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1.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613984

RESUMO

We report a robust room temperature ferroelectric (FE) state in (1 - x)Pb0.99Nb0.02[(Zr0.57Sn0.43)0.933Ti0.067]0.98O3-xZnO ((1 - x)PNZST-xZnO) composites, where PNZST shows a predominant antiferroelectric (AFE) nature due to ZnO-induced internal strain. Upon heating, a FE-AFE transition occurs and generates high pyroelectric performance. The composite with x = 0.1 shows a peak pyroelectric coefficient of p = 2450.7 × 10-4 C m-2 K-1 and figures of merit of current responsivity Fi = 926.9 × 10-10 m V-1, voltage responsivity Fv = 1334.3 × 10-2 m2 C-1, and detectivity Fd = 1194.8 × 10-5 Pa-1/2, which are about two orders of magnitude higher than those of most perovskite pyroelectric oxides. More interestingly, the FE-AFE transition temperature, i.e., the temperature corresponding to peak pyroelectric performance, is tunable in a wide temperature range from 30 °C to 65 °C. This work not only provides a promising material candidate for high performance pyroelectric devices, but also an alternative idea to develop ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties based on antiferroelectric materials.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(11): 2642-2657, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627500

RESUMO

The efficacy of oral Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction was systematically evaluated by network Meta-analysis. The literature search was conducted in three English databases(Medline, EMbase and Cochrane Library) and four Chinese databases(CNKI, VIP, WanFang and SinoMed) from inception to June 2018, and the randomized controlled trials of acute cerebral infarction were screened out according to the pre-set criteria. Two reviewers independently screened out the literature by using pre-specified eligibility criteria, and assessed the quality of included studies according to the risk of bias tool of Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0. Data analysis was conducted by using Stata 13.0 and WinBUGS 1.4.3 software. Finally, 52 RCT were included, involving 11 kinds of oral Chinese patent medicines. The results of the network Meta-analysis showed that in terms of the total effective rate, the order of efficacy was as follows: Naomaitai Capsules>Xiaoshuan Changrong Capsules>Angong Niuhuang Pills>Yangxue Qingnao Granules>Compound Danshen Dripping Pills>Naoxintong Capsules>Tongxinluo Capsules>Naoxueshu Oral Liquid>Zhuyu Tongmai Capsules>Yinxingye Tablets>Compound Danshen Tablets; in terms of neurological deficit scores, the order of efficacy was: Tongxinluo Capsules>Angong Niuhuang Pills>Compound Danshen Dripping Pills>Xiaoshuan Changrong Capsules>Yangxue Qingnao Granules>Zhuyu Tongmai Capsules>Naoxintong Capsules>Naoxueshu Oral Liquid; in terms of Barthel index score, the order of efficacy was: Xiaoshuan Changrong Capsules>Naomaitai Capsules>Naoxueshu Oral Liquid>Angong Niuhuang Pills>Tongxinluo Capsules>Zhuyu Tongmai Capsules. Although different oral Chinese patent medicines can improve these outcomes, the difference in efficacy ranking was relatively large. Because of the small number and low quality of research literature, the conclusion still needs to be proved by multi-center, large-sample, and double-blind randomized trials.

3.
J Food Biochem ; : e13364, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643784

RESUMO

A water-soluble polysaccharide was extracted from wheat bran (WBP) and investigate their structural characteristics and immunostimulatory activities. The chemical composition of WBP and purified fraction (WBP-F) mainly consists of neutral sugars (91.2 ± 1.2 and 98.7 ± 1.2%), proteins (8.6 ± 0.3 and 0.2 ± 0.1%) and uronic acids (0.7 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.1%). The molecular weight (Mw ) of WBP and WBP-F was calculated as 911.7 and 510.2 × 103  g/mol, respectively. The WBP-F stimulates the RAW264.7 cells through the production of nitric oxide and various cytokines. The treatment of WBP-F facilitated the phosphorylation of P38, JNK, ERK, and NF-ƘB in RAW264.7 cells suggesting that they might stimulate RAW264.7 cells through the activation of NF-ƙB and MAPKs pathways. Furthermore, the structural details of WBP-F were studied by GC-MS and NMR spectrum, which confirms that the main backbone consists of 4-α-D-linked glucopyranosyl residues with branching points at C-6. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Wheat bran is a potential source of health-promoting compounds. It has been reported that polysaccharides of wheat bran containing numerous beneficial activities. In this study, the wheat bran polysaccharide was extracted, fractionated and investigated their immunostimulatory activities. The results found in this study revealed that the purified polysaccharide from wheat bran potentially enhanced the RAW264.7 cells activation. Hence, these polysaccharides could be utilized as a potent immunity-enhancing agent in food and pharmaceutical industries.

