessed the effect of 80% vs 30% oxygen on the outcomes using generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic models that adjusted for the possible within-patient correlation across multiple potential operations for a patient on different visits. RESULTS: For the AKI outcome, 2522 surgeries were allocated to 80% oxygen and 2552 to 30% oxygen. Hyperoxia had no effect on the primary outcome of postoperative AKI, with an incidence of 7.7% in the 80% oxygen group and 7.7% in the 30% oxygen group (relative risk = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-1.2; P = .95). One thousand six hundred forty-seven surgeries (all with scheduled troponin monitoring) were analyzed for the composite cardiovascular outcome. Hyperoxia had no effect on the collapsed composite of myocardial injury, cardiac arrest, and 30-day mortality, nor on any of its components (estimated relative risk = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.44-1.16; P = .17). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that intraoperative hyperoxia causes AKI or cardiovascular complications in adults undergoing colorectal surgery. Consequently, we suggest that clinicians select intraoperative inspired oxygen fraction based on other considerations.

10.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(6): 2240-2250, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372261

RESUMO

Background: Introduction of invasive endovascular techniques constituted a real a breakthrough in the treatment of aortic aneurysm dissection and rupture. We assessed the effectiveness and safety of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with thoracic aortic pathologies. Methods: Between 2007 and 2017, 118 patients with thoracic aortic pathology underwent TEVAR. Among them, 20 (16.9%) patients required hybrid procedures. Stent grafts indication were thoracic aortic aneurysm in 46 (39.0%) patients, type B dissection in 68 (57.6%) patients and other indications in 4 (3.3%). Procedural success rate, in-hospital and late mortality and morbidity were evaluated. Results: The patients were followed-up for a mean of 55 months (range, 6-118 months). The technical success rate was 96%. Five patients died during the first 30 days after procedure (mortality 4.2%), four due to ischemic stroke followed by multi-organ failure and another one hemodynamically significant type I endoleak. Most of them were noted in the first years of our study. Five others died during post-discharged period. Four patients developed neurological complications, including stroke (n=2; 1.7%) and paraparesis (n=2; 1.7%). There were 6 (5.1%) primary (5 type I and 1 type II) and 3 (2.5%) secondary endoleaks (1 type I and 2 type III). Secondary interventions were required in 8 subjects. There was one case of stent collapse and two retrograde aortic dissection. Conclusions: Treatment of descending aortic diseases by using stent graft implantation has become the method of choice, decreasing the risk of open surgery, especially in patients with severe clinical state and comorbidities. However, effectiveness and safety may be achieved by experience team.

11.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(6): 2555-2563, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372292

RESUMO

Background: Less invasive procedures such as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) are desirable for patent ductal artery (PDA) ligation when pharmacologic or conservative approaches fail. Studies done on VATS-PDA ligation showed better outcomes when compared to open thoracotomies, however, complication rates remain conflicting. Learning curve can be a postulated reason which may also precludes the acceptability. We therefore sought to report our single centered 7-year experience of PDA closure with VATS. Methods: Single centered retrospective study of 127 patients who underwent PDA ligature with VATS from February 2012 to October 2018. The cohort was divided into two groups, i.e., 2012-2014 (early phase) and 2015-2018 (late phase) and were further compared. Early and late outcomes, including mortality and morbidity, were analyzed. Results: The included patients had a mean age of 1.7 years. Among them, preterm infants accounted for 38.6%, there was no operative mortality. Six deaths (4.7%) occurred during in-hospital stay, predominantly in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) due to massive cerebral bleeding and cardiopulmonary failure. Overall conversion rate to thoracotomy was 16.5%. It decreased from 20% in early phase to less than 5% in late phase. Fifty patients (39.4%) required transfer to the NICU. The mean in-hospital stay for the remainders was only 2.2±1.6 days. All but two patients discharged home survived follow-up period without any adverse events and nobody among non-converted cases expressed concerns regarding chest deformity. A 5-year probability of survival estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier curve was 93.6%. Conclusions: VATS is a safe as well as efficient method for closure of PDA that ensures satisfactory late cosmetic results. Postoperative mortality and extended hospital stay may be attributed to prematurity. Although learning curve exists it does not affect the safety and late outcomes.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16636, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441838

