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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(18): 10043-10055, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338267

RESUMO

Despite decades of investigation, mechanistic details of aqueous permanganate photo-decomposition remain unclear. Here we follow photoinduced dynamics of aqueous permanganate with femtosecond spectroscopy. Photoexcitation of KMnO4(aq) in the visible unleashes a sub-picosecond cascade of non-radiative transitions, leading to a distinct species which relaxes to S0 with a lifetime of 16 ps. Tuning excitation to the UV shows increasing formation of a metastable intermediate, which outlives our ∼1 ns window of detection. Guided by electronic structure calculations and observations from three pulse excitation experiments, we assign the 16 ps species as the lowest Jahn-Teller component of the 3T1 triplet state and suggest a plausible sequence of radiationless transitions, which rapidly populate it. In conjunction with photodecomposition quantum yields obtained from the literature, these results demonstrate that aqueous permanganate photo-decomposition proceeds through a long-lived intermediate which is formed in parallel to the triplet in less than one ps upon UV absorption. The possibility that this is the postulated highly oxidative peroxo species, a fraction of which leads to the stable (MnO2- + O2) fragments, is discussed. Finally, periodic modulations detected in the pump-probe signal are assigned to ground-state vibrational coherences excited by impulsive Raman. Their wavelength-dependent absolute phases outline the borders between adjacent electronic transitions in the linear spectrum of permanganate.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(10): 2341-2348, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002253

RESUMO

The conjecture that, as in bulk semiconductors, hot multiexcitons in nanocrystals cool rapidly to the lowest available energy levels is tested here by recording the effects of a single cold "spectator" exciton on the relaxation dynamics of a subsequently deposited hot counterpart. Results in CdSe/CdS nanodots show that a preexisting cold "spectator exciton" allows only half of the photoexcited electrons to relax directly to the band-edge. The rest are blocked in an excited quantum state due to conflicts in spin orientation. The latter fully relax in this sample only after ∼25 ps as the blocked electrons spins flip, prolonging the temporal window of opportunity for harvesting the retained energy more than 100 fold! Common to all quantum-confined nanocrystals, this process will delay cooling and impact the spectroscopic signatures of hot multiexcitons in all envisioned generation scenarios. How the spin-flipping rate scales with particle size and temperature remains to be determined.

3.
Chemistry ; 24(46): 12084-12092, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048017

RESUMO

By comparing two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) and Pump-Probe (PP) measurements on xanthorhodopsin (XR) and reduced-xanthorhodopsin (RXR) complexes, the ultrafast carotenoid-to-retinal energy transfer pathway is revealed, at very early times, by an excess of signal amplitude at the associated cross-peak and by the carotenoid bleaching reduction due to its ground state recovery. The combination of the measured 2DES and PP spectroscopic data with theoretical modelling allows a clear identification of the main experimental signals and a comprehensive interpretation of their origin and dynamics. The remarkable velocity of the energy transfer, despite the non-negligible energy separation between the two chromophores, and the analysis of the underlying transport mechanism, highlight the role played by the ground state carotenoid vibrations in assisting the process.

4.
ACS Nano ; 12(6): 5719-5725, 2018 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727155

RESUMO

Due to the sizable refractive index of lead halide perovskites, reflectivity off their interface with air exceeds 15%. This has prompted a number of investigations into the prominence of photoreflective contributions to pump-probe data in these materials, with conflicting results. Here we report experiments aimed at assessing this by comparing transient transmission from lead halide perovskite films and weakly quantum confined nanocrystals of cesium lead iodide (CsPbI3) perovskite. By analyzing how complex refractive index changes impact the two experiments, results demonstrate that changes in absorption and not reflection dominate transient transmission measurements in thin films of these materials. None of the characteristic spectral signatures reported in such experiments are exclusively due to or even strongly affected by changes in sample reflectivity. This finding is upheld by another experiment where a methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite film was formed on high-index flint glass and probed after pump irradiation from either face of the sample. We conclude that interpretations of ultrafast pump-probe experiments on thin perovskite films in terms of photoinduced changes in absorption alone are qualitatively sound, requiring relatively minor adjustments to factor in photoreflective effects.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(50): 18262-18270, 2017 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172490

