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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal antibiotic regimen for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia is controversial. Though beta-lactam monotherapy is common, data to guide the choice between antibiotics are scarce. We aimed to compare ceftazidime, carbapenems, and piperacillin-tazobactam as definitive monotherapy. METHODS: A multinational retrospective study (9 countries, 25 centers), including hospitalized patients with P . aeruginosa bacteremia treated with beta-lactam monotherapy during 2009-2015. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Univariate and multivariate analyses, including propensity adjusted analysis, were conducted introducing monotherapy type as an independent variable. RESULTS: We included 767 patients. Thirty-day mortality was 37/213 (17.4%) in the ceftazidime group; 42/210 (20%) in the carbapenem group, and 55/344 (16%) in the piperacillin-tazobactam group. Type of monotherapy was not significantly associated with mortality in either univariate, multivariate or propensity adjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-2.46 for ceftazidime, OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.67-2.51 for piperacillin-tazobactam with carbapenems as reference in propensity adjusted multivariate analysis, 542 patients). No significant difference between antibiotics was demonstrated for clinical failure, microbiological failure, or adverse events. Isolation of P. aeruginosa with new resistance to antipseudomonal drugs was significantly more frequently with carbapenems (36/206, 17.5% versus ceftazidime 25/201, 12.4% and piperacillin-tazobactam 28/332, 8.4%, p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference in mortality, clinical, and microbiological outcomes or adverse events was demonstrated between ceftazidime, carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam as definitive treatment of P. aeruginosa bacteremia. Higher rates of resistant P. aeruginosa after patients were treated with carbapenems, along with the general preference for carbapenem-sparing regimens, suggests using ceftazidime or piperacillin-tazobactam for treating susceptible infection.

2.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 37 Suppl 1: 9-14, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most important markers for the follow-up of patients infected with these viruses. Microbiology laboratories have a variety of tools to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained, including external quality control programmes such as that of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC). This article summarises the results of the 2016 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the HIV-1 programme, a total of 5 standards were sent. One standard consisted of seronegative human plasma, while the remaining 4 contained plasma from 3 different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL. A significant proportion of the laboratories (40% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. The HBV and HCV programme consisted of 2 standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 86.5% in the case of HCV and 85.6% in the case of HBV, obtained results that were all within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log10 UI/mL). CONCLUSIONS: Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programmes to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory. Due to the marked interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow-up. Supplement information: This article is part of a supplement entitled «SEIMC External Quality Control Programme. Year 2016¼, which is sponsored by Roche, Vircell Microbiologists, Abbott Molecular and Francisco Soria Melguizo, S.A. © 2019 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2210, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319561

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, which varies depending on the source of infection. Nevertheless, the global molecular epidemiology of SAB and its possible association with specific virulence factors remains unclear. Using DNA microarrays, a total of 833 S. aureus strains (785 SAB and 48 colonizing strains) collected in Spain over a period of 15 years (2002-2017) were characterized to determine clonal complex (CC), agr type and repertoire of resistance and virulence genes in order to provide an epidemiological overview of CCs causing bloodstream infection, and to analyze possible associations between virulence genes and the most common sources of bacteremia. The results were also analyzed by acquisition (healthcare-associated [HA] and community-acquired [CA]), methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) strains, and patient age (adults vs. children). Our results revealed high clonal diversity among SAB strains with up to 28 different CCs. The most prevalent CCs were CC5 (30.8%), CC30 (20.3%), CC45 (8.3%), CC8 (8.4%), CC15 (7.5%), and CC22 (5.9%), which together accounted for 80% of all cases. A higher proportion of CC5 was found among HA strains than CA strains (35.6 vs. 20.2%, p < 0.001). CC5 was associated with methicillin resistance (14.7 vs. 79.4%, p < 0.001), whereas CC30, CC45, and CC15 were correlated with MSSA strains (p < 0.001). Pathogen-related molecular markers significantly associated with a specific source of bacteremia included the presence of sea, undisrupted hlb and isaB genes with catheter-related bacteremia; sed, splE, and fib genes with endocarditis; undisrupted hlb with skin and soft tissue infections; and finally, CC5, msrA resistance gene and hla gene with osteoarticular source. Our study suggests an association between S. aureus genotype and place of acquisition, methicillin resistance and sources of bloodstream infection, and provides a valuable starting point for further research insights into intrinsic pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of SAB.

