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1.
Biomark Med ; 13(17): 1481-1491, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621387

RESUMO

Aim: To correlate levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) evaluated using the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group methodology, and both density of tumor-infiltrating immune cell and clinicopathological features in different malignancies. Methods: 209 pathological samples from gastric cancer, cervical cancer (CC), non-small-lung cancer, cutaneous melanoma (CM) and glioblastoma were tested for TIL in hematoxylin eosin, and density of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, CD68+ and CD163+ cells by digital analysis. Results: TIL levels were higher in invasive margin compartments (IMC). TIL in IMC, intratumoral and stromal compartments predicted survival. CC and gastric cancer had higher TIL in intratumoral; CC and CM had higher TIL in stromal compartment and IMC. CM had the highest density of lymphocyte and macrophage populations. CD20 density was associated with survival in the whole series. Conclusion: Standardized evaluation of TIL levels may provide valuable prognostic information in a spectrum of different malignancies.

2.
J Glob Oncol ; 5: 1-9, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479342

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Helicobacter pylori (HP) and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infections induce chronic gastritis (CG) and are accepted carcinogenics of gastric cancer (GC). Our objective for this study was to determine the prevalence of these agents and clinicopathological features of GC and CG associated with the infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-center cohort of 375 Peruvian patients with GC and 165 control subjects with CG were analyzed. Evaluation of HP and EBV genes was performed through quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Prevalence of HP was 62.9% in the whole population and 60.8% in the GC subset. The cagA gene was detected in 79.9%; vacAs1 and vacAm1 alleles in 41.6% and 60.7%, respectively; and concurrent expression of vacAs1 and vacAm1 in 30.4% of infected patients in the whole series. The prevalence of EBV was 14.1% in the whole population and was higher in GC (P < .001). Coinfection of HP and EBV was found in 7.8% and was also higher in GC in univariate (P < .001) and multivariate (P = .011) analyses. Infection rates of HP and EBV were not associated with a geographic location in the whole series. Few clinicopathological features have been associated with infectious status. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of HP infection and virulent strains are high in the Peruvian population. Infection by EBV was more frequent in patients with GC.

3.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 31(11): 1322-1327, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that medical students may have higher rates of irritable bowel syndrome as compared to the general population. We hypothesized lifestyle characteristics may be associated to irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 among students in their fourth, fifth, sixth and seven years of a medical school in Peru. Volunteer participants responded to questions pertaining to demographics, surveys including the Rome III criteria and the Self-reported Stress questionnaire. Regression models were performed to establish variables independently associated with irritable bowel syndrome. RESULTS: Out of 452 students, 346 responded the survey (response rate: 76.5%; female rate: 47%; median age: 22 years). The irritable bowel syndrome prevalence in respondents was 9.5% (95% confidence interval: 6.7%-13.1%). On univariate analysis, being a senior medical student (odds ratio: 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-5.9; P < 0.01), mental illness (odds ratio: 3.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-6.8; P = 0.002), psychiatric medication use (odds ratio: 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-5.9; P = 0.005), sedentary lifestyle (odds ratio: 4.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.8-11; P = 0.001) and stress (odds ratio: 4.4; 95% confidence interval: 2.1-9.3; P < 0.001) were associated to irritable bowel syndrome. On a multivariate analysis, a sedentary lifestyle (odds ratio: 3.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.25-8.20; P = 0.01) and stress (odds ratio: 3.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.35-6.67; P < 0.01) were independently associated with irritable bowel syndrome. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in medical students from Peru is slightly lower compared to the global prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome. Stress and a sedentary lifestyle were independent risk factors associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Our study suggests that lifestyle modifications and stress coping techniques could have an impact to reduce the rates of irritable bowel syndrome in medical students.

5.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 121, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, identification of a case of severe asthma exacerbation prompts initiation of corticosteroids. However, not all that wheezes is asthma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old man from the Peruvian Amazon presented with progressive dyspnea, abdominal pain, and cough for the past week. His medical history was remarkable for asthma since childhood; he was treated with beta-agonists, ipratropium, and orally administered corticosteroids. On evaluation, he was febrile and ill-appearing. His chest examination revealed diffuse wheezing and bilateral crackles. He was diagnosed as having community-acquired pneumonia and asthma exacerbation and was started on empiric antibiotics, nebulized beta-agonists, and orally administered corticosteroids. His clinical status continued deteriorating and he became critically ill despite broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungals. Considering the epidemiological background of our patient, bronchoalveolar and fecal samples were obtained to investigate soil-transmitted helminths. Larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were found in both specimens. Ivermectin was initiated and corticosteroids were discontinued. He experienced remarkable improvement of clinical condition over the next weeks. The literature on this topic was reviewed. CONCLUSION: Cases of severe asthma exacerbation warrant careful evaluation before the initiation of corticosteroids, especially in patients at risk for parasitic infections. A high index of suspicion is critical. Alternative etiologies of respiratory decompensation should be considered in patients who fail to improve with broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungals.

