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1.
Infectio ; 23(supl.1): 97-106, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-984513

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: Estimar las frecuencias de mutaciones y de polimorfismos adicionales asociados con resistencia a los fármacos inhibidores de la integrasa del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1). Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, en individuos VIH-1 positivos de la ciudad de Medellín, quienes no habían recibido tratamiento antirretroviral. En ellos se determinó, a través del método de 2-dideoxinucleótidos y el sistema ABI3730XL, la secuencia del gen de la integrasa del VIH-1 a partir del ARN viral circulante, la cual fue analizada en la base de datos de resistencia a medicamentos antirretrovirales de la Universidad de Stanford y según reportes de literatura científica. Resultados: Se encontraron las siguientes mutaciones (con sus respectivas frecuencias): una mutación mayor, E138K (1/46), tres mutaciones accesorias G163E (3/46), L74I (3/50) y E157Q (2/48), una mutación no polimórfica A128T (1/49) y otras dos mutaciones potencialmente asociadas con resistencia a inhibidores de integrasa S230N (9/39) y S119P/R/T (4/47, 2/47 y 14/47, respectivamente). Conclusiones: En las secuencias analizadas, llama la atención la presencia de al menos una mutación asociada a resistencia a inhibidores de integrasa en el 14% de los individuos estudiados, sugiriendo una pobre presión selectiva de este tipo de fármacos en la población viral circulante en la zona.


Abstract Aim: To estimate the frequencies of major and accessory mutations, as well as additional polymorphisms associated with resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (VIH-1) integrase strand transfer inhibitors. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study, focused on HIV-1 positive individuals from Medellín, recruited between 2013 and 2015, and that had not received antiretroviral therapy. In these patients, the sequence from HIV-1 integrase was determined from circulating viral RNA through Sanger chain termination method with the ABI3730XL system, and the sequences were analyzed using the HIV Drug Resistance Database from the University of Stanford, together with previous literature reports. Results: The following mutations associated with resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors, along with its respective frequencies, were found: one major mutation, E138K (1/46), three accessory mutations, G163E (3/46), L74I (3/50) and E157Q (2/48); one non-polymorphic mutation, A128T (1/49); and two mutations potentially associated with resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors, S230N (9/39) and S119P/R/T (4/47, 2/47 and 14/47, respectively). Conclusions: In the sequences analyzed, it is noteworthy the presence of at least one mutation related with resistance to integrase inhibitors in 14% of the studied patients, suggesting a poor selective pressure of this kind of drugs in the circulating viral population in our region.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2291, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611877