5.
J Infect ; 72(3): 309-16, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26723914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical and microbiological characteristics, treatment and outcomes of MRSA bacteraemia among elderly and younger patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study conducted at 21 Spanish hospitals including patients with MRSA bacteraemia diagnosed between June/2008 and December/2009. Episodes diagnosed in patients aged 75 or more years old (≥75) were compared with the rest of them (<75). RESULTS: Out of 579 episodes of MRSA bacteraemia, 231 (39.9%) occurred in patients ≥75. Comorbidity was significantly higher in older patients (Charlson score ≥4: 52.8 vs. 44%; p = .037) as was the severity of the underlying disease (McCabe ≥1: 61.9 vs. 43.4%; p < .001). In this group the acquisition was more frequently health-care related (43.3 vs. 33.9%, p = .023), mostly from long-term care centers (12.1 vs. 3.7%, p < .001). An unknown focus was more frequent among ≥75 (19.9 vs. 13.8%; p = .050) while severity at presentation was similar between groups (Pitt score ≥3: 31.2 vs. 27.6%; p = .352). The prevalence of vancomycin resistant isolates was similar between groups, as was the appropriateness of empirical antibiotic therapy. Early (EM) and overall mortality (OM) were significantly more frequent in the ≥75 group (EM: 12.1 vs. 6%; p = .010 OM: 42.9 vs. 23%; p < .001). In multivariate analysis age ≥75 was an independent risk factor for overall mortality (aOR: 2.47, CI: 1.63-3.74; p < .001). CONCLUSION: MRSA bacteraemia was frequent in patients aged ≥75 of our cohort. This group had higher comorbidity rates and the source of infection was more likely to be unknown. Although no differences were seen in severity or adequacy of empiric therapy, elderly patients showed a higher overall mortality.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 484, 2015 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26518487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine clinical and microbiological differences between patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) catheter-related bacteraemia (CRB) undergoing or not undergoing haemodialysis, and to compare outcomes. METHODS: Prospective multicentre study conducted at 21 Spanish hospitals of patients with MRSA bacteraemia diagnosed between June 2008 and December 2009. Patients with MRSA-CRB were selected. Data of patients on haemodialysis (HD-CRB) and those not on haemodialysis (non-HD-CRB) were compared. RESULTS: Among 579 episodes of MRSA bacteraemia, 218 (37.7%) were CRB. Thirty-four (15.6%) were HD-CRB and 184 (84.4%) non-HD-CRB. All HD-CRB patients acquired the infection at dialysis centres, while in 85.3% of the non-HD-CRB group the infection was nosocomial (p < .001). There were no differences in age, gender or severity of bacteraemia (Pitt score); comorbidities (Charlson score ≥ 4) were higher in the HD-CRB group than in the non-HD-CRB group (73.5% vs. 46.2%, p = .003). Although there were no differences in VAN-MIC ≥ 1.5 mg/L according to microdilution, using the E-test a higher rate of VAN-MIC ≥ 1.5 mg/L was observed in HD-CRB than in non-HD-CRB patients (63.3% vs. 44.1%, p = .051). Vancomycin was more frequently administered in the HD-CRB group than in the non-HD-CRB group (82.3% vs. 42.4%, p = <.001) and therefore the appropriate empirical therapy was significantly higher in HD-CRB group (91.2% vs. 73.9%, p = .029). There were no differences with regard to catheter removal (79.4% vs. 84.2%, p = .555, respectively). No significant differences in mortality rate were observed between both groups (Overall mortality: 11.8% vs. 27.2%, p = .081, respectively), but there was a trend towards a higher recurrence rate in HD-CRB group (8.8% vs. 2.2%, p = .076). CONCLUSIONS: In our multicentre study, ambulatory patients in chronic haemodialysis represented a significant proportion of cases of MRSA catheter-related bacteraemia. Although haemodialysis patients with MRSA catheter-related bacteraemia had significantly more comorbidities and higher proportion of strains with reduced vancomycin susceptibility than non-haemodialysis patients, overall mortality between both groups was similar.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Diálise Renal , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
7.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 33 Suppl 2: 9-14, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26320990

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained from the 2013 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; two of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (25% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 98.9% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (D < 0.5 log10 copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 82% in the case of HCV and 78% in the HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log10 UI/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programmes to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/sangue , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite C/sangue , Ensaio de Proficiência Laboratorial , Carga Viral , Viremia/virologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Infectologia/organização & administração , Ensaio de Proficiência Laboratorial/normas , Microbiologia/organização & administração , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Espanha
8.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 33(supl.2): 9-14, jul. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-140499