4.
Science ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616671

RESUMO

Versatile chemical transformations of surface functional groups in 2D transition-metal carbides (MXenes) open up a new design space for this broad class of functional materials. We introduce a general strategy to install and remove surface groups by performing substitution and elimination reactions in molten inorganic salts. Successful synthesis of MXenes with O, NH, S, Cl, Se, Br, and Te surface terminations, as well as bare MXenes (no surface termination) was demonstrated. These MXenes show distinctive structural and electronic properties. For example, the surface groups control interatomic distances in the MXene lattice, and Ti n +1C n (n = 1, 2) MXenes terminated with Te2- ligands show a giant, (>18%) in-plane lattice expansion compared to the bulk TiC lattice. Nb2C MXenes exhibited surface-group-dependent superconductivity.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(9): 2210-2220, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495573

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the selection situation of outcome indexes in randomized controlled trials of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and to provide suggestions for future research. In this study, four Chinese databases and three English databases were searched from January 2017 to June 2019. The randomized controlled trials of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of ischemic stroke were selected according to the pre-established selection criteria. Cochrane bias risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. A total of 20 651 related articles were searched, and 11 662 ones were left after eliminating the repetitions. Finally, 42 articles were included, including 36 articles in Chinese and 6 articles in English, 40 randomized controlled trials and 2 registration schemes of randomized controlled trials. The results showed that the outcome indexes of 42 randomized controlled trials were mainly divided into seven categories, that is clinical outcome index, blood biochemical index, mental state evaluation index, cerebral hemodynamics index, index of evaluating the degree of carotid artery stenosis, safety indicators and other indicators. The blood biochemical index was the one with highest frequency, followed by the clinical outcome index. TCM syndrome score was used as an indicator of curative outcome in 17 studies. After the analysis, it was found that there were many problems in selecting the outcome indexes for the randomized controlled trials of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of cerebral apoplexy. For example, the end point index and hard index were rarely selected as the main outcome indicators, and the vast majority of them were intermediate alternative indexes; recognized curative effect could not be obtained; there were too many kinds of outcome indicators and excessive heterogeneity, hindering the promotion of superior treatment measures of traditional Chinese medicine in clinical practice. Therefore, we should draw lessons from the establishment method of the international core index outcome index set, construct the core index outcome index set of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of ischemic stroke, and develop the outcome index set which accords with the curative effect characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine treatment mea-sures to solve the problems effectively.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20631, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502043

RESUMO

This retrospective study aimed to explore the benefits and safety of probiotics (live combined Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium granules with multivitamines) for the treatment of children with antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD).A total of 72 children with AAD were analyzed in this study. Of these, 36 children received routine treatment plus probiotics, and were assigned to a treatment group. The other 36 children underwent routine treatment alone, and were assigned to a control group. Patients in both groups were treated for a total of 7 days. The efficacy and safety were evaluated by duration of diarrhea (days), number of dressings needed daily, abdominal pain intensity, stool consistency (as assessed by Bristol Stool Scale (BSS)), and any adverse events.After treatment, probiotics showed encouraging benefits in decreasing duration of diarrhea (days) (P < .01), number of dressings needed every day (P < .01), abdominal pain intensity (P < .01), and stool consistency (BSS (3-5), P < .01; BSS (6-7), P < .01). In addition, no adverse events were documented in this study.The findings of this study demonstrated that probiotics may provide promising benefit for children with AAD. Further studies are still needed to warrant theses findings.