RESUMO

HIV infection remains a global and public health issue with the incidence increasing in some countries. Despite the fact that combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has decreased mortality and increased the life expectancy of HIV-infected individuals, non-AIDS conditions, mainly those associated with a persistent inflammatory state, have emerged as important causes of morbidity, and mortality despite effective antiviral therapy. One of the most common comorbidities in HIV-1 patients is Vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency, as VitD is a hormone that, in addition to its physiological role in mineral metabolism, has pleiotropic effects on immune regulation. Several reports have shown that VitD levels decrease during HIV disease progression and correlate with decreased survival rates, highlighting the importance of VitD supplementation during infection. An extensive review of 29 clinical studies of VitD supplementation in HIV-infected patients showed that regardless of cART, when VitD levels were increased to normal ranges, there was a decrease in inflammation, markers associated with bone turnover, and the risk of secondary hyperparathyroidism while the anti-bacterial response was increased. Additionally, in 3 of 7 studies, VitD supplementation led to an increase in CD4+ T cell count, although its effect on viral load was inconclusive since most patients were on cART. Similarly, previous evidence from our laboratory has shown that VitD can reduce the infection of CD4+ T cells in vitro. The effect of VitD supplementation on other HIV-associated conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia or hypertension, warrants further exploration. Currently, the available evidence suggests that there is a potential role for VitD supplementation in people living with HIV-1, however, comprehensive studies are required to define an adequate supplementation protocol for these individuals.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222878, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mucosal immune activation, in the context of sexual transmission of HIV-1 infection, is crucial, as the increased presence of activated T cells enhance susceptibility to infection. In this regard, it has been proposed that immunomodulatory compounds capable of modulating immune activation, such as Vitamin D (VitD) may reduce HIV-1 transmission and might be used as a safe and cost-effective strategy for prevention. Considering this, we examined the in vitro effect of the treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the active form of VitD, calcitriol, on cellular activation, function and susceptibility of CD4+ T cells to HIV-1 infection. METHODS: We treated PBMCs from healthy HIV unexposed individuals (Co-HC) and frequently exposed, HIV-1 seronegative individuals (HESNs) from Colombia and from healthy non-exposed individuals from Canada (Ca-HC) with calcitriol and performed in vitro HIV-1 infection assays using X4- and R5-tropic HIV-1 strains respectively. In addition, we evaluated the activation and function of T cells and the expression of viral co-receptors, and select antiviral genes following calcitriol treatment. RESULTS: Calcitriol reduced the frequency of infected CD4+ T cells and the number of viral particles per cell, for both, X4- and R5-tropic viruses tested in the Co-HC and the Ca-HC, respectively, but not in HESNs. Furthermore, in the Co-HC, calcitriol reduced the frequency of polyclonally activated T cells expressing the activation markers HLA-DR and CD38, and those HLA-DR+CD38-, whereas increased the subpopulation HLA-DR-CD38+. Calcitriol treatment also decreased production of granzyme, IL-2 and MIP-1ß by T cells and increased the transcriptional expression of the inhibitor of NF-kB and the antiviral genes cathelicidin (CAMP) and APOBEC3G in PBMCs from Co-HC. CONCLUSION: Our in vitro findings suggest that VitD treatment could reduce HIV-1 transmission through a specific modulation of the activation levels and function of T cells, and the production of antiviral factors. In conclusion, VitD remains as an interesting potential strategy to prevent HIV-1 transmission that should be further explored.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 induces an uncontrolled inflammatory response of several immune components, such as inflammasomes. These molecular complexes, associated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) activity, induce the maturation and release of IL-1ß and IL-18 and eventually induce pyroptosis. It has been previously demonstrated that HIV induces inflammasome activation, which is significantly lower in the gastrointestinal tissue and blood from people living with HIV-1 with spontaneous control of viral replication. Therefore, immunomodulatory agents could be useful in improving HIV prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential inhibitory effect of sulfasalazine (SSZ) on inflammasomes and TLRs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from people living with HIV and healthy donors. METHODS: PBMCs were obtained from 15 people living with HIV and 15 healthy donors. Cells were stimulated with agonists of TLRs and inflammasomes and subsequently treated with SSZ. The concentration of IL-1ß and the relative expression of NLRP3, NLRC4, NLRP1, AIM2, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1ß, and IL-18 were quantified. RESULTS: Cells treated with SSZ exhibited a decreased IL-1ß production after inflammasome and TLR stimulation, as well as regulation of inflammasome-related genes, in both people with HIV and healthy individuals. The concentration of IL-1ß was positively correlated with the CD4+ T-cell count and negatively with the viral load. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SSZ has an immunomodulatory effect on inflammasome and TLR activation that depends on the clinical HIV status.

5.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 40(1)2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539353

RESUMO

Background Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role during HIV-1 transmission due to their ability to transfer virions to susceptible CD4+ T cells, particularly in the lymph nodes during antigen presentation which favors the establishment of systemic infection. As mature dendritic cells (mDCs) exhibit a greater ability to transfer virions, compared to immature DCs (iDCs), maintenance of an iDC phenotype could decrease viral transmission. The immunomodulatory vitamin D (VitD) has been shown to reduce activation and maturation of DCs; hence, we hypothesized that it would reduce viral transference by DCs. Materials and methods We evaluated the effect of in vitro treatment with a precursor of VitD, cholecalciferol, on the activation/maturation phenotype of differentiated monocyte-derived DCs and their ability to transfer HIV-1 to autologous CD4+ T cells. Results Our findings show that although cholecalciferol decreases the activation of iDCs, it did not impact the maturation phenotype after LPS treatment nor iDCs' ability to transfer viral particles to target cells. Conclusion These findings suggest that despite cholecalciferol potentially modulates the phenotype of mucosal iDCs in vivo, such modulation might not impact the ability of these cells to transfer HIV-1 to target CD4+ T cells.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1896, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447862