RESUMO

Las determinaciones de la carga viral de los virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1), de la hepatitis C (VHC) y de la hepatitis B (VHB) son marcadores microbiológicos fundamentales para el seguimiento y control de los pacientes infectados por estos virus. Los laboratorios de microbiología disponen de herramientas que garantizan la fiabilidad de sus resultados; entre ellas se encuentran los programas de intercomparación externos, como es el Programa de Control de Calidad de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (SEIMC). En el presente número se muestra el análisis de resultados del Programa de Control de Calidad SEIMC de carga viral de estos virus, incluyendo el genotipado del VHC realizado durante el año 2013. En el control del VIH-1 se remitieron 5 estándares, de los que 1 (plasma humano seronegativo) no contenía el virus, y los otros 4 consistían en plasma de 3 pacientes virémicos distintos en un intervalo de concentraciones entre 2-5 log10 copias/ml; 2 de ellos eran idénticos, con el fin de analizar la repetibilidad. Una parte significativa de los laboratorios obtuvo de uno a varios resultados fuera de los límites aceptables (media ± 0,25 log10 copias/ml) dependiendo del estándar y del método empleado, en promedio el 25% de los centros. La repetibilidad fue excelente y más del 98,9% de los laboratorios obtuvo resultados aceptables (D < 0,5 log10 copias/ml). En los controles de VHC y VHB se remitieron 2 estándares con diferente contenido del virus. La mayor parte de los participantes, alrededor del 82% en el caso del VHC y del 78% en el del VHB, obtuvo ambos resultados dentro de los límites de la media ± 1,96 DE log10 UI/ml. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto la utilidad de los controles externos para asegurar la calidad de los resultados analíticos, incluyendo la fase postanalítica. Debido a la variabilidad interlaboratorio es aconsejable utilizar un mismo método y el mismo laboratorio en el seguimiento de los pacientes (AU)


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load HCV determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these HIV-1 viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained from the 2013 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; two of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (25% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 98.9% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (D < 0.5 log10 copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 82% in the case of HCV and 78% in the HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log10 UI/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programmes to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carga Viral/métodos , Carga Viral , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Viral/tendências , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 32 Suppl 1: 9-14, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24630578

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained from the 2012 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; two of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (22.3% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean±0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 98.9% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ < 0.5 log10 copias/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 84% in the case of HCV and 88% in the HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean±1.96 SD log10 UI/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programmes to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up.


Assuntos
HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Qualidade , Carga Viral/normas , Humanos
10.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(supl.1): 9-14, feb. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-179628

RESUMO

Las determinaciones de la carga viral de los virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1), de la hepatitis C (VHC) y de la hepatitis B (VHB) son marcadores microbiológicos fundamentales para el seguimiento y control de los pacientes infectados por estos virus. Los laboratorios de microbiología disponen de herramientas que garantizan la fiabilidad de sus resultados; entre ellas se encuentran los programas de intercomparación externos, como el Programa de Control de Calidad de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (SEIMC). En el presente número se muestra el análisis de resultados del Programa de Control de Calidad SEIMC de carga viral de estos virus, incluyendo el genotipado del VHC, realizado durante el año 2012. En el control de VIH-1 se remitieron 5 estándares, de los que 1 (plasma humano seronegativo) no contenía el virus y los otros 4 consistían en plasma de 3 pacientes virémicos distintos en un intervalo de concentraciones de entre 2-5 log10 copias/ml; 2 de ellos eran idénticos, con el fin de analizar la repetibilidad. Una parte significativa de los laboratorios obtuvo de uno a varios resultados fuera de los límites aceptables (media ± 0,25 log10 copias/ml), dependiendo del estándar y del método empleado, en promedio el 22,3% de los centros. La repetibilidad fue excelente y más del 98,9% de los laboratorios obtuvo resultados aceptables (Δ < 0,5 log10 copias/ml). En los controles de VHC y VHB se remitieron 2 estándares con diferente contenido del virus. La mayor parte de los participantes, alrededor del 84% en el caso del VHC y del 88% en el del VHB, obtuvo ambos resultados dentro de los límites de la media ± 1,96 DE log10 UI/ml. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto la utilidad de los controles externos para asegurar la calidad de los resultados analíticos, incluyendo la fase postanalítica. Debido a la variabilidad interlaboratorio es aconsejable utilizar un mismo método y el mismo laboratorio en el seguimiento de los pacientes