RESUMO

Sub-10 fs resolution pump-probe experiments on methylammonium lead halide perovskite films are described. Initial response to photoexcitation is assigned to localized hot excitons which dissociate to free carriers. This is attested to by band integrals of the pump-probe spectra where photoinduced bleaching rises abruptly 20 fs after photoexcitation. Later stages of spectral evolution are consistent with hot carrier cooling, during which state filling induced bleaching of interband and exciton transitions curiously more than doubles. Electron coupling to optical phonons is observed as periodic spectral modulations in the pump-probe data of both films. Fourier analysis identifies active phonons at ∼100 and 300 wavenumbers pertaining to the lead-halide framework and organic cation motions, respectively. Coupling strengths estimated from the depth of these modulations are in the weak coupling limit, in agreement with values extracted from temperature dependent emission line shape analysis. These findings support free carriers in these materials existing as large polarons. Accordingly, these modes are probably not dictating the moderate carrier mobility in this material.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(8): 1920-1924, 2017 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28388046

RESUMO

Impulsive Raman excitation in neat organic liquids far from resonance is followed using chirped broad-band supercontinuum probe pulses. Spectral modulations due to impulsively induced coherent vibrations vary in intensity 10-fold as a function of the probe's linear chirp. Simulations clarify why the vibrational signature is maximized for a group delay dispersion (GDD) in reduced units of νvib-2 = 0.5 while a probe GDD of twice that quenches the same spectral modulations. Accordingly, recent claims that chirped white-light probe pulses provide equivalent information on material response to their compressed analogues must be taken with caution. In particular, interactions that induce spectral shifts in the probe depend crucially on the arrival chronology of the continuum colors. On one hand, this presents limitations to application of chirped continuum radiation as-is in pump-probe experiments. It also presents the opportunity for using this dependence to control the relative amplitude of nonresonant interactions in pump-probe signals such as that of solvent vibrations.

7.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(9): 1962-1975, 2017 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28182435

RESUMO

Formation of benzene excimer following UV excitation of the neat liquid is monitored with femtosecond spectroscopy. A prompt rise component in excimer transient absorption, which contradicts the classical scenario of gradual reorientation and pairing of the excited monomers, is observed. Three-pulse experiments in which the population of evolving excimers is depleted by a secondary dump pulse demonstrate that the excimer absorption band is polarized along the interfragment axis. The experiments furthermore prove that the subsequent 4-fold increase in excimer absorption over ∼50 ps is primarily due to an increase in the transition dipole of pairs which are formed early on, and not to excited monomers forming excimers in a delayed fashion due to unfavorable initial geometry. Results are analyzed in light of recent studies of local structure in the liquid benzene combined with advanced electronic structure calculations. The prompt absorption rise is ascribed to excited states delocalized over nearby benzene molecules, which are sufficiently close and nearly parallel in the pure liquid. Such low-symmetry structures, which differ considerably from the optimized structures of isolated benzene dimer and solid benzene, are sufficiently abundant in liquid benzene. Electronic structure calculations confirm the orientation of transition dipoles of the excimers along the interparticle axis and demonstrate how slow refinement of the intermolecular geometry leads to a significant increase in the excimer absorption strength.

8.
J Phys Chem B ; 121(10): 2319-2325, 2017 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28230358

RESUMO

Ultrafast photochemistry of pharaonis halorhodopsin (p-HR) in the intact membrane of Natronomonas pharaonis has been studied by photoselective femtosecond pump-hyperspectral probe spectroscopy with high time resolution. Two variants of this sample were studied, one with wild-type retinal prosthetic groups and another after shifting the retinal absorption deep into the blue range by reducing the Schiff base linkage, and the results were compared to a previous study on detergent-solubilized p-HR. This comparison shows that retinal photoisomerization dynamics is identical in the membrane and in the solubilized sample. Selective photoexcitation of bacterioruberin, which is associated with the protein in the native membrane, in wild-type and reduced samples, demonstrates conclusively that unlike the carotenoids associated with some bacterial retinal proteins the carrotenoid in p-HR does not act as a light-harvesting antenna.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/efeitos da radiação , Halorrodopsinas/efeitos da radiação , Carotenoides/química , Membrana Celular/química , Halobacteriaceae , Halorrodopsinas/química , Luz , Fotoquímica , Retinaldeído/química , Retinaldeído/efeitos da radiação
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(38): 12401-7, 2016 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27575402