6.
Acta méd. peru ; 36(1): 32-37, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1010930

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar la trayectoria, características clínicas y calidad de vida en pacientes con fibromialgia (FM) que se atienden en un hospital de tercer nivel, en Lima-Perú. Materiales y métodos: Se seleccionó a pacientes con diagnóstico validado por un médico reumatólogo; en quienes se recolecto información sociodemográfica, clínica, y se aplicaron las escalas de depresión y ansiedad hospitalaria (HADS, así como el cuestionario de Impacto de Fibromialgia en español (S-FIQ). Resultados: Se entrevistó a 75 pacientes mujeres, con una edad promedio de 54,9 años. Alrededor de 5,2 años tuvieron que pasar desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta que se hizo el diagnóstico. Setenta y uno pacientes (94,7%) reportaron que el dolor musculoesquelético era el síntoma principal y 60 pacientes (80%) presentaron un impacto moderado o grave en la calidad de vida. Seis pacientes tuvieron "depresión probable" y 22 fueron un "caso probable de ansiedad". Además, 55 pacientes (73,3%) reportaron haber sufrido algún tipo de violencia y 12 reportaron violencia sexual. Conclusión: Transcurren alrededor de cinco años desde la aparición de los síntomas hasta que se hace el diagnóstico de FM. Esta enfermedad causa un impacto severo en la calidad de vida, afectando la salud mental, el trabajo y los ingresos. Hasta dos tercios de las mujeres reportan algún tipo de violencia, con un porcentaje elevado de violencia sexual.


Objective: To determine the disease progression, its clinical characteristics, and its impact in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia in a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods: Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia validated by a rheumatologist were selected. Sociodemographic and clinical information was collected, and both the Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scales (HADS) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire in Spanish (S-FIQ) were administered. Results: Seventy-five female patients were interviewed, with an average age of 54.93 years. Approximately 5.24 years had to elapse since symptoms started until a diagnosis was made. Seventy-one patients (94.67%) reported musculoskeletal pain as their main symptom and 60 (80%) patients had a moderate or severe impact in their quality of life. Six patients had "likely depression" and 22 were described as a "likely anxiety case". Also, 55 patients (73.33%) reported suffering some type of violence, and 12 reported sexual violence. Conclusions: It takes about 5 years from fibromyalgia symptom onset until a diagnosis is made. This condition has a severe impact on quality of life, affecting mental health, work, and income. Up to two thirds of women reported having suffered some type of violence, with an elevated percentage of sexual violence.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stomach cancer mortality rates in South America are among the highest in the world. In Peru, stomach cancer has the highest absolute number of cancer deaths in both sexes combined. We estimated mortality rates for stomach cancer in Peru by sex and geographical region between 2008 and 2015. METHODS: We obtained death data for stomach cancer from the Peruvian Ministry of Health database. We estimated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) per 100,000 persons using the direct method and the world standard population. RESULTS: A total of 25,020 deaths from stomach cancer were identified in the study period. At national level, stomach cancer mortality rates (per 100,000 population) for men ranged from 9.8 in 2008 to 8.8 in 2015 with a percent change of -16%, and for women from 8.8 in 2008 to 7.7 in 2015 with a percent change of -16.8%. The highlands had the highest mortality rates overall, mainly in Huancavelica and Huánuco. The rainforest had the lowest rates and the highest decline in stomach cancer ASMRs. The coast displayed intermediate rates overall. CONCLUSIONS: Within the study period, mortality rates from stomach cancer in Peru declined by 16%. The highlands had the highest mortality rates as compared to those from the coast or rainforest region. These geographical differences in mortality could reflect a different distribution in stomach cancer risk factors as the prevalence of H. pylori, poor dietary habits, low socioeconomic background of the Andean population and the lack of a decentralized health system.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482474

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most predominant tumor types worldwide, being particularly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia. However, HCC is inexplicably underreported in South America, despite unsettling clinical epidemiological trends of the disease on this continent. Here, we review the current knowledge on HCC presentation in Peru. We emphasize the well-documented occurrence of an early-age nosological form of the disease in Andean descent populations. We further discuss the reasons for such HCC clinical presentation, as well as the implications for liver cancer screening, management, and prevention.