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained from the 2012 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; two of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (22.3% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 98.9% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ < 0.5 log10 copias/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 84% in the case of HCV and 88% in the HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log10 UI/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programmes to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up


Assuntos
Humanos , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Qualidade , Carga Viral/normas
11.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(supl.1): 9-14, feb. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-134454

RESUMO

Las determinaciones de la carga viral de los virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1), de la hepatitis C (VHC) y de la hepatitis B (VHB) son marcadores microbiológicos fundamentales para el seguimiento y control de los pacientes infectados por estos virus. Los laboratorios de microbiología disponen de herramientas que garantizan la fiabilidad de sus resultados; entre ellas se encuentran los programas de intercomparación externos, como el Programa de Control de Calidad de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (SEIMC). En el presente número se muestra el análisis de resultados del Programa de Control de Calidad SEIMC de carga viral de estos virus, incluyendo el genotipado del VHC, realizado durante el año 2012.En el control de VIH-1 se remitieron 5 estándares, de los que 1 (plasma humano seronegativo) no contenía el virus y los otros 4 consistían en plasma de 3 pacientes virémicos distintos en un intervalo de concentraciones de entre 2–5 log10 copias/ml; 2 de ellos eran idénticos, con el fin de analizar la repetibilidad. Una parte significativa de los laboratorios obtuvo de uno a varios resultados fuera de los límites aceptables (media ± 0,25 log10 copias/ml), dependiendo del estándar y del método empleado, en promedio el 22,3% de los centros. La repetibilidad fue excelente y más del 98,9% de los laboratorios obtuvo resultados aceptables (Δ < 0,5 log10 copias/ml). En los controles de VHC y VHB se remitieron 2 estándares con diferente contenido del virus. La mayor parte de los participantes, alrededor del 84% en el caso del VHC y del 88% en el del VHB, obtuvo ambos resultados dentro de los límites de la media ± 1,96 DE log10 UI/ml. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto la utilidad de los controles externos para asegurar la calidad (..) (AU)


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained from the 2012 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 2–5 log10 copies/mL; two of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (22.3% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean±0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 98.9% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ < 0.5 log10 copias/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 84% in the case of HCV and 88% in the HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean±1.96 SD log10 UI/mL).Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programmes to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Carga Viral/instrumentação , Virologia/normas , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/microbiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/microbiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Qualidade , Ensaio de Proficiência Laboratorial
12.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 31 Suppl 1: 8-13, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23453225

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most important markers in the follow-up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarizes the results of the 2011 SEIMC External Quality Control Program for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted of seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; to determine repeatability, two of these standards were identical. A significant proportion of the laboratories (52.1% on average) obtained values outside the accepted range (mean ± 0,25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was very good, with up to 94.9% of laboratories reporting results within the accepted range (Δ<0,5 log10 copies/ mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. In most of the participating laboratories (90% in the case of HCV and 86% in that of HBV), all the results were within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log10UI/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programs to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase in overall quality. Due to the marked interlaboratory variability found, use of the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow-up is advisable.


Assuntos
HIV-1 , Hepacivirus , Vírus da Hepatite B , Técnicas Microbiológicas/normas , Carga Viral , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha
13.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 29(supl.5): 8-14, Dic. 2011. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-97415

RESUMO

Las determinaciones de la carga viral de los virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1), de la hepatitis C (VHC) y de la hepatitis B (VHB) son marcadores microbiológicos fundamentales para el seguimiento y control de los pacientes infectados por estos virus. Los laboratorios de microbiología deben disponer de herramientas que garanticen la fiabilidad de sus resultados; entre ellas se encuentran los programas de intercomparación externos. En el presente número se muestra el análisis de resultados del Programa de Control de Calidad SEIMC de carga viral de los 3 virus y del genotipado del VHC, realizados durante el año 2010.En el control de VIH-1 se remitieron 5 estándares, de los que 1 (plasma humano seronegativo) no contenía el virus, y los otros 4 consistían en plasma de 3 pacientes virémicos distintos en un intervalo de concentraciones entre 3–5 log10 copias/ml; 2 de ellos eran idénticos, con el fin de analizar la repetibilidad. Una parte significativa de los laboratorios obtuvo resultados fuera de los límites aceptables (media±0,2 log10 copias/ml), dependiendo del estándar y del método empleado, en promedio el 22,6%. La repetibilidad fue muy buena y más del 95% de los laboratorios obtuvo resultados aceptables (Δ<0 5 log 10copias/ml). En los controles de VHC y VHB se remitieron 2 estándares con diferente contenido del virus. La mayor parte de los participantes, 86,1% en el caso del VHC y 87,1% en el del VHB, obtuvo ambos resultados dentro de los límites de la media±1,96 desviación estándar log10UI/ml. Se detectaron errores postanalíticos de transcripción de los resultados en estos controles. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto la utilidad de los controles externos para asegurar la calidad de los resultados analíticos, incluyendo la fase postanalítica. Debido a la variabilidad interlaboratorio, es aconsejable utilizar un mismo método y el mismo laboratorio en el seguimiento de los pacientes(AU)