RESUMO

Primary photochemical events in the unusually thermostable proton pumping rhodopsin of Thermus thermophilus bacterium (TR) are reported for the first time. Internal conversion in this protein is shown to be significantly faster than in bacteriorhodopsin (BR), making it the most rapidly isomerizing microbial proton pump known. Internal conversion (IC) dynamics of TR and BR were recorded from room temperature to the verge of thermal denaturation at 70 °C and found to be totally independent of temperature in this range. This included the well documented multiexponential nature of IC in BR, suggesting that assignment of this to ground state structural inhomogeneity needs revision. TR photodynamics were also compared with that of the phylogenetically more similar proton pump Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR). Despite this similarity GR has poor thermal stability, and the excited state decays significantly more slowly and exhibits very prominent stretched exponential behavior. Coherent torsional wave-packets induced by impulsive photoexcitation of TR and GR show marked resemblance to each other in frequency and amplitude and differ strikingly from similar signatures in pump-probe data of BR and other microbial retinal proteins. Possible correlations between IC rates and thermal stability and the promise of using torsional coherence signatures for understanding chromophore protein binding in microbial retinal proteins are discussed.


Assuntos
Bacteriorodopsinas/metabolismo , Processos Fotoquímicos , Bombas de Próton/química , Thermus thermophilus/metabolismo , Bacteriorodopsinas/genética , Bombas de Próton/metabolismo , Temperatura , Thermus thermophilus/química
10.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(19): 2941-2, 2016 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27193089
11.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(19): 3088-97, 2016 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26720008

RESUMO

The effect of Cu impurities on the absorption cross section, the rate of hot exction thermalization, and on exciton recombination processes in InAs quantum dots was studied by femtosecond transient absorption. Our findings reveal dynamic spectral effects of an emergent impurity sub-band near the bottom of the conduction band. Previously hypothesized to explain static photophysical properties of this system, its presence is shown to shorten hot carrier relaxation. Partial redistribution of interband oscillator strength to sub-band levels reduces the band edge bleach per exciton progressively with the degree of doping, even though the total linear absorption cross section at the band edge remains unchanged. In contrast, no doping effects were detected on absorption cross sections high in the conduction band, as expected due to the relatively high density of sates of the undoped QDs.

12.
ACS Nano ; 9(2): 2138-47, 2015 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25629237

RESUMO

Above band-edge photoexcitation of PbSe nanocrystals induces strong below band gap absorption as well as a multiphased buildup of bleaching in the 1Se1Sh transition. The amplitudes and kinetics of these features deviate from expectations based on biexciton shifts and state filling, which are the mechanisms usually evoked to explain them. To clarify these discrepancies, the same transitions are investigated here by double-pump-probe spectroscopy. Re-exciting in the below band gap induced absorption characteristic of hot excitons is shown to produce additional excitons with high probability. In addition, pump-probe experiments on a sample saturated with single relaxed excitons prove that the resulting 1Se1Sh bleach is not linear with the number of excitons per nanocrystal. This finding holds for two samples differing significantly in size, demonstrating its generality. Analysis of the results suggests that below band edge induced absorption in hot exciton states is due to excited-state absorption and not to shifted absorption of cold carriers and that 1Se1Sh bleach signals are not an accurate counter of sample excitons when their distribution includes multiexciton states.

13.
J Phys Chem B ; 119(6): 2345-9, 2015 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25144664

RESUMO

The retinal proton pump xanthorhodopsin (XR) was recently found to function with an attached carotenoid light harvesting antenna, salinixanthin (SX). It is intriguing to discover if this departure from single chromophore architecture is singular or if it has been adopted by other microbial rhodopsins. In search of other cases, retinal protein encoding genes in numerous bacteria have been identified containing sequences corresponding to carotenoid binding sites like that in XR. Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR), exhibiting particularly close homology to XR, has been shown to attach SX, and fluorescence measurements suggest SX can function as a light harvesting (LH) antenna in GR as well. In this study, we test this suggestion in real time using ultrafast transient absorption. Results show that energy transfer indeed occurs from S2 of SX to retinal in the GR-SX composite with an efficiency of ∼40%, even higher than that in XR. This validates the earlier fluorescence study, and supports the notion that many microbial retinal proteins use carotenoid antennae to harvest light.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/química , Cianobactérias , Transferência de Energia , Glicosídeos/química , Retinaldeído/química , Rodopsinas Microbianas/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Cinética , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Rodopsinas Microbianas/metabolismo
14.
J Phys Chem B ; 118(30): 8995-9006, 2014 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25003828

RESUMO

Microbial rhodopsins are photoactive proteins, and their binding site can accommodate either all-trans or 13-cis retinal chromophore. The pH dependence of isomeric composition, dark-adaptation rate, and primary events of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR), a microbial rhodopsin discovered a decade ago, are presented. The main findings are: (a) Two pKa values of 6.5 and 4.0 assigned to two different protein residues are observed using spectroscopic titration experiments for both ground-state retinal isomers: all-trans, 15-anti (AT) and 13-cis, 15-syn (13C). The protonation states of these protein residues affect the absorption spectrum of the pigment and most probably the isomerization process of the retinal chromophore. An additional pKa value of 8.5 is observed only for 13C-ASR. (b) The isomeric composition of ASR is determined over a wide pH range and found to be almost pH-independent in the dark (>96% AT isomer) but highly pH-dependent in the light-adapted form. (c) The kinetics of dark adaptation is recorded over a wide pH range, showing that the thermal isomerization from 13C to AT retinal occurs much faster at high pH rather than under acidic conditions. (d) Primary photochemical events of ASR at pH 5 are recorded using VIS hyperspectral pump-probe spectroscopy with <100 fs resolution and compared with the previously recorded results at pH 7.5. For AT-ASR, these are shown to be almost pH-independent. However, photochemistry of 13C-ASR is pH-dependent and slowed down in acidic environments.


Assuntos
Rodopsinas Sensoriais/química , Anabaena , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escuridão , Escherichia coli , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isomerismo , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular , Estimulação Luminosa , Processos Fotoquímicos , Análise Espectral , Temperatura
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1837(5): 589-97, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24099700

RESUMO

Light induced isomerization of the retinal chromophore activates biological function in all retinal protein (RP) driving processes such as ion-pumping, vertebrate vision and phototaxis in organisms as primitive as archea, or as complex as mammals. This process and its consecutive reactions have been the focus of experimental and theoretical research for decades. The aim of this review is to demonstrate how the experimental and theoretical research efforts can now be combined to reach a more comprehensive understanding of the excited state process on the molecular level. Using the Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin as an example we will show how contemporary time-resolved spectroscopy and recently implemented excited state QM/MM methods consistently describe photochemistry in retinal proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinal Proteins - You can teach an old dog new tricks.


Assuntos
Anabaena/química , Fotoquímica/história , Retinaldeído/química , Rodopsinas Sensoriais/química , Anabaena/fisiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Isomerismo , Luz , Modelos Moleculares , Fotoquímica/métodos , Fotoquímica/estatística & dados numéricos , Teoria Quântica , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Rodopsinas Sensoriais/metabolismo , Análise Espectral/métodos , Termodinâmica , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(34): 14487-501, 2013 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23892713

RESUMO

Pump-impulsive vibrational spectroscopy (pump-IVS) is used to record excited state vibrational dynamics following photoexcitation of two carotenoids, ß-carotene and lycopene, with <30 fs temporal resolution, and covering the full vibrational spectrum of the investigated chromophores. The results record the course of S2-S1 internal conversion, followed by vibrational relaxation and decay to the electronic ground state. This interpretation is corroborated by comparison with pump-degenerate-four-wave-mixing (pump-DFWM) experiments on the same systems. The results demonstrate the potential of both time-domain spectroscopic techniques to resolve photochemical dynamics, including fingerprint frequencies which directly reflect changes in bonding and structure in the nascent sample. The exclusive strengths and limitations of these two methods are compared with those presented by the frequency-domain Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Scattering (FSRS) technique, highlighting the complementary nature of the three, and the benefits of using them in concert to investigate vibrational dynamics in reactive species.

17.
Annu Rev Phys Chem ; 64: 437-58, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23331307

RESUMO

The ultrafast spectroscopic investigation of novel retinal proteins challenges existing notions concerning the course of primary events in these natural photoreceptors. We review two illustrations here. The first demonstrates that changes in the initial retinal configuration can alter the duration of photochemistry by nearly an order of magnitude in Anabaena sensory rhodopsin, making it as rapid as the ballistic photoisomerization in visual pigments. This prompted a reinvestigation of the much studied bacteriorhodopsin, leading to a similar trend as well, contrary to earlier reports. The second involves the study of xanthorhodopsin, an archaeal proton pump that includes an attached light-harvesting carotenoid. Pump-probe experiments demonstrate the efficient transfer of energy from carotenoid to retinal, providing a first glimpse at a cooperative multichromophore function, which is probably characteristic of many other proteins as well. Finally, we discuss measures required to advance our knowledge from kinetics to mode-specific dynamics concerning this expanding family of biological photoreceptors.


