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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593719

RESUMO

The main goal of this study was the design, development and characterization of a poloxamer/chitosan/hyaluronic based vehicle including three biological antioxidant molecules such as vitamins A, D and E aimed at improving the treatment of skin burns. The physical characterization of hydrogel, its mechanical and rheological properties as well as internal structure were investigated. Furthermore, biological characteristics such as ex vivo antimicrobial properties and in vivo wound healing were also accomplished and compared with a commercial reference. Results showed optimal physicochemical properties with biocompatible pH value of 4.6±0.1 and zeta potential dependent on pH. The swelling rate was around 350% with optimal wettability, adhesion and leakage properties, as well as thermosensitive gelation processes. The microbiological assay demonstrated similar antimicrobial activity to that of commercial reference. In vivo tolerance study revealed no skin reactions. Finally, the wound healing efficacy of hydrogel in skin burn model showed dermal appendages and similar epidermis, dermis and stratum corneum to the commercial reference. These findings indicated that our hydrogel loading vitamins could be considered an outstanding candidate for further clinical studies.

2.
Int J Pharm ; 570: 118632, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437562

RESUMO

The main goal of this study was the design, development and characterization of a chitosan based scaffolding substrate including three glycosaminoglycans and collagen to provide an optimal microenvironment for human mesemchymal stem cells isolated from adipose tissue (hMSCs). Chitosan scaffolds provide a moist wound environment which promotes healing and epidermal regeneration. Furthermore, the importance of extracellular molecules such as glycosaminoglycans in wound healing makes them essential ingredients in these types of formulations. The physical properties of hydrogels scaffolds and stability were investigated. The scaffolds were evaluated by structural and microscopic assays, as well as cell culture analyses. The hydrogel with best suitable properties was selected as candidate scaffold for hMSCs encapsulation. The viability of hMSCs remained above 75%, indicating good cell viability. The number of living hMSCs in the scaffold reached a steady state up to ~100% at days 5 and 7. Scanning electron microscopy showed irregular compartments with the presence of the hMSCs. These findings indicated that our hydrogel scaffold provided a suitable niche for cell viability which could be considered a promising candidate for further in vivo studies.

3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

4.
Brief Funct Genomics ; 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058281

RESUMO

Malaria parasites face dynamically changing environments and strong selective constraints within human and mosquito hosts. To survive such hostile and shifting conditions, Plasmodium switches transcriptional programs during development and has evolved mechanisms to adjust its phenotype through heterogeneous patterns of gene expression. In vitro studies on culture-adapted isolates have served to set the link between chromatin structure and functional gene expression. Yet, experimental evidence is limited to certain stages of the parasite in the vertebrate, i.e. blood, while the precise mechanisms underlying the dynamic regulatory landscapes during development and in the adaptation to within-host conditions remain poorly understood. In this review, we discuss available data on transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in Plasmodium mosquito stages in the context of sporogonic development and phenotypic variation, including both bet-hedging and environmentally triggered direct transcriptional responses. With this, we advocate the mosquito offers an in vivo biological model to investigate the regulatory networks, transcription factors and chromatin-modifying enzymes and their modes of interaction with regulatory sequences, which might be responsible for the plasticity of the Plasmodium genome that dictates stage- and cell type-specific blueprints of gene expression.