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most important markers for the follow-up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained in the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads and HCV genotyping.In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted of seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 3–5 log10 copies/mL; two of these standards were identical, with the aim of determining repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (22.6% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean±0.2 log10copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was very good, with up to 95% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ<0 5 log 10copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 86.1% in the case of HCV and 87.1% in HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean±1.96 SD log10UI/mL). Post-analytical errors due to mistranscription of the results were detected in these controls. Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programs to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase in overall quality. Due to interlaboratory variability, use of the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow-up is advisable(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Carga Viral/métodos , Ensaio de Proficiência Laboratorial , Técnicas Microbiológicas/normas , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Controle de Qualidade
14.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 29(5): 339-344, mayo 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-92820

RESUMO

Introducción A partir del 2008 se detectaron varios aislados de Staphylococcus hominis (S. hominis) multirresistentes, incluyendo resistencia al linezolid y a la teicoplanina, en pacientes ingresados en dos hospitales de Mallorca. Por ello, se inició un estudio para determinar la epidemiología molecular y el mecanismo de resistencia al linezolid. Métodos El estudio de epidemiología molecular se realizó mediante electroforesis en campo pulsado (ECP), tras digestión con ApaI. Se efectuó amplificación de un fragmento de los genes ARNr 23S (con secuenciación posterior) y cfr. Resultados Desde marzo de 2008 hasta febrero de 2009 se detectaron 15 aislados de S. hominis resistentes al linezolid y a la teicoplanina, procedentes de 14 pacientes. Todos ellos excepto uno habían ingresado en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos de alguno de los dos hospitales. La mayoría de los aislados (9) se obtuvieron en hemocultivos. Gran parte de los pacientes infectados (12 de los 15 episodios infecciosos, el 80,0%) recibieron pautas de linezolid antes de la detección del aislado resistente. La ECP reveló la presencia de un único clon entre los aislados de S. hominis resistentes al linezolid. Se detectó la mutación G2576T en todas las cepas resistentes, mientras que la PCR del gen cfr fue negativa en las mismas. Todos los aislados fueron también resistentes a la penicilina, oxacilina, trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol, ciprofloxacino, levofloxacino y tobramicina; y sensibles a la eritromicina, tetraciclina, gentamicina y daptomicina. La CMI a la vancomicina fue de 4μg/ml en todos ellos. Conclusiones La detección de cepas de estafilococos resistentes al linezolid resalta la necesidad de racionalizar el uso del linezolid y mantener un control activo de dicha resistencia con objeto de preservar la utilidad clínica de este antimicrobiano (AU)