Assuntos
Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterococcus faecium/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Probióticos/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Asian J Androl ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567578

RESUMO

Slow freezing is the most commonly used technique for the cryopreservation of spermatozoa in clinical practice. However, it has been shown to have a negative impact on sperm function and structure. Vitrification as a successful alternative method has been proved to have better protective effects on human embryos, but vitrification of spermatozoa is still subject to low recovery rates. In this study, a modified vitrification method for native spermatozoa was developed. A total of 28 semen samples were included; each sample was divided into three equal parts and assigned to fresh, slow freezing, and vitrification groups. Sperm vitality, motility, morphology, DNA integrity, and acrosome reaction were assessed for each of the groups. The results showed that vitrification achieves better results for several sperm protection parameters than slow freezing; vitrification achieves a higher recovery rate (P < 0.05), motility (P <0.05), morphology (P <0.05), and curve line velocity (P <0.05) than slow freezing. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation was decreased (P <0.05) and better acrosome protection (P <0.05) was exhibited in the spermatozoa after vitrification. Principal component analysis of all sperm parameters revealed that the vitrification cluster was closer to the fresh cluster, indicating that spermatozoa are better preserved through vitrification. In conclusion, while both slow freezing and vitrification have negative effects on sperm function and structure, the vitrification protocol described here had a relatively better recovery rate (65.8%) and showed improved preservation of several sperm quality parameters compared with slow freezing.

8.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 18(1): 46, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 appear to oppose each other during the process of bone formation, whereas few studies exist on the interaction between CNP and FGF-23. The main objective of the present study is to probe whether CNP is directly responsible for the regulation of osteoblast or via antagonizing FGF-23. METHODS: Osteoblasts were cultured in the absence or presence of CNP (0, 10, and 100 pmol/L) for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. RESULTS: The findings of the present study indicated that: (1) CNP significantly stimulated osteoblastic proliferation and collagen (Col)-X expression; (2) both osteoblastic (osteocalcin, procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide, total alkaline phosphatase and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) and osteolytic (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen) bone turnover biomarkers were up-regulated by CNP in osteoblasts; (3) FGF-23 mRNA and protein were significantly down-regulated at 24 h by CNP in osteoblasts, but the expression of FGF receptor-1/Klotho had no significant change. CONCLUSIONS: CNP stimulates osteoblastic proliferation and Col-X expression via the down-regulation of FGF-23 possibly in vitro. However, the specific mechanisms of the interaction between CNP and FGF-23 in osteoblasts are still unclear according to our findings. A further study on osteoblasts cultured with CNP and FGF-23 inhibitor will be undertaken in our laboratory.

9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 60, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355263

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is one of the most common countermeasures for treating a wide range of tumors. However, the radioresistance of cancer cells is still a major limitation for radiotherapy applications. Efforts are continuously ongoing to explore sensitizing targets and develop radiosensitizers for improving the outcomes of radiotherapy. DNA double-strand breaks are the most lethal lesions induced by ionizing radiation and can trigger a series of cellular DNA damage responses (DDRs), including those helping cells recover from radiation injuries, such as the activation of DNA damage sensing and early transduction pathways, cell cycle arrest, and DNA repair. Obviously, these protective DDRs confer tumor radioresistance. Targeting DDR signaling pathways has become an attractive strategy for overcoming tumor radioresistance, and some important advances and breakthroughs have already been achieved in recent years. On the basis of comprehensively reviewing the DDR signal pathways, we provide an update on the novel and promising druggable targets emerging from DDR pathways that can be exploited for radiosensitization. We further discuss recent advances identified from preclinical studies, current clinical trials, and clinical application of chemical inhibitors targeting key DDR proteins, including DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit), ATM/ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related), the MRN (MRE11-RAD50-NBS1) complex, the PARP (poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase) family, MDC1, Wee1, LIG4 (ligase IV), CDK1, BRCA1 (BRCA1 C terminal), CHK1, and HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1). Challenges for ionizing radiation-induced signal transduction and targeted therapy are also discussed based on recent achievements in the biological field of radiotherapy.