5.
Food Chem ; 288: 22-28, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902285

RESUMO

An analytical method based on a QuEChERS procedure (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) has been developed for the determination of mycotoxins (α-zearalenol and zearalenone, and aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2) in edible oils. The analysis was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole analyser (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS). The method was fully validated and the quantification limit is 0.5 µg kg-1 for aflatoxins and 1 µg kg-1 for α-zearalenol and zearalenone. Suitable recoveries were obtained at low concentration levels (0.5-25 µg kg-1 for aflatoxins and 1-25 µg kg-1 for α-zearalenol and zearalenone), ranging from 80 to 120%. Intra and inter-day precision values were also evaluated and relative standard deviation was lower than 20%. The expanded uncertainty, U, was also evaluated ant it was below 32% at 25 µg kg-1. The validated method has been applied to monitor the presence of mycotoxins in 194 samples belonging to different types of edible oils (olive oil, sunflower oil, soy oil and corn oil). Zearalenone was detected in 25% of the analysed samples at concentrations up to 25.6 µg kg-1, and aflatoxin G1 and G2 in 3% and 14% of the samples at a maximum concentration of 1.9 and 6.8 µg kg-1 respectively.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Micotoxinas/análise , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Aflatoxinas/análise , Limite de Detecção , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Zearalenona/análise , Zeranol/análogos & derivados , Zeranol/análise
6.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 12(1): 5, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection by the human malaria parasite leads to important changes in mosquito phenotypic traits related to vector competence. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms and, in particular, of the epigenetic basis for these changes. We have examined genome-wide distribution maps of H3K27ac, H3K9ac, H3K9me3 and H3K4me3 by ChIP-seq and the transcriptome by RNA-seq, of midguts from Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes blood-fed uninfected and infected with natural isolates of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in Burkina Faso. RESULTS: We report 15,916 regions containing differential histone modification enrichment between infected and uninfected, of which 8339 locate at promoters and/or intersect with genes. The functional annotation of these regions allowed us to identify infection-responsive genes showing differential enrichment in various histone modifications, such as CLIP proteases, antimicrobial peptides-encoding genes, and genes related to melanization responses and the complement system. Further, the motif analysis of regions differentially enriched in various histone modifications predicts binding sites that might be involved in the cis-regulation of these regions, such as Deaf1, Pangolin and Dorsal transcription factors (TFs). Some of these TFs are known to regulate immunity gene expression in Drosophila and are involved in the Notch and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of malaria infection-induced chromatin changes in mosquitoes is important not only to identify regulatory elements and genes underlying mosquito responses to P. falciparum infection, but also for possible applications to the genetic manipulation of mosquitoes and to other mosquito-borne systems.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Cromatina/genética , Código das Histonas , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Histonas/química , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade
7.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 175: 166-174, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530002

RESUMO

Clotrimazole (CLT) was formulated in a multiple W/O/W emulsion (ME) with the aim of evaluating its potential as topical anticandidal agent and comparing with marketed products. A previously evaluated CLT-ME was selected and physicochemically characterized. The in vitro release behavior and the ex vivo permeation profiles were assessed using Franz diffusion cells using three different types of biological membranes: human skin and porcine buccal, sublingual and vaginal mucosae. The antifungal activity against Candida strains was also tested. Results showed CLT-MEs sizes of 29.206 and 47.678 µm with skin compatible pH values of 6.47 and 6.42 exhibiting high zeta potential values of -55.13 and -55.59 mV with dependence on the pH variation. The physicochemical stability was kept for a period of 180 days of storage at room temperature. CLT-MEs exhibited pseudoplastic behavior with hysteresis areas and viscosities of 286 and 331 mPa⋅s showing higher spreadability properties than commercial counterparts. An improved CLT release pattern was supplied by the ME system following a hyperbolic model. Likewise, ME system gave higher skin permeation flux of CLT than commercial reference. CLT amounts retained in the skin and mucosae were also higher than commercial references, which coupled with the higher antimycotic efficacy make CLT-MEs a great tool for clinical investigation of topical candidiasis treatments.


Assuntos
Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Clotrimazol/farmacologia , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/classificação , Candida/fisiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Clotrimazol/química , Clotrimazol/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Emulsões/química , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Membrana Mucosa/microbiologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/microbiologia , Absorção Cutânea , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos
8.
Int J Pharm ; 554: 105-115, 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395953

RESUMO

Clotrimazole (CLT) was formulated in a nanoemulsion (NE) for the topical treatment of candidiasis consisting of 10% labrafac® lipophile, 60% labrasol®:capryol® 90 mixture (ratio 4:1) and 30% propylene glycol. Physicochemical properties, stability, rheology, in vitro drug release, ex vivo drug permeation through human skin and porcine buccal, sublingual and vaginal mucosae, antifungal efficacy, as well as in vivo skin tolerance were evaluated. 1% CLT-NE (CLT-NE1) and 2% CLT-NE (CLT-NE2) exhibited 153 ±â€¯17.25 and 186 ±â€¯15.38 nm droplet sizes, low polydispersity indexes, negative zeta potentials and biocompatible pH values. The CLT-NEs exhibited typical Newtonian profiles with viscosities of 42.14 ±â€¯0.037 mPa·s and 41.35 ±â€¯0.041 mPa·s, respectively and higher extensibility properties than commercial counterparts retaining their physicochemical properties for 180 days. NEs provided a sustained release of drug according to the first order model. Similar skin permeation properties were observed between CLT-NE1 and commercial reference. However, significant higher CLT amounts retained in mucosae were provided by CLT-NE2 when compared with references. Antifungal efficacies were also higher than commercial references, and the in vivo tolerance study confirmed the suitability for topical application, making CLT-NEs a great tool for clinical investigation of topical candidiasis treatments.