RESUMO

Although the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has decreased the deaths associated with the immune deficiency acquired syndrome (AIDS), non-AIDS conditions have emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients under suppressive cART. Since these conditions are associated with a persistent inflammatory and immune activation state, major efforts are currently made to improve the immune reconstitution. CD8+ T-cells are critical in the natural and cART-induced control of viral replication; however, CD8+ T-cells are highly affected by the persistent immune activation and exhaustion state driven by the increased antigenic and inflammatory burden during HIV infection, inducing phenotypic and functional alterations, and hampering their antiviral response. Several CD8+ T-cell subsets, such as interleukin-17-producing and follicular CXCR5+ CD8+ T-cells, could play a particular role during HIV infection by promoting the gut barrier integrity, and exerting viral control in lymphoid follicles, respectively. Here, we discuss the role of CD8+ T-cells and some of their subpopulations during HIV infection in the context of cART-induced viral suppression, focusing on current challenges and alternatives for reaching complete reconstitution of CD8+ T-cells antiviral function. We also address the potential usefulness of CD8+ T-cell features to identify patients who will reach immune reconstitution or have a higher risk for developing non-AIDS conditions. Finally, we examine the therapeutic potential of CD8+ T-cells for HIV cure strategies.

7.
J Clin Virol ; 119: 17-23, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445411

RESUMO

Classically, CD4+ T-cells have been referred as cytokine-producing cells and important players in immune responses by providing soluble factors that potentiate several effector immune functions. However, it is now evident that CD4+ T-cells can also elaborate cytotoxic responses, inducing apoptosis of target cells. Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells (CD4+ CTLs), exhibit cytolytic functions that resemble those of CD8+ T-cells; in fact, there is evidence suggesting that they may have a role in the control of viral infections. In this article, we discuss the role of CD4+ CTLs during HIV infection, where CD4+ CTLs have been associated with viral control and slow disease progression. In addition, we address the implication of CD4+ CTLs in the context of antiretroviral therapy and the partial reconstitution of CD8+ T-cells effector function.

8.
Viral Immunol ; 32(7): 278-288, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274389

RESUMO

Follicular CD4+ T cells are the main HIV reservoirs due to, among other factors, the low frequency of CD8+ T cells in lymphoid follicles. Follicular CXCR5+ CD8+ T cells are associated with HIV control, but their differentiation conditions are yet undefined. In this study, we explored the in vitro effect of transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-23 on the induction of CXCR5, the follicle homing receptor, in human circulating CD8+ T cells from seronegative, and treated HIV-infected individuals. The combination of TGF-ß1 plus IL-23 induced the highest expression of CXCR5 in purified CD8+ T cells. These CXCR5+ CD8+ T cells also expressed a transcriptional and phenotypic profile similar to that of follicular CD4+ T cells, such as the upregulation of BCL6, inducible costimulator and CD40L, and downregulation of PRDM1. These cells responded in vitro to CXCL13 and had low expression of CCR7. In addition, after polyclonal stimulation, they produced IL-21, interferon-γ, and de novo perforin. However, in comparison with seronegative individuals, CD8+ T cells from HIV-infected patients had a lower response to TGF-ß1/IL-23, a defect that was restored with the blockade of the programmed cell death 1 inhibitory receptor. Thus, TGF-ß1 plus IL-23 induce follicular-like CXCR5+ CD8+ T cells in seronegative individuals, but in HIV-infected patients there is a limited response which could impair the generation of this cell population.

10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 73: 276-286, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103723

RESUMO

Vitamin D (VitD) may modulate anti-HIV-1 responses modifying the risk to acquire the HIV-1-infection. We performed a nested case-control exploratory study involving 413 individuals; HIV-1-exposed seropositives (cases) and seronegatives (HESN) (controls) from three cohorts: sexually-exposed from Colombia and Italy and parenterally-exposed from Spain. The association and interactions of 139 variants in 9 VitD pathway genes, and in 14 antiviral genes with resistance/susceptibility (R/S) to HIV-1 infection was evaluated. Associations between variants and mRNA levels were also analyzed in the Colombian samples. Variants and haplotypes in genes of VitD and antiviral pathways were associated with R/S, but specific associations were not reproduced in all cohorts. Allelic heterogeneity could explain such inconsistency since the associations found in all cohorts were consistently in the same genes: VDR and RXRA of the VitD pathway genes and in TLR2 and RNASE4. Remarkably, the multi-locus genotypes (interacting variants) observed in genes of VitD and antiviral pathways were present in most HESNs of all cohorts. Finally, HESNs carrying resistance-associated variants had higher levels of VitD in plasma, of VDR mRNA in blood cells, and of ELAFIN and defensins mRNA in the oral mucosa. In conclusion, despite allelic heterogeneity, most likely due to differences in the genetic history of the populations, the associations were locus dependent suggesting that genes of the VitD pathway might act in concert with antiviral genes modulating the resistance phenotype of the HESNs. Although these associations were significant after permutation test, only haplotype results remained statistically significant after Bonferroni test, requiring further replications in larger cohorts and functional analyzes to validate these conclusions.