9.
BJU Int ; 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mortality rates for prostate cancer according to geographical areas in Peru between 2005 and 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information was extracted from the Deceased Registry of the Peruvian Ministry of Health. We analysed age-standardised mortality rates (world population) per 100 000 men. Spatial autocorrelation was determined according to the Moran Index. In addition, we used Cluster Map to explore relations between regions. RESULTS: Mortality rates increased from 20.9 (2005-2009) to 24.1 (2010-2014) per 100 000 men, an increase of 15.2%. According to regions, during the period 2010-2014, the coast had the highest mortality rate (28.9 per 100 000), whilst the rainforest had the lowest (7.43 per 100 000). In addition, there was an increase in mortality in the coast and a decline in the rainforest over the period 2005-2014. The provinces with the highest mortality were Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Callao, Lima, Ica, and Arequipa. Moreover, these provinces (except Arequipa) showed increasing trends during the years under study. The provinces with the lowest observed prostate cancer mortality rates were Loreto, Ucayali, and Madre de Dios. This study showed positive spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I: 0.30, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Mortality rates from prostate cancer in Peru continue to increase. These rates are higher in the coastal region compared to those in the highlands or rainforest.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205674, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335809

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Motivation in medical students is positively associated with learning strategies. However, the evidence of a direct relationship between motivation and performance is vague. The objective of this study is to determine if the motivation that pushed students to choose the medical career is associated with their academic performance during their university years. METHODS: The study was conducted in 4,290 medical students from 10 countries in Latin America. The "Attribution Scale of General Achievement Motivation" was used to evaluate their general performance. The "Medical motivation Scale" test was used to measure social, altruist, economic, and prestige motivators. For statistical analyses, frequencies and percentages were described, and generalized linear models were used to establish statistical associations. RESULTS: Fifty percent of the students surveyed were females and the mean student age was 21 years old. This study showed that male students had a higher social/altruist motivation (PR:1.11,95%CI: 1.03-1.18; p<0,01) than females. Those who had familial pressure had a lower social/altruist motivation (PR:0.17,95%CI:0.08-0.36; p<0,001). The positive vocational test was associated with a higher social/altruist motivation (PR:1.85,95%CI:1.03-3.30; p<0,05). Moreover, good grades at school were related with a higher economical/prestige motivation (PR:1.39,95%CI:1.05-1.83; p<0,05), but lower social/altruist motivation (PR:0.85,95%CI:0.74-0.98; p<0,05) and academic performance (PR:0.63,95%CI:0.50-0.79; p<0,001). We found a higher frequency in the general motivation was associated to a lowest social/altruist motivation (PR: 0.57; CI95%: 0.46-0.70; p<0.001), and that it increased according to the year of study (PR: 1.15; CI95%: 1.03-1.28; p:0.013) and was higher when pressure by the family was present (PR: 1.36; CI95%: 1.17-1.59; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: This study indicated that male medical students and having a positive vocational test were associated with a higher social/altruist motivation. Conversely, those who had familial pressure and good grades at school had a lower social/altruist motivation. Is necessary to conduct further studies that assess other factors related to motivation as demographics, personality, and learning styles.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12031, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104677

RESUMO

In Peru, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises in young non-cirrhotic patients. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is suspected to be the prominent etiological agent. We thus performed a comprehensive molecular study of HBV infection in 65 Peruvian HCC patients. Only 51% were considered as persistently infected at the onset. HBV DNA was found by PCR in the tumor and/or matched non-tumor liver tissues in more than 80% of cases (n = 53/65). HBV DNA was significantly more abundant in livers of younger patients than in those of the older ones. We consistently observed low viral DNA burden (0.1-6.5 copies for 100 cells), with viral genomes in younger patients displaying higher proportion of mutations at di-pyrimidines (TpT and CpC, P = 0.006). A drastic activation of multiple DNA repair pathways in tumors of younger patients was observed. Our observations clearly challenge the current vision that associates high HBV DNA load with earlier tumor development. We concluded that in Peru, and maybe in other populations with Americas' indigenous ancestry, HBV-associated liver tumorigenesis might differ significantly from that generally observed in the rest of the world. Procedures used to screen for HCC development in subjects at risk should be adapted to the local situation.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9945, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061721

RESUMO

We previously described a divergent clinical and molecular presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Peru. The present study aimed to further characterize the tissue features associated with this singular nosological form of HCC in order to gain insight into the natural history of the disease. We performed an exploratory analysis of the histology of both tumor and non-tumor liver (NTL) tissues from 50 Peruvian HCC patients, and compared with that of 75 individuals with non-HCC liver tumor or benign liver lesions as a baseline for NTL features. We complemented this approach with a transcriptome analysis in a subset of NTL tissue samples and also performed an ultra-sensitive hepatitis B virus (HBV) detection in liver tissues of the patients. Overall, results highlighted the low rate of liver parenchymal alterations in a young patient cohort (median age: 40 years old), despite a strong prevalence of underlying HBV infection (c. 67%). Withal, liver clear cell foci of cellular alteration were genuinely associated with HCC and appended to some changes in immune and G protein-coupled receptor gene expression ontologies. Our findings confirm the occurrence of a particular setting of HCC in South America, a region where the pathophysiology of liver cancer remains largely unexplored.