9.
J Hum Kinet ; 36: 137-47, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23717363

RESUMO

This article assesses the game performance of the teams participating in the Men's World Championship of Handball of 2011 by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the cross-efficiency evaluation. DEA uses Linear Programming to yield a measure of the overall performance of the game of particular teams, and allows us to identify relative strengths and weaknesses by means of benchmarking analysis. The cross-efficiency evaluation provides a peer-appraisal of the teams with different patterns of game, and makes it possible to rank them. Comparisons between this ranking and the final classification in the championship provide an insight into the game performance of the teams versus their competitive performance. We highlight the fact that France, which is the world champion, is also identified as an "all-round" performer in our game performance assessment.

10.
Water Sci Technol ; 66(9): 1930-40, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22925866

RESUMO

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO(2), CH(4)) from pilot-scale algal and duckweed-based ponds (ABP and DBP) were measured using the static chamber methodology. Daylight and nocturnal variations of GHG and wastewater characteristics (e.g. chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH) were determined via sampling campaigns during midday (12:30-15:30) and midnight (00:30-03:30) periods. The results showed that under daylight conditions in ABP median emissions were -232 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 9.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and in DBP median emissions were -1,654.5 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 71.4 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. During nocturnal conditions ABP median emissions were 3,949.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 12.7 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and DBP median emissions were 5,116 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 195.2 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Once data measured during daylight were averaged together with nocturnal data the median emissions for ABP were 1,566.8 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 72.1 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), whilst for DBP they were 3,016.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-) and 178.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. These figures suggest that there were significant differences between CO(2) emissions measured during daylight and nocturnal periods (p < 0.05). This shows a sink-like behaviour for both ABP and DBP in the presence of solar light, which indicates the influence of photosynthesis in CO(2) emissions. On the other hand, the fluxes of CH(4) indicated that DBP and ABP behave as net sources of CH(4) during day and night, although higher emissions were observed from DBP. Overall, according to the compound average (daylight and nocturnal emissions) both ABP and DBP systems might be considered as net sources of GHG.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Metano/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fotoperíodo , Tanques
11.
Rev Biol Trop ; 56(1): 27-54, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18624226

RESUMO

Phytoplankton species collected from the limnetic to euryhaline sections of Tehuantepec River were identified, classified and compared with regional information from Mexico and South America. We collected 15 samples every three months from July 1997 through August 1998 with a 20 microm net and a Van Dorn bottle. Indicator values and a code checklist are included. A total of 58 families, 121 genera, 273 species, one subspecies, 75 varieties, 13 forms and one morphotype were identified in the taxa Bacillariophyta (42.0 %), Chlorophyta (29.0 %), Cyanoprocaryota (18.0 %), Euglenophyta (5.0 %), Dinophyta (3.0 %), Cryptophyta (2.0 %) and Chrysophyta (1.0 %). The predominant families were Scenedesmaceae (24 species), Oocystaceae (22), Bacillariophyceae (21), Chaetocerotaceae (15) and Euglenaceae (14). Five families, eight genera, 72 species, 45 varieties and eight forms are first records for Mexico. The species Chroococcus turgidus, Microcystis flosaquae and Pseudanabaena limnetica (which produce massive blooms or red tides) are important in this river of moderate water quality.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Animais , Geografia , México , Rios , Estações do Ano
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 56(1): 27-54, mar. 2008. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-496391

RESUMO

Phytoplankton species collected from the limnetic to euryhaline sections of Tehuantepec River were identified, classified and compared with regional information from Mexico and South America. We collected 15 samples every three months from July 1997 through August 1998 with a 20 microm net and a Van Dorn bottle. Indicator values and a code checklist are included. A total of 58 families, 121 genera, 273 species, one subspecies, 75 varieties, 13 forms and one morphotype were identified in the taxa Bacillariophyta (42.0 %), Chlorophyta (29.0 %), Cyanoprocaryota (18.0 %), Euglenophyta (5.0 %), Dinophyta (3.0 %), Cryptophyta (2.0 %) and Chrysophyta (1.0 %). The predominant families were Scenedesmaceae (24 species), Oocystaceae (22), Bacillariophyceae (21), Chaetocerotaceae (15) and Euglenaceae (14). Five families, eight genera, 72 species, 45 varieties and eight forms are first records for Mexico. The species Chroococcus turgidus, Microcystis flosaquae and Pseudanabaena limnetica (which produce massive blooms or red tides) are important in this river of moderate water quality.