RESUMO

Electrocardiography (ECG) is essential to detect and diagnose life threatening cardiac conditions and to determine further treatment. Correct interpretation of an ECG can be challenging, especially in the out-of-hospital setting and by less experienced emergency team members.The aim of this study was to compare the rate of ECG transmission from an out-of-hospital emergency scene to an in-hospital cardiologist on call in EMS-B and EMS-S providers and its impact on direct transportation to a cardiac catheterization laboratory and hospital admission.The study was designed as an observational study. Data from 3 separate emergency medical service teams were collected. Two teams are staffed by paramedics only (EMT-B), while another specialized team is staffed with an emergency physician (EMT-S). 5864 out-of-hospital emergencies were performed during a 12-month period and were analyzed for this study.In 124 out of 5864 (2.1%) out-of-hospital emergencies, an ECG transmission from the out-of-hospital scene to an in-hospital cardiologist on call was performed. Rate of transmission was similar between both teams (EMT-B n = 70, 2.2% vs EMT-S n = 54, 2.0%, P = .054). After coordinating with the cardiologist on call, 11 patients (15.7%) of the EMT-B (15.7%) and 24 patients (44.4%) of the EMT-S were directly transported from the scene of emergency to a cardiac catheterization laboratory (P < .001). Overall, 80% of patients treated by EMT-S, compared to 52.5% treated by the EMT-B required subsequent hospital admission (P < .05).Transmission of ECG from the out-of-hospital emergency scene to the in-hospital cardiologist is infrequently performed. The rate of STEMI in transmitted ECG's by emergency teams staffed with an emergency physician was higher compared to emergency teams staffed with paramedics only.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/organização & administração , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Institutos de Cardiologia/organização & administração , Humanos , Admissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(7): 3156-3170, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463144

RESUMO

The advent of advanced diagnostic bronchoscopy has shown an increased demand for anesthesiologists to administer anesthesia in the bronchoscopy suite. Procedures such as navigational bronchoscopy, airway stenting and advanced therapeutic procedures often require the presence of an anesthesiologist to manage these more complex patients and procedures. In this review we describe the various bronchoscopic procedures and anesthetic management and complications of these procedures at our institution The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland Ohio.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e15995, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International resuscitation guidelines emphasize the importance of high quality chest compressions, including correct chest compression depth and rate and complete chest recoil. The aim of the study was to assess the role of the TrueCPR device in the process of teaching cardiopulmonary resuscitation in nursing students. METHODS: A prospective randomized experimental study was performed among 94 first year students of nursing. On the next day, the participants were divided into 2 groups-the control group practiced chest compressions without the use of any device for half an hour, and the experimental group practiced with the use of TrueCPR. Further measurement of chest compressions was performed after a month. RESULTS: The chest compression rate achieved the value of 113 versus 126 (P < .001), adequate chest compression rate (%) was 86 versus 68 (P < .001), full chest release (%) 92 versus 69 (P = .001), and correct hand placement (%) 99 versus 99 (P, not significant) in TrueCPR and standard BLS groups, respectively. As for the assessment of the confidence of chest compression quality, 1 month after the training, the evaluation in the experimental group was statistically significantly higher (91 vs 71; P < .001) than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training with the use of the TrueCPR device is associated with better resuscitation skills 1 month after the training. The participants using TrueCPR during the training achieved a better chest compression rate and depth with in international recommendations and better full chest release percentage and self-assessed confidence of chest compression quality comparing with standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation training.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Massagem Cardíaca/instrumentação , Massagem Cardíaca/normas , Humanos , Manequins , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudantes de Enfermagem
17.
Anesthesiology ; 130(4): 550-559, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with myocardial and kidney injury and 30-day mortality. Intraoperative blood pressure is measured frequently, but blood pressure on surgical wards is usually measured only every 4 to 6 h, leaving long intervals during which hypotension and hypertension may be undetected. This study evaluated the incidence and severity of postoperative hypotension and hypertension in adults recovering from abdominal surgery and the extent to which serious perturbations were missed by routine vital-sign assessments. METHODS: Blood pressure was recorded at 1-min intervals during the initial 48 h in adults recovering from abdominal surgery using a continuous noninvasive monitor. Caregivers were blinded to these measurements and depended on routine vital-sign assessments. Hypotension and hypertension were characterized as time under and above various mean arterial pressure thresholds. RESULTS: Of 502 available patients, 312 patients with high-quality records were analyzed, with a median measurement time of 48 [interquartile range: 41, 48] postoperative hours. Nearly a quarter experienced an episode of mean arterial pressure of less than 70 mm Hg lasting at least 30 min (24%; 95% CI, 20%, 29%), and 18% had an episode of mean arterial pressure of less than 65 mm Hg lasting at least 15 min. Nearly half the patients who had mean arterial pressure of less than 65 mm Hg for at least 15 min (47%; 95% CI, 34%, 61%) were undetected by routine vital-sign assessments. Episodes of mean arterial pressure greater than 110 mm Hg lasting at least 30 min were observed in 42% (95% CI, 37%, 48%) of patients; 7% had mean arterial pressure greater than 130 mm Hg for at least 30 min, 96% of which were missed by routine assessments. Episodes of mean arterial pressure less than 65 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure greater than 110 mm Hg captured by routine vital-sign assessments but not by continuous monitoring occurred in 34 and 8 patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative hypotension and hypertension were common, prolonged, profound, and largely undetected by routine vital-sign assessments in a cohort of adults recovering from abdominal surgery. Frequent or continuous blood pressure monitoring may detect hemodynamic perturbations more effectively and potentially facilitate treatment.