10.
Complement Ther Med ; 50: 102392, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This bibliometric study aimed to systematically and comprehensively summarize the volume, breadth and evidence for clinical research on Qigong. And this bibliometric analysis also can provide the evidence of this field. DESIGN: Bibliometric analysis. METHODS: All types of primary and secondary studies on humans were included: systematic reviews, randomized clinical trials, non-randomized controlled clinical studies, case series and case reports. Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database, PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched from the date of inception to December 10, 2018. Bibliometric information, such as publication information, disease/condition, Qigong intervention and research results were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 886 clinical studies were identified: including 47 systematic reviews, 705 randomized clinical trials, 116 non-randomized controlled clinical studies, 12 case series and 6 case reports. The studies were conducted in 14 countries. The top 15 diseases/conditions studied were: diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, stroke, cervical spondylosis, lumbar disc herniation, insomnia, knee osteoarthritis, low back pain, and osteoporosis, Coronary heart disease, breast cancer, periarthritis of shoulder, depression, metabolic syndrome. Of the various Qigong exercises reported in these 886 clinical studies, Ba Duan Jin was the most frequently researched in 492 (55.5%) studies, followed by Health Qigong 107 (12.1%), Dao Yin Shu 85 (9.6%), Wu Qin Xi 67 (7.6%) and Yi Jin Jing 66 (7.4%). The most frequently used comparisons in randomized trials were maintaining normal way of life unchanged 149 (18.1%), the remaining controls included conventional treatment, mainly western medicine, Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, health education, psychological therapy, Yoga, Tai Chi and other non-drug therapy. The most frequently reported outcomes were physical function, quality of life, symptoms, pain and mental health indicators. Beneficial results from practicing Qigong were reported in 97% of studies. CONCLUSIONS: Qigong research publications have been increasing gradually. Reports on study types, participants, Qigong Intervention, and outcomes are diverse and inconsistent. There is an urgent need to develop a set of reporting standards for various interventions of Qigong. Further trials of high methodological quality with sufficient sample size and real world studies are needed to verify the effects of Qigong in health and disease management.

11.
Int Ophthalmol ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462561

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor R406 on diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic mellitus (DM) rats. METHODS: Rats were randomized into Normal, DM, DM + 5 mg/kg R406 and DM + 10 mg/kg R406 groups. DM rats were established via injection of streptozotocin (STZ). One week after model establishment, rats in treatment groups received 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg R406 by gavage administration for 12 weeks consecutively, followed by the detection with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, Evans blue angiography, retinal trypsin digestion assay, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, TUNEL assay, immunofluorescence assay and quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: The retina of DM rats presented different degree of edema, disordered and loose structure, swollen cells with enlarged intercellular space, and dilated and congested capillaries. Besides, the retinal vessels of DM rats showed high fluorescence leakage. However, R406 alleviated the above-mentioned conditions, which was much better with high concentration of R406 (10 mg/kg). R406 also reversed the down-regulations of occludin, claudin-5, ZO-1 and the up-regulation of and VEGF in retinal tissues of DM rats; inhibited retinal cell apoptosis; strengthened retinal cell proliferation; and reduced expressions of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and nuclear p65 NF-κB in retinal tissues. The improvement in all these indexes was much more significant in rats of DM + 10 mg/kg R406 group than in rats of DM + 5 mg/kg R406 group. CONCLUSION: Syk inhibitor R406 could attenuate retinal inflammation in DR rats via the repression of NF-κB activation.

13.
Nurs Health Sci ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462790

RESUMO

This study aimed to translate the Perspectives on Caring for Older Patients scale into Chinese, both the full and the shortened versions, and test its psychometric properties among Chinese nursing students. In this methodological research, the scale were translated and administered to 307 nursing students recruited from two universities in mainland China. The psychometric testing mainly included internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alphas, 2-week test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient, convergent validity with Kogan's Attitude toward Older People scale, and factorial validity using exploratory factor analysis. Cronbach's alphas for the full and the shortened version scales were 0.77 and 0.75, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient values of both versions exceeded 0.70 and their scores were moderately correlated with the Kogan's Attitude toward Older People scale's scores. While exploratory factor analyses revealed a six-factor structure for the full version with factor loadings of five items below 0.3, the shortened version identified two factors with all factor loadings above 0.3. This study concluded that the psychometric properties of the full version scale were adequate and similar to those of the shortened version except for factorial validity.