13.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 51(2): 231-233, 2018 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768560

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The etiology of several hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases remains largely unknown. Although Fasciola hepatica has been associated with liver fibrosis in Latin America, it has not yet been associated with HCC. This study aimed to determine the existence of specific IgG antibodies against F. hepatica in the serum samples of HCC patients. METHODS: In total, 13 serum samples from 13 HCC patients were screened using Fas2-ELISA. RESULTS: Fas2-ELISA demonstrated negative results in all HCC patients included in this study. CONCLUSIONS: The pre-existence of F. hepatica infection in HCC patients needs to be further investigated in epidemiological and experimental studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/parasitologia , Fasciola hepatica/imunologia , Fasciolíase/complicações , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/parasitologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fasciolíase/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 17(1): 52-64, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088871

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The highest burden of liver cancer occurs in developing countries, where the use of herbal medicine (HM) is still widespread. Despite this trend, few studies have been conducted to report HM practices of patients with a hepatic tumor in the developing world. Hence, this study aimed to document the use of HM among patients with liver cancer in Peru. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A comparative behavioral epidemiological survey was conducted among liver cancer patients attending the National Cancer Institute of Peru. Information was obtained by direct interviews based on a semistructured questionnaire. The use of HM in Peruvian liver cancer patients was reported, first, regarding general consumption prior to the onset of disease, and second, after the appearance of symptoms that patients would relate to their tumor. In parallel, general consumption of HM in noncancerous people was assessed as a comparative figure. A correspondence analysis was performed to reveal potential associations between the symptoms of cancer and the specific use of HM. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients and 117 noncancerous individuals participated in the survey. Overall, 68.3% of the people interviewed claimed to use HM on a regular basis for general health preservation. Furthermore, 56.8% of the patients turned to plants first to treat the disorders for which they later came to the cancer care center. When compared with the number of plant species used routinely (n = 78), a selection of plants was made by patients in response to the symptoms of cancer (n = 46). At least 2 plant species, Aloe vera and Morinda citrifolia, were significantly associated with the treatment of liver cancer-related symptoms in the patient group. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first survey on the HM practices of patients with liver cancer in Latin America and, more broadly, in the developing world. Our findings confirm that HM remains one of the principal primary health care resources in Peru, even for a severe disease like liver cancer. These traditional, complementary and alternative medicine practices should be taken into consideration in Peruvian health programs aiming to educate the population in cancer prevention and treatment, as well as integrative cancer management.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Adulto , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Medicina Herbária/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Integrativa/métodos , Oncologia Integrativa/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Prática Profissional , Adulto Jovem
16.
Glob Health Promot ; 25(3): 60-64, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491807

RESUMO

Latin America and the Caribbean's public health literature is not widely recognized. Science in this region has even been compared to a night sky with just a few specks of light. To make those lights as reachable as possible, we developed the Latin America and the Caribbean Search Strategy (LACSS). This is a new method to utilize our region's health promotion results within MEDLINE/PubMed. In contrast to a typical MeSH query, LACSS retrieves up to six times more publication results regarding non-communicable diseases, neglected tropical diseases, injuries and other important public health relevant topics in the region. We believe that global health promotion will be improved in this region by improving its visibility, and this search strategy will contribute to this.

17.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 34(2): 218-227, 2017 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and histological characteristics and prognostic factors of cervical cancer (CC) in young Peruvian patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients younger than 35 years old diagnosed with CC between 2008 and 2012 in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas. RESULTS: 449 patients had epithelial neoplasms. The main histological types were: squamous cell carcinoma (84.9%), adenocarcinoma (11.0%) and adenosquamous carcinoma (2.4%). The average tumor size was 4.98 cm. Anemia (55.7%), elevated creatinine (21.2%) and hydronephrosis (13.8%) were also identified. 82.3% of the patients presented locally advanced disease. Stages IIB (47.4%) and IIIB (25.8%) were the most common. Overall 5-year survival was 59.5% (I, 90.9%; II, 57.5%; III, 42.7% and IV, 13.3%). Elevated creatinine, anemia, tumor size, parametrial involvement and hydronephrosis were factors that affected survival. No significant relation was found between histological type and survival. The presence of anemia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI 95%]: 1.6-4.0) and hydronephrosis (aHR: 1.6; CI 95%: 1.0-4.0) were independently associated with survival; likewise, the parametrial commitment with (aHR: 3.3; CI 95%: 1.5-7.2) or without (aRH: 2.6; CI 95%: 1.3-5.3) extension to the pelvic bone. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cancer in young Peruvians is diagnosed in advanced stages. Overall survival in each stage is similar to the reported in older patients. The importance of conventional prognosis- related factors was confirmed. Anemia was an important independent prognostic factor requiring further investigations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Adulto Jovem
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