Assuntos
Archaea/química , Proteínas Arqueais/química , Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Retinaldeído/química , Rodopsinas Microbianas/química , Anabaena/química , Modelos Moleculares , Fotoquímica , Conformação Proteica
18.
J Phys Chem B ; 117(16): 4670-9, 2013 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23140223

RESUMO

Photochemistry of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR), and all-trans retinal protonated Schiff base (RPSB) in ethanol is followed with femtosecond pump-hyperspectral near-IR (NIR) probe spectroscopy. This is the first systematic probing of retinal protein photochemistry in this spectral range. Stimulated emission of the proteins is demonstrated to extend deep into the NIR, and to decay on the same characteristic time scales previously determined by visible probing. No signs of a transient NIR absorption band above λpr > 1.3 µm, which was recently reported and is verified here for the RPSB in solution, is observed in either protein. This discrepancy demonstrates that the protein surroundings change photochemical traits of the chromophore significantly, inducing changes either in the energies or couplings of photochemically relevant electronic excited states. In addition, low-frequency and heavily damped spectral modulations are observed in the NIR signals of all three systems up to 1.4 µm. By background subtraction and Fourier analysis they are shown to resemble wave packet signatures in the visible, stemming from multiple vibrational modes and by analogy are assigned to torsional wave packets in the excited state of the retinal chromophore. Differences in the vibrational frequencies between the three samples and the said discrepancy in transient spectra are discussed in terms of opsin effects on the RPSB electronic structure.


Assuntos
Anabaena/metabolismo , Bacteriorodopsinas/química , Proteínas do Olho/química , Bases de Schiff/química , Rodopsinas Sensoriais/química , Bacteriorodopsinas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Análise de Fourier , Isomerismo , Prótons , Rodopsinas Sensoriais/metabolismo , Soluções/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
19.
ACS Nano ; 6(4): 3269-77, 2012 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22390473

RESUMO

Hyperspectral femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy is employed to record exciton relaxation and recombination in colloidal lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystals in unprecedented detail. Results obtained with different pump wavelengths and fluences are scrutinized with regard to three issues: (1) early subpicosecond spectral features due to "hot" excitons are analyzed in terms of suggested underlying mechanisms; (2) global kinetic analysis facilitates separation of the transient difference spectra into single, double, and triple exciton state contributions, from which individual band assignments can be tested; and (3) the transient spectra are screened for signatures of multiexciton generation (MEG) by comparing experiments with excitation pulses both below and well above the theoretical threshold for multiplication. For the latter, a recently devised ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopic approach is employed. Scaling sample concentrations and pump pulse intensities inversely with the extinction coefficient at each excitation wavelength overcomes ambiguities due to direct multiphoton excitation, uncertainties of absolute absorption cross sections, and low signal levels. As observed in a recent application of this method to InAs core/shell/shell nanodots, no sign of MEG was detected in this sample up to photon energy 3.7 times the band gap. Accordingly, numerous reports of efficient MEG in other samples of PbSe suggest that the efficiency of this process varies from sample to sample and depends on factors yet to be determined.

20.
J Phys Chem B ; 116(35): 10444-52, 2012 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22329764

RESUMO

Femtosecond spectroscopy is used to compare photochemical dynamics in light-adapted and dark-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR). The retinal prosthetic group is initially all-trans in the former, while it is nearly a 1:1 mixture with 13-cis in the latter. Comparing photochemistry in both serves to assess how the initial retinal configuration influences internal conversion and photoisomerization dynamics. Contrary to an earlier study, our results show that after excitation of the 13-cis form it crosses back to the ground state much more rapidly than the biologically active all-trans reactant. A similar result was recently obtained for another microbial retinal protein, Anabaena Sensory Rhodospin (ASR), which can be toggled by light between two analogous ground state configurations. Together, these studies suggest that this disparity in rates may be a general trend in the photochemistry of microbial retinal proteins. This may bear as well on the well-known enhancement in photoisomerization rates going from microbial retinal proteins to the visual pigments, as the latter also start the course of photoreception in a cis retinal configuration, in that case 11-cis. In lieu of indications for pretwisting or straining of the 13-cis retinal forms of BR and ASR, akin to those reported for rhodopsin, current results challenge many of the mechanisms held responsible for the ballistic photochemical dynamics observed in visual pigment.


Assuntos
Bacteriorodopsinas/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/química , Adaptação Ocular , Bacteriorodopsinas/química , Adaptação à Escuridão , Diterpenos , Halobacterium salinarum/metabolismo , Isomerismo , Processos Fotoquímicos
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