14.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; : 1-5, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314619

RESUMO

Objective: To study the metabolic derangements in the second half of pregnancy caused by gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM), on the short term neurodevelopment of infants.Design: A prospective cohort study of 555 mother-child pairs were recruited, which included 177 GDM patients and 378 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance as controls. Clinical and demographic characteristics were obtained at enrollment, birth and follow-up. Neurodevelopment was examined with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development V.1 mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI). Fatty acids (FA) were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS).Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and triglyceride (TG). The scores of MDI and PDI of control group were higher than those of GDM group. The regression analysis showed that maternal age and saturated fatty acid (SFA) were independently associated with lower scores on the MDI whereas gestational age and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were associated with higher scores; in addition, lower scores on the PDI were associated with FPG and neonatal weigh associated with higher scores.Conclusion: SFA, DHA and FPG as indicators of lipid metabolism were associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 year in offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Control the level of blood glucose and lipid during pregnancy and the appropriate supplementation of DHA during pregnancy in the second half of pregnancy may be beneficial to the neurodevelopment of infants.

15.
Mol Brain ; 13(1): 63, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321555

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is a secondary response following ischemia stroke. Arginine is a non-essential amino acid that has been shown to inhibit acute inflammatory reaction. In this study we show that arginine treatment decreases neuronal death after rat cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and improves functional recovery of stroke animals. We also show that arginine suppresses inflammatory response in the ischemic brain tissue and in the cultured microglia after OGD insult. We further provide evidence that the levels of HIF-1α and LDHA are increased after rat I/R injury and that arginine treatment prevents the elevation of HIF-1α and LDHA after I/R injury. Arginine inhibits inflammatory response through suppression of HIF-1α and LDHA in the rat ischemic brain tissue and in the cultured microglia following OGD insult, and protects against ischemic neuron death after rat I/R injury by attenuating HIF-1α/LDHA-mediated inflammatory response. Together, these results indicate a possibility that arginine-induced neuroprotective effect may be through the suppression of HIF-1α/LDHA-mediated inflammatory response in microglia after cerebral ischemia injury.

16.
Ther Apher Dial ; 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306556

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics and treatment of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). The clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, differential diagnoses, therapeutic methods, and prognosis of 55 patients with acquired TTP were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 55 TTP patients, 17 were males and 38 were females, with a mean age of 40 ± 15 years. Twenty-one patients had the Triad syndrome, which included neurological syndromes, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Twenty-three patients had the Quinary syndrome, which included fever, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal insufficiency, and neurological symptoms. Twenty-eight patients received the measurement for a disintegrin and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) activity and 23 patients had <10% of the normal range. ADAMTS13 inhibitor was tested in 20 patients and was positive in 18 patients. Both ADAMTS13 activity and ADAMTS13 inhibitor were examined in 20 patients and 90% of the patients showed double positive results. The treatment methods included plasma exchange, glucocorticoids, rituximab, immunosuppressants, and intravenous immunoglobulin. Thirty-three patients survived, and 22 patients died. Plasma exchange improved the remission rate from 16.7% to 65.3% (P = .022). The combined immunosuppressive therapy based on plasma exchange and glucocorticoids raised the remission rate from 43.8% to 75.8%. Most of acquired TTP patients had the Triad syndrome or the Quinary syndrome. A high proportion of TTP patients had ADAMTS13 activity reduction and ADAMTS13 inhibitor positivity. Plasma exchange and immunosuppressive therapy may improve the prognosis of this disease.