El fitoplancton recolectado en el río Tehuantepec con características limnéticas a eurihalinas se determinó, clasificó y comparó con información regional de México y Suramérica. Se incluyen valores indicadores y un código del listado florístico para facilitar el manejo de estas algas. Se determinó un total de 58 familias, 121 géneros, 273 especies, una subespecie, 75 variedades, 13 formas y un morfotipo, pertenecientes a las divisiones Bacillariophyta (42.0 %), Chlorophyta (29.0 %), Cyanoprocaryota (18.0 %), Euglenophyta (5.0 %), Dinophyta (3.0 %), Cryptophyta (2.0 %) y Chrysophyta (1.0 %). Las familias mejor representadas fueron Scenedesmaceae (24 especies), Oocystaceae (22), Bacillariophyceae (21), Chaetocerotaceae (15) y Euglenaceae (14). Se establecen nuevos registros para México: cinco familias, ocho géneros, 72 especies, 45 variedades y ocho formas. En este río, que presenta una moderada calidad del agua, sobresalieron las especies Chroococcus turgidus, Microcystis flosaquae y Pseudanabaena limnetica (como productoras de mareas rojas).


Assuntos
Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Resumo em Inglês , Geografia , Artigo de Revista , México , Rios , Estações do Ano
13.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 16(5): 2439-47, 2008 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18065233

RESUMO

Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were performed on a series of benzotriazine derivatives, as Src inhibitors. Ligand molecular superimposition on the template structure was performed by database alignment method. The statistically significant model was established of 72 molecules, which were validated by a test set of six compounds. The CoMFA model yielded a q(2)=0.526, non cross-validated R(2) of 0.781, F value of 88.132, bootstrapped R(2) of 0.831, standard error of prediction=0.587, and standard error of estimate=0.351 while the CoMSIA model yielded the best predictive model with a q(2)=0.647, non cross-validated R(2) of 0.895, F value of 115.906, bootstrapped R(2) of 0.953, standard error of prediction=0.519, and standard error of estimate=0.178. The contour maps obtained from 3D-QSAR studies were appraised for activity trends for the molecules analyzed. Results indicate that small steric volumes in the hydrophobic region, electron-withdrawing groups next to the aryl linker region, and atoms close to the solvent accessible region increase the Src inhibitory activity of the compounds. In fact, adding substituents at positions 5, 6, and 8 of the benzotriazine nucleus were generated new compounds having a higher predicted activity. The data generated from the present study will further help to design novel, potent, and selective Src inhibitors as anticancer therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Triazinas/química , Triazinas/farmacologia , Quinases da Família src/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Software
14.
J Protein Chem ; 22(3): 295-301, 2003 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12962329

RESUMO

Fluorescence techniques have been used to study the structural characteristics of many proteins. The thermophilic enzyme NAD-glutamate dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus HB8 is found to be a hexameric enzyme. Fluorescence spectra of native and denatured protein and effect of denaturants as urea and guanidine hydrochloride on enzyme activity of thermophilic glutamate dehydrogenase (t-GDH) have been analyzed. Native t-GDH presents the maximum emission at 338 nm. The denaturation process is accompanied by an exposure to the solvent of the tryptophan residues, as manifested by the red shift of the emission maximum. Fluorescence quenching by external quenchers, KI and acrylamide, has also been carried out.


Assuntos
Glutamato Desidrogenase/química , Glutamato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Thermus thermophilus/enzimologia , Acrilamida/química , Acrilamida/farmacologia , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes , Guanidina/farmacologia , NAD/química , Iodeto de Potássio/química , Iodeto de Potássio/farmacologia , Desnaturação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dobramento de Proteína , Renaturação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Rev. ADM ; 59(6): 211-215, nov.-dic. 2002. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-349646

RESUMO

El propósito de este estudio fue analizar la morfología y composición química de conos de gutapercha PRODENT por medio de MEB y EDX. Se incluyeron al azar 12 conos de gutapercha de calibres y lotes diferentes, los cuales se estudiaron del D1 al D16, seis conos de utilizaron para el estudio morfológico y el resto para microanálisis, el cual se realizó en la estructura interna y externa. La evaluación de la morfología reveló un alto grado de regularidad en las zonas estudiadas. El microanálisis evidenció que la capa externa está constituida por nueve elementos y la estructura interna por 11. Se encontró que dependiendo del calibre del cono, existe variabilidad en los elementos constitutivos, entre los cuales resaltan el zinc, oxígeno, bario y sodio. Bajo las condiciones de este estudio, concluimos que la gutapercha PRODENT ofrece características morfológicas y de composición química satisfactorias para su uso clínico


Assuntos
Guta-Percha , Técnicas In Vitro , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/análise , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/química , Análise Espectral/métodos , Bário , Teste de Materiais , Microanálise por Sonda Eletrônica/métodos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Oxigênio/química , Sódio , Espectrometria de Massas de Bombardeamento Rápido de Átomos , Propriedades de Superfície
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