11.
Curr HIV Res ; 17(1): 13-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854974

RESUMO

During HIV infection, massive destruction of CD4+ T cells ensues, preferentially depleting the Th17 subset at the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), leading to a loss of mucosal integrity and an increase in cell permeability. This process favors microbial translocation between the intestinal lumen and the circulatory system, contributing to persistent immune activation and chronic inflammation characteristic of HIV infection. Thus, the gut microbiota plays an integral role in maintaining the structure and function of the mucosal barrier, a critical factor for immune homeostasis. However, in the context of HIV infection, changes in the gut microbiota have been reported and have been linked to disease progression. Here, we review evidence for the role of the gut microbiota in intestinal homeostasis, its contribution to HIV pathogenesis, as well as its use in the development of therapeutic strategies.

12.
Front Immunol ; 10: 144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787929

RESUMO

In the context of HIV sexual transmission at the genital mucosa, initial interactions between the virus and the mucosal immunity determine the outcome of the exposure. Hence, these interactions have been deeply explored in attempts to undercover potential targets for developing preventative strategies. The knowledge gained has led to propose a hypothetical model for mucosal HIV transmission. Subsequent research studies on this topic further revealed new mechanisms and identified new host-HIV interactions. This review aims at integrating these findings to inform better and update the current model of HIV transmission. At the earliest stage of virus exposure, the epithelial integrity and the presence of antiviral factors are critical in preventing viral entry to the submucosa. However, the virus has been shown to enter to the submucosa in the presence of physical abrasion or via epithelial transmigration using paracellular passage or transcytosis mechanisms. The efficiency of these processes is greater with cell-associated viral inoculums and can be influenced by the presence of viral and immune factors, and by the structure of the exposed epithelium. Once the virus reaches the submucosa, dendritic cells and fibroblasts, as recently described, have been shown in vitro of being capable of facilitating the transfer of viral particles to susceptible cells, leading to viral dissemination, most likely in a trans-infection manner. The presence of activated CD4+ T cells in submucosa increases the probability of infection, where the predominant microbiota could be implicated through the modulation of an inflammatory microenvironment. Other factors such as genital fluids and hormones could also play an essential role in HIV transmission. Here, we review the most recent evidence described for mucosal HIV-transmission contributing with the understanding of this phenomenon.

13.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2502, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420859

RESUMO

Immune activation is the hallmark of HIV infection, even in patients with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-induced viral suppression. A major cause of immune activation during HIV infection is the intestinal microbial translocation as a consequence, among other factors, of the decrease and/or dysfunction of interleukin (IL)-17-producing T-cells, due to their role promoting the integrity of the intestinal barrier. A population of IL-17-producing CD8+ T-cells (Tc17 cells), characterized by the expression of CD161, has been described, but its relation with the persistent immune activation in non-viremic people living with HIV (PLWH) on HAART is unclear. By flow cytometry, we characterized the activation phenotype (evaluated by the expression of HLA-DR and CD38) of circulating CD161-expressing CD8+ T-cells; in addition, we explored the functionality of polyclonally-stimulated Tc17 cells in PLWH under HAART-induced viral suppression, and in healthy individuals. Finally, we determined the association of Tc17 cells with the expression of cellular and soluble activation markers. Circulating CD161-expressing CD8+ T-cells were decreased in PLWH compared with healthy individuals, despite their similar basal activation state. After polyclonal stimulation, IL-17 production was higher in CD8+ T-cells co-expressing HLA-DR and CD38 in healthy individuals. In contrast, although PLWH had a higher frequency of HLA-DR+ CD38+ CD8+ T-cells after stimulation, they had a lower production of IL-17. Interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD8+ T-cells (Tc1 cells) were increased in PLWH. The low Tc17 cells response was associated with a high expression of CD38 and programmed death 1 protein, high levels of soluble CD14 and the treatment duration. Finally, to explore potential immunomodulatory strategies, the in vitro effect of the anti-inflammatory agent sulfasalazine was assessed on Tc17 cells. Interestingly, a decreased inflammatory environment, death of activated CD8+ T-cells, and an increased frequency of Tc17 cells were observed with sulfasalazine treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that activated CD8+ T-cells have a marked capacity to produce IL-17 in healthy individuals, but not in PLWH, despite HAART. This dysfunction of Tc17 cells is associated with the persistent immune activation observed in these patients, and can be partially restored by anti-inflammatory agents.

14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 78(4): 473-482, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances made with the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the control of the HIV 1 infection, a cure has not been achieved because of the persistence of viral reservoirs. The major HIV reservoirs remain in the lymphoid follicles because of, among other factors, the partial absence of CD8 T-cells in these structures. Recently, lymphoid follicle-confined and circulating CD8 T-cells expressing the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) were described, possessing antiviral mechanisms that could help to control HIV replication. SETTING AND METHODS: By flow cytometry, we characterized the phenotype and function of circulating CXCR5-expressing CD8 T-cells in HIV-infected patients with natural or HAART-induced control of HIV replication. RESULTS: Circulating CXCR5-expressing CD8 T-cells exhibited low or null expression of the C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) and had a transitional memory phenotype. Particular redistributions of CXCR5-expressing CD8 T-cells were found in HIV-infected patients, and they were partially restored by HAART. The frequency of CXCR5CCR7 CD8 T-cells was higher in spontaneous HIV controllers and negatively correlated with plasma HIV RNA levels. Total and HIV-specific CXCR5 CD8 T-cells were major producers of interleukin-21, and this function was positively associated with their interferon-γ production. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating CXCR5-expressing CD8 T-cells are associated with low-level HIV replication; these cells could be novel correlates of protection, and potentially useful in the eradication of HIV reservoirs.

15.
Curr HIV Res ; 16(5): 338-344, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV infection induces alterations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) that constitutes the most important site for viral replication due to the extensive presence of effector memory T-cells. In the case of HIV-controllers, several studies have reported fewer peripheral alterations and conserved immune responses that correlate with viral control; however, the histopathological characterization of GALT in those patients is still missing. In this study, we evaluated pathological alterations in GALT, trying to associate them with clinical parameters of HIV infected patients with or without evidence of viral control. METHODS: This study included eight HIV-controllers (antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients, with viral loads below 2.000 copies/mL for at least 1 year); 14 Noncontrollers (antiretroviral treatmentnaïve patients, with viral loads > 2.000 copies/mL and CD4+ T cells count > 250 cells/µL), and 12 uninfected donors. Biopsy fragments were obtained by rectosigmoidoscopy and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, silver methenamine, Ziehl Neelsen, and modified Ziehl Neelsen. RESULTS: Histopathological findings in HIV-controllers were similar to those observed in the uninfected group. In contrast, noncontrollers exhibited several alterations including condyloma acuminate, squamous metaplasia and acute colitis. These alterations were associated with disease progression. CONCLUSION: HIV-controllers exhibit lower pathological alterations in the gut tissue, associated with higher CD4 T cell count, and lower viral load.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/patologia , Replicação Viral , Adulto , Biópsia , Feminino , Sobreviventes de Longo Prazo ao HIV , Histocitoquímica , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coloração e Rotulagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(2): 267-273, abr.-jun. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1038788

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introduction: Variants in genes encoding for HIV-1 co-receptors and their natural ligands have been individually associated to natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. However, the simultaneous presence of these variants has been poorly studied. Objective: To evaluate the association of single and multilocus haplotypes in genes coding for the viral co-receptors CCR5 and CCR2, and their ligands CCL3 and CCL5, with resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Materials and methods: Nine variants in CCR5-CCR2, two SNPs in CCL3 and two in CCL5 were genotyped by PCR-RFLP in 35 seropositive (cases) and 49 HIV-1-exposed seronegative Colombian individuals (controls). Haplotypes were inferred using the Arlequin software, and their frequency in individual or combined loci was compared between cases and controls by the chi-square test. A p' value <0.05 after Bonferroni correction was considered significant. Results: Homozygosis of the human haplogroup (HH) E was absent in controls and frequent in cases, showing a tendency to susceptibility. The haplotypes C-C and T-T in CCL3 were associated with susceptibility (p'=0.016) and resistance (p'<0.0001) to HIV-1 infection, respectively. Finally, in multilocus analysis, the haplotype combinations formed by HHC in CCR5-CCR2, T-T in CCL3 and G-C in CCL5 were associated with resistance (p'=0.006). Conclusion: Our results suggest that specific combinations of variants in genes from the same signaling pathway can define an HIV-1 resistant phenotype. Despite our small sample size, our statistically significant associations suggest strong effects; however, these results should be further validated in larger cohorts.