18.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 36(5): 320-326, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends routine intra-operative and early postoperative use of high inspired oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia). However, a high intra-operative inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) might result in an increased risk of postoperative respiratory complications. AIM: To test the hypothesis that intra-operative FiO2 of 80% compared with 30% inspired oxygen decreases the postoperative ratio of arterial saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2). Secondarily, to evaluate whether an intra-operative inspired FiO2 of 80% increases the incidence of pulmonary complications. DESIGN: Posthoc subanalysis of a large alternating cohort trial. SETTING: Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, United States, from 2013 to 2016. PATIENTS: Adults having colorectal surgery. Cases lasting less than 2 h, re-operations on the same hospitalisation, and cases with missing intra-operative or postoperative data were excluded. INTERVENTION: Maintaining intra-operative FiO2 at 30 or 80% and alternating this management every 2 weeks for a study period of 39 months. MAIN OUTCOME: Minimal SpO2/FiO2 ratio value in the postanaesthesia care unit. Secondary outcome was a composite of postoperative pulmonary complications throughout hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 5056 patients were included. Groups were well balanced on all demographic, baseline and procedural variables. Median time-weighted averages of intra-operative FiO2 in the 30 and 80% groups were 43% (IQR 38 to 54%, N=2486) and 81% (IQR 78 to 82%, N=2570), respectively. No difference was found in the lowest SpO2/FiO2 ratio (estimated median difference 0 [95% confidence interval: 0, 0], P = 0.91). The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications was 16.3 and 17.6% in the 30 and 80% FiO2 groups, respectively (relative risk 1.07 [95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.21], P = 0.25). CONCLUSION: Intra-operative hyperoxia did not change the postoperative SpO2/FiO2 ratio or the risk for pulmonary complications. Clinicians should not refrain from using hyperoxia for fear of provoking respiratory complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01777568.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212704, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-quality chest compressions are imperative for Cardio-Pulmonary-Resuscitation (CPR). International CPR guidelines advocate, that chest compressions should not be interrupted for ventilation once a patient's trachea is intubated or a supraglottic-airway-device positioned. Supraglottic-airway-devices offer limited protection against pulmonary aspiration. Simultaneous chest compressions and positive pressure ventilation both increase intrathoracic pressure and potentially enhances the risk of pulmonary aspiration. The hypothesis was, that regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration is more common during continuous versus interrupted chest compressions in human cadavers ventilated with a laryngeal tube airway. METHODS: Twenty suitable cadavers were included, and were positioned supine, the stomach was emptied, 500 ml of methylene-blue-solution instilled and laryngeal tube inserted. Cadavers were randomly assigned to: 1) continuous chest compressions; or, 2) interrupted chest compressions for ventilation breaths. After 14 minutes of the initial designated CPR strategy, pulmonary aspiration was assessed with a flexible bronchoscope. The methylene-blue-solution was replaced by 500 ml barium-sulfate radiopaque suspension. 14 minutes of CPR with the second designated ventilation strategy was performed. Pulmonary aspiration was then assessed with a conventional chest X-ray. RESULTS: Two cadavers were excluded for technical reasons, leaving 18 cadavers for statistical analysis. Pulmonary aspiration was observed in 9 (50%) cadavers with continuous chest compressions, and 7 (39%) with interrupted chest compressions (P = 0.75). CONCLUSION: Our pilot study indicate, that incidence of pulmonary aspiration is generally high in patients undergoing CPR when a laryngeal tube is used for ventilation. Our study was not powered to identify potentially important differences in regurgitation or aspiration between ongoing vs. interrupted chest compression. Our results nonetheless suggest that interrupted chest compressions might better protect against pulmonary aspiration when a laryngeal tube is used for ventilation.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Máscaras Laríngeas/efeitos adversos , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Distribuição Aleatória , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/etiologia
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