Objective: Since March 2008, several linezolid and teicoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus hominis (S. hominis)isolates have been recovered from patients admitted to the two major hospitals on the island of Majorca, Spain. For this reason, a study was conducted to determine the molecular epidemiology of these isolates and the mechanism of linezolid resistance. Methods: The molecular epidemiology study was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)analysis, after digestion with ApaI. Linezolid resistance mechanisms were evaluated by PCR amplification of a fragment of the domain V of the 23S rRNA gene (followed by sequencing) and cfr gene. Results: From March 2008 to February 2009, 15 linezolid and teicoplan in-resistant S. hominis isolates were recovered from 14 patients. All of them, except one, were hospitalised in the intensive care units of either of the two institutions. Isolates were obtained mainly from blood cultures (9). The majority of infected patients (12 of 15 infectious episodes, 80.0%) had received courses of linezolid prior to detection of the resistant isolate. PFGE analysis revealed the presence of a unique clone among linezolid resistant S. hominisisolates. The G2576T mutation was detected in all the linezolid resistant strains. None of the resistant isolates showed a positive PCR for the cfr gene. All of the isolates were also resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tobramicin; whereas all of them were susceptible to erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, and daptomycin. The MIC of vancomycin was4 g/ml for all the strains. Conclusions: The detection of linezolid resistant Staphylococci highlights the need to rationalise the use of linezolid, and maintain an active surveillance of its resistance to preserve the clinical usefulness of this antimicrobial (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus hominis/patogenicidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos
16.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 29(5): 339-44, 2011 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21435748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since March 2008, several linezolid and teicoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus hominis (S. hominis) isolates have been recovered from patients admitted to the two major hospitals on the island of Majorca, Spain. For this reason, a study was conducted to determine the molecular epidemiology of these isolates and the mechanism of linezolid resistance. METHODS: The molecular epidemiology study was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, after digestion with ApaI. Linezolid resistance mechanisms were evaluated by PCR amplification of a fragment of the domain V of the 23S rRNA gene (followed by sequencing) and cfr gene. RESULTS: From March 2008 to February 2009, 15 linezolid and teicoplanin-resistant S. hominis isolates were recovered from 14 patients. All of them, except one, were hospitalised in the intensive care units of either of the two institutions. Isolates were obtained mainly from blood cultures (9). The majority of infected patients (12 of 15 infectious episodes, 80.0%) had received courses of linezolid prior to detection of the resistant isolate. PFGE analysis revealed the presence of a unique clone among linezolid resistant S. hominis isolates. The G2576T mutation was detected in all the linezolid resistant strains. None of the resistant isolates showed a positive PCR for the cfr gene. All of the isolates were also resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tobramicin; whereas all of them were susceptible to erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, and daptomycin. The MIC of vancomycin was 4µg/ml for all the strains. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of linezolid resistant Staphylococci highlights the need to rationalise the use of linezolid, and maintain an active surveillance of its resistance to preserve the clinical usefulness of this antimicrobial.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus hominis/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Linezolida , Masculino , Espanha , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão
18.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 28(supl.1): 1-6, ene 2010. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-179471

RESUMO

El Programa Externo de Control de Calidad de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (SEIMC) incluye las áreas de serología, bacteriología, virología, parasitología, micología y micobacterias, entre otras. En este manuscrito se presenta un análisis general de los resultados remitidos por los participantes en los distintos controles del año 2008. Los resultados obtenidos por los centros participantes confirman el buen nivel general de los laboratorios españoles de microbiología clínica de años anteriores. A pesar de ello, el programa demuestra que se producen resultados erróneos, incluso en determinaciones de la mayor trascendencia y en cualquier laboratorio. Una vez más, se resalta la importancia de complementar el control interno que cada laboratorio lleva a cabo con estudios de intercomparación externos, como los que ofrece el Programa SEIMC


The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria and virology. This article present the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2008 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2008 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards of the microbiology laboratories in Spain found in previous editions. However, a few deviations can be obtained in any laboratory, even in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests


Assuntos
Humanos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Laboratórios/normas , Microbiologia/organização & administração , Controle de Qualidade , Infectologia/organização & administração , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção/diagnóstico , Infecção/microbiologia , Infecção/parasitologia , Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 26 Suppl 13: 19-24, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19100163

RESUMO

Recently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a cause of community-acquired (CA) infections among patients without established risk factors for MRSA. CA-MRSA strains mainly cause mild skin and soft tissue infections in otherwise healthy children and young adults, but can also cause severe necrotizing fasciitis and pneumonia. In contrast to nosocomial MRSA, CA-MRSA are, in general, susceptible to multiple antimicrobials and present a different genotype. Most CA-MRSA strains share the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCCmec) type IV and produce Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a cytotoxin that causes leukocyte destruction and tissue necrosis. At present, the predominant clone is the USA300 clone, which is widely disseminated in the United States, Europe and Australia. In Spain, the predominant clone is related to the USA300 clone. The main mechanism of transmission is close person-to-person contact, although household pets and farm animals have also been implicated. In patients with purulent skin and soft tissue infections, the mainstay of treatment is incision and drainage. Antimicrobials are indicated in patients not responding to appropriate drainage. Clindamycin, trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole or tetracyclines can be administered, while the use of fluoroquinolones should be avoided due to the rapid emergence of resistance. For severe infections, vancomycin should be used. Other alternatives are linezolid or daptomycin (only if there is no pulmonary involvement). Adequate hygiene practices are the most efficient measure to prevent spread.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Desbridamento , Drenagem , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Exotoxinas/genética , Ilhas Genômicas , Humanos , Leucocidinas/genética , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas , Especificidade da Espécie , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
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