ABSTRACT Introducción. Algunas variantes en genes que codifican los correceptores del HIV-1 y sus ligandos se han asociado individualmente a la resistencia natural frente a dicha infección. Sin embargo, su presencia simultánea ha sido poco estudiada. Objetivo. Evaluar la asociación de haplotipos individuales y multilocus en genes que codifican los correceptores virales CCR5 y CCR2 y sus ligandos CCL3 y CCL5 con la resistencia o la propensión a la infección por el HIV-1. Materiales y métodos. Nueve variantes en CCR5-CCR2, dos en CCL3 y dos en CCL5 fueron genotipificadas mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de polimorfismos de longitud de fragmentos de restricción (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-PCR-RFLP) en 35 individuos seropositivos (casos) y 49 seronegativos expuestos (controles) de Colombia. Los haplotipos se infirieron utilizando el programa Arlequín, y su frecuencia individual o combinada se comparó en los casos y los controles mediante la prueba de ji al cuadrado. Se consideró significativo un valor de p'<0,05 después de la corrección de Bonferroni. Resultados. La homocigosis del haplogrupo humano (HH) E estaba ausente en los controles y era frecuente en los casos, es decir, con tendencia hacia la propensión. Los haplotipos C-C y T-T en CCL3 se asociaron con la propensión (p'=0,016) y la resistencia (p'<0,0001), respectivamente. Por último, en el análisis multilocus, el haplotipo combinado formado por HHC en CCR5-CCR2, T-T en CCL3 y G-C en CCL5 se asoció con la resistencia (p'=0,006). Conclusión. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que ciertas combinaciones específicas de variantes en los genes de una misma vía de señalización pueden definir un fenotipo resistente al HIV-1. Aunque el tamaño de la muestra era pequeño, las asociaciones estadísticamente significativas sugieren un efecto considerable; sin embargo, estos resultados deben validarse en cohortes de mayor tamaño.

17.
Biomedica ; 37(2): 267-273, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527291

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Variants in genes encoding for HIV-1 co-receptors and their natural ligands have been individually associated to natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. However, the simultaneous presence of these variants has been poorly studied. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of single and multilocus haplotypes in genes coding for the viral co-receptors CCR5 and CCR2, and their ligands CCL3 and CCL5, with resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine variants in CCR5-CCR2, two SNPs in CCL3 and two in CCL5 were genotyped by PCR-RFLP in 35 seropositive (cases) and 49 HIV-1-exposed seronegative Colombian individuals (controls). Haplotypes were inferred using the Arlequin software, and their frequency in individual or combined loci was compared between cases and controls by the chi-square test. A p' value ;0.05 after Bonferroni correction was considered significant. RESULTS: Homozygosis of the human haplogroup (HH) E was absent in controls and frequent in cases, showing a tendency to susceptibility. The haplotypes C-C and T-T in CCL3 were associated with susceptibility (p'=0.016) and resistance (p';0.0001) to HIV-1 infection, respectively. Finally, in multilocus analysis, the haplotype combinations formed by HHC in CCR5-CCR2, T-T in CCL3 and G-C in CCL5 were associated with resistance (p'=0.006). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that specific combinations of variants in genes from the same signaling pathway can define an HIV-1 resistant phenotype. Despite our small sample size, our statistically significant associations suggest strong effects; however, these results should be further validated in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Haplótipos/genética , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores CCR5/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Colômbia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV-1/química , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia
18.
Rev Med Chil ; 145(2): 219-229, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453589

RESUMO

HIV infection induces alterations in almost all immune cell populations, mainly in CD4+ T cells, leading to the development of opportunistic infections. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) constitutes the most important site for viral replication, because the main target cells, memory T-cells, reside in this tissue. It is currently known that alterations in GALT are critical during the course of the infection, as HIV-1 induces loss of tissue integrity and promotes translocation of microbial products from the intestinal lumen to the systemic circulation, leading to a persistent immune activation state and immune exhaustion. Although antiretroviral treatment decreases viral load and substantially improves the prognosis of the infection, the alterations in GALT remains, having a great impact on the ability to establish effective immune responses. This emphasizes the importance of developing new therapeutic alternatives that may promote structural and functional integrity of this tissue. In this regard, therapy with probiotics/prebiotics has beneficial effects in GALT, mainly in syndromes characterized by intestinal dysbiosis, including the HIV-1 infection. In these patients, the consumption of probiotics/prebiotics decreased microbial products in plasma and CD4+ T cell activation, increased CD4+ T cell frequency, in particular Th17, and improved the intestinal flora. In this review, the most important findings on the potential impact of the probiotics/prebiotics therapy are discussed.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Infecções por HIV/dietoterapia , Tecido Linfoide/virologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Tecido Linfoide/metabolismo , Carga Viral
19.
Front Immunol ; 8: 136, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28243241

RESUMO

Natural resistance to HIV-1 infection is influenced by genetics, viral-exposure, and endogenous immunomodulators such as vitamin D (VitD), being a multifactorial phenomenon that characterizes HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs). We compared mRNA expression of 10 antivirals, 5 immunoregulators, and 3 VitD pathway genes by qRT-PCR in cells of a small cohort of 11 HESNs, 16 healthy-controls (HCs), and 11 seropositives (SPs) at baseline, in response to calcidiol (VitD precursor) and/or aldithriol-2-(AT2)-inactivated HIV-1. In addition, the expression of TIM-3 on T and NK cells of six HCs after calcidiol and calcitriol (active VitD) treatments was evaluated by flow cytometry. Calcidiol increased the mRNA expression of HAVCR2 (TIM-3; Th1-cells inhibitor) in HCs and HESNs. AT2-HIV-1 increased the mRNA expression of the activating VitD enzyme CYP27B1, of the endogenous antiviral proteins MX2, TRIM22, APOBEC3G, and of immunoregulators ERAP2 and HAVCR2, but reduced the mRNA expression of VitD receptor (VDR) and antiviral peptides PI3 and CAMP in all groups. Remarkably, higher mRNA levels of VDR, CYP27B1, PI3, CAMP, SLPI, and of ERAP2 were found in HESNs compared to HCs either at baseline or after stimuli. Furthermore, calcitriol increases the percentage of CD4+ T cells expressing TIM-3 protein compared to EtOH controls. These results suggest that high mRNA expression of antiviral and VitD pathway genes could be genetically determined in HESNs more than viral-induced at least in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, the virus could potentiate bio-activation and use of VitD, maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. Interestingly, VitD-induced TIM-3 on T cells, a T cell inhibitory and anti-HIV-1 molecule, requires further studies to analyze the functional outcomes during HIV-1 infection.

20.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 29(3): 93-103, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D (VitD) is an anti-inflammatory hormone; however, some evidence shows that VitD may induce the expression of activation markers, such as CD38 and HLA-DR. We explored its effect on the expression of these markers on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in vitro, and their potential correlations in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CD38 and HLA-DR expression was measured by flow cytometry in PHA/IL-2-activated mononuclear cells cultured under VitD precursors: three cholecalciferol (10-11M, 10-9M, 10-7M; n=11) and two calcidiol (40 ng/mL, 80 ng/mL; n=9) concentrations. The correlation between the expression of these markers in freshly isolated blood cells and serum levels of calcidiol was also explored (n=10). RESULTS: Cholecalciferol at 10-7M increased the proportion of CD4+ CD38+ and CD8+ CD38+ cells, and decreased CD8+HLA-DR+ cells. As co-expression, it increased the CD38+HLA-DR- and decreased CD38-HLA-DR+ subpopulations in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and decreased CD4+CD38-HLA-DR- and CD8+ CD38+HLA-DR+; whereas both calcidiol concentrations decreased the proliferation of CD38-HLA-DR- and CD38-HLA-DR+ subpopulations. Both forms of VitD increased the number of CD38 molecules per cell. In contrast, there was a positive but non-significant correlation between serum calcidiol levels and the expression of CD38 and HLA-DR in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. CONCLUSION: Although no significant correlations were observed in vivo in healthy subjects, VitD treatment in vitro modulated immune activation by increasing the expression of CD38 and decreasing the proliferation of HLA-DR+ and resting cells, which may correlate with improved effector and decreased proliferative capabilities. These results highlight the potential use of VitD as therapeutic strategy in immune disorders.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Técnicas In Vitro , Ativação Linfocitária , Vitaminas/farmacologia
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