17.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325708

RESUMO

The study investigated the protective effect of walnut oligopeptides (WOPs) against ethanol-induced gastric injury using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats were randomly divided into seven groups based on body weight (10/group), normal group, ethanol group, whey protein group (220 mg/kg body weight), omeprazole group (20 mg/kg body weight), and three WOPs groups (220, 440, 880 mg/kg body weight). After 30 days of treatment with WOPs, rats were given 5 ml/kg absolute ethanol by gavage to induce gastric mucosal injury. Gastric ulcer index (GUI) were determined and the following measured; gastric content pH, gastric mucin, endogenous pepsinogens (PG), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress indicators, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins were measured to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of WOPs. The results showed that the administration with WOPs markedly mitigated the hemorrhagic gastric lesions caused by ethanol in rats, and decreased the GUI, the gastric content pH, PG1, PG2, and NO levels, enhanced mucin and PGE2. Also, WOPs repressed gastric inflammation through the reduction of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß and increase IL-10 levels, and revealed antioxidant properties with the enhancement of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and catalase activity, while reduction of malondialdehyde. Moreover, WOPs treatment significantly down-regulated Bax, caspase-3 and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) expression, while up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and inhibitor kappa Bα (IκBα) protein. These results indicated that WOPs have protective effects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats through anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, and anti-apoptosis mechanisms.

18.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 36(7): 556-565, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323556

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results in gut microbiota alteration and this is associated with immune activation and chronic inflammation. The gastrointestinal tract is a primary site of viral replication and thus HIV-induced loss of T-helper (Th) cells in the gut causes impairments in intestinal barriers, resulting in disruptions in intestinal immunity and precipitating into gut dysbiosis. Here, we show that late HIV diagnosis can negatively affect the immunological, virological, and clinical prognosis of the patients with its higher implication at an older age. Further, the review indicates that antiretroviral therapy affects the gut microbiota. We discussed the use of probiotics and prebiotics that have been indicated to play a promising role in reversing gut microbiota alteration in HIV patients. Though there are several studies reported with regard to such alterations in gut microbiota regarding HIV infection, there is a need to provide comprehensive updates. It is, therefore, the objective of this review to present most recently available evidence on the alteration of gut microbiota among HIV patients.

19.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114440, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244121

RESUMO

Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is an emerging organic pollutant and a commonly used brominated flame retardant that has received much attention owing to its toxicity. Although TBBPA is ubiquitously detected in atmospheric particulate matter and dust, few studies have investigated the sub-chronic inhalation exposure to TBBPA. To further understand the excretion characteristics and tissue accumulation of TBBPA after inhalation exposure, we used the rat model to conduct a sub-chronic inhalation exposure study. Male rats were administered with different doses of aerosol TBBPA (12.9, 54.6, 121.6, and 455.0 mg/m3). TBBPA was found in the excretion (feces and urine) and all the target tissues (lung, liver, heart, thymus gland, spleen, testicles, muscles, kidneys, brain and serum). Feces were the main route of excretion, which contributed 19.18% to 72.54% (urine <0.10%). TBBPA excretion through feces following inhalation administration was much higher than that following oral and dermal exposure, thereby indicating lower bioavailability of TBBPA under inhalation exposure. Liver and serum showed higher levels of TBBPA compared with those of other tissues, thereby suggesting tissue-specific accumulation of TBBPA in rats. Owing to the relative non-invasiveness of serum sampling and greatest TBBPA concentration among the tissues, serum is a suitable matrix for estimation of TBBPA bioaccumulation after inhalation exposure.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Retardadores de Chama , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fezes/química , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Ratos
20.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321194

RESUMO

Camptothecin (CPT) and its analogues show potent antitumour activity. However, poor water solubility and severe side effects have restricted their applications in clinical practice. In this paper, a novel self-assembly based on camptothecin and carbamoylmannose conjugates (CPT-Man) was constructed. The self-assembly increased the water solubility of camptothecin to 0.64 mg/ml and antitumour activity. Moreover, CPT-Man could induce obvious cancer cell apoptosis. This work provides a new approach for exploring carbohydrate-modified antitumour properties by self-assembled CPT